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Author: admin, 11.02.2014. Category: Vegetable Garden

Visual unity is one of the most important aspects of well-developed art and is planned by the artist. When all the elements in a work look as though they belong together, the artist has achieved unity.
Unity is a measure of how the elements of a page seem to fit together - to belong together.
All of the design elements (images, fonts) are consistent with each other in shape, style and colour and consistent with the overall message of the image and from a commercial point of view, its target market. Establishing and maintaining a consistency throughout your printed piece is essential to the success of your design. If there is no unity than the main message of the design may be lost or miss the targeted audience. Similarity: Repeating colors, shapes, values, textures, or lines creates a visual relationship between elements, called correspondence.
Shapes & Lines: Are they curved and soft in an organic sense, or hard and sharp at right angles for something to do with computers? Style also talks to the targeted audience; the overall style of a hip hop CD design would be radically different from the design of a Gilbert and Sullivan CD. Proximity: The simplest method of making objects appear to belong together is to group them closely together.
Continuation: A much more subtle method of unifying a work involves the continuation of line, edge or direction from one area to another. Explain the roles of formalization, centralization, levels in the hierarchy, and departmentalization in employee attitudes and behaviors.
Describe how the elements of organizational structure can be combined to create mechanistic and organic structures.
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of mechanistic and organic structures for organizations. Organizational structureHow individual and team work within an organization are coordinated. CentralizationThe degree to which decision-making authority is concentrated at higher levels in an organization. Many companies find that the centralization of operations leads to inefficiencies in decision making.
Changing their decision-making approach to a more decentralized style has helped Caterpillar compete at the global level. Hitting the right balance between decentralization and centralization is a challenge for many organizations.
FormalizationThe extent to which policies, procedures, job descriptions, and rules are written and explicitly articulated. While formalization reduces ambiguity and provides direction to employees, it is not without disadvantages.
Another important element of a company’s structure is the number of levels it has in its hierarchy.
Research indicates that flat organizations provide greater need satisfaction for employees and greater levels of self-actualization.Ghiselli, E. Companies such as IKEA, the Swedish furniture manufacturer and retailer, are successfully using flat structures within stores to build an employee attitude of job involvement and ownership. Organizational structures differ in terms of departmentalization, which is broadly categorized as either functional or divisional.
Organizations using functional structuresStructures in which jobs are grouped based on similarity in functions. In organizations using divisional structuresWhen departments represent the unique products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving., departments represent the unique products, services, customers, or geographic locations the company is serving. In reality, many organizations are structured according to a mixture of functional and divisional forms.
The different elements making up organizational structures in the form of formalization, centralization, number of levels in the hierarchy, and departmentalization often coexist. Mechanistic structuresThose structures that resemble a bureaucracy and are highly formalized and centralized. Despite these downsides, however, mechanistic structures have advantages when the environment is more stable. In contrast to mechanistic structures, organic structuresThose structures that are flexible and decentralized with low levels of formalization where communication lines are more fluid and flexible.
The degree to which a company is centralized and formalized, the number of levels in the company hierarchy, and the type of departmentalization the company uses are key elements of a company’s structure.
In this one, the swirling brush strokes and dominance of cool colors tends to unify the surface and create the feeling that everything belongs together. Creating unity is a form of branding: you must establish a look and attitude that are recognizable even before the content of the ad is read. Too olften, the tendency is to take our assignments so seriously that we forget the value of whimsy and entertaining design in making customers feel good about the products we are endeavoring to sell. Each design would be tailored to the market and the products’ respective tastes and pre-existing established styles. Continuation is often used in books and magazines to tie the elements of a page together with the use of rules, and by lining up edges of copy, headlines and graphics.
It is not necessary for all of the elements to be identical in form, providing they have a common quality of meaning or style. Which elements of a company’s structure make a difference in how we behave and how work is coordinated? For example, in the 1980s, the industrial equipment manufacturer Caterpillar suffered the consequences of centralized decision making. Some employees are more comfortable in an organization where their manager confidently gives instructions and makes decisions.

For example, some analysts believe that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) experiences some problems because all its structure and systems are based on the assumption that crime needs to be investigated after it happens. At the Home Depot, the retail giant with over 2,000 stores across the United States, Canada, Mexico, and China, one of the major changes instituted by former CEO Bob Nardelli was to centralize most of its operations.
A high degree of formalization may actually lead to reduced innovativeness because employees are used to behaving in a certain manner. Keeping the size of the organization constant, tall structuresOrganizations with several layers of management between frontline employees and the top level.
For example, if the company has multiple product lines, departmentalizing by product may increase innovativeness and reduce response times. Functional structures tend to be effective when an organization does not have a large number of products and services requiring special attention.
As a result, we can talk about two configurations of organizational structures, depending on how these elements are arranged. These elements of structure affect the degree to which the company is effective and innovative as well as employee attitudes and behaviors at work.
For example, fashions from a specific period share common features of silhouette, materials, and color that identify the style of the day, or the look of a particular designer.
To achieve organizational goals and objectives, individual work needs to be coordinated and managed.
We will review four aspects of structure that have been frequently studied in the literature: centralization, formalization, hierarchical levels, and departmentalization.
In centralized companies, many important decisions are made at higher levels of the hierarchy, whereas in decentralized companies, decisions are made and problems are solved at lower levels by employees who are closer to the problem in question. Decentralized companies give more authority to lower-level employees, resulting in a sense of empowerment.
At the time, all pricing decisions were made in the corporate headquarters in Peoria, Illinois.
Centralization may also lead to more efficient operations, particularly if the company is operating in a stable environment.Ambrose, M.
Over time, this assumption led to a situation where, instead of following an overarching strategy, each FBI unit is completely decentralized and field agents determine how investigations should be pursued. Before Nardelli’s arrival in 2000, Home Depot store managers made a number of decisions autonomously and each store had an entrepreneurial culture.
In fact, strategic decision making in such organizations often occurs only when there is a crisis. Such structures may have departments such as marketing, manufacturing, finance, accounting, human resources, and information technology. Within each department, functions such as marketing, manufacturing, and other roles are replicated.
Each of these departments may have dedicated marketing, manufacturing, and customer service employees serving the specific product; yet, the company may also find that centralizing some operations and retaining the functional structure makes sense and is more cost effective for roles such as human resources management and information technology. When a company has a diverse product line, each product will have unique demands, deeming divisional (or product-specific) structures more useful for promptly addressing customer demands and anticipating market changes. Therefore, in organizations that are trying to maximize efficiency and minimize costs, mechanistic structures provide advantages. In Organizations with an organic structure, communication lines are more fluid and flexible. Structure is a valuable tool in achieving coordination, as it specifies reporting relationships (who reports to whom), delineates formal communication channels, and describes how separate actions of individuals are linked together.
We view these four elements as the building blocks, or elements, making up a company’s structure. Decisions can be made more quickly, and employees often believe that decentralized companies provide greater levels of procedural fairness to employees. This meant that when a sales representative working in Africa wanted to give a discount on a product, they needed to check with headquarters.
These structures control employee behavior using written rules, so that employees have little autonomy to decide on a case-by-case basis. A formalized structure is associated with reduced motivation and job satisfaction as well as a slower pace of decision making.Fredrickson, J.
In these structures, each person serves a specialized role and handles large volumes of transactions. The same organization may also create geographic departments if it is serving different countries. Communication tends to follow formal channels and employees are given specific job descriptions delineating their roles and responsibilities.
For example, McDonald’s has a famously bureaucratic structure where employee jobs are highly formalized, with clear lines of communication and specific job descriptions. Employee job descriptions are broader and employees are asked to perform duties based on the specific needs of the organization at the time as well as their own expertise levels.
Mechanistic structures are rigid and bureaucratic and help companies achieve efficiency, while organic structures are decentralized, flexible, and aid companies in achieving innovativeness.
Organizations can function within a number of different structures, each possessing distinct advantages and disadvantages. Then we will examine how these building blocks come together to form two different configurations of structures.
Headquarters did not always have accurate or timely information about the subsidiary markets to make an effective decision.
For example, for a company of that size, centralizing purchasing operations led to big cost savings because the company could negotiate important discounts from suppliers. In tall structures, the number of employees reporting to each manager tends to be smaller, resulting in greater opportunities for managers to supervise and monitor employee activities. For example, in a functional structure, an employee in the marketing department may serve as an event planner, planning promotional events for all the products of the company.

Instead of performing specialized tasks, employees will be in charge of performing many different tasks in the service of the product. In contrast, organizations using product divisions are more agile and can perform better in turbulent environments. Mechanistic organizations are often rigid and resist change, making them unsuitable for innovativeness and taking quick action. This structure is an advantage for them because it allows McDonald’s to produce a uniform product around the world at minimum cost.
Organic structures tend to be related to higher levels of job satisfaction on the part of employees. Although any structure that is not properly managed will be plagued with issues, some organizational models are better equipped for particular environments and tasks. Because centralized organizations assign decision-making responsibility to higher-level managers, they place greater demands on the judgment capabilities of CEOs and other high-level managers. As a result, Caterpillar was at a disadvantage against competitors such as the Japanese firm Komatsu.
At the same time, many analysts think that the centralization went too far, leading to the loss of the service-oriented culture at the stores.
Whenever a problem at work arises, employees know to turn to a handbook or a procedure guideline. In contrast, flat structures involve a larger number of employees reporting to each manager.
For example, a marketing employee in a company with a divisional structure may be in charge of planning promotions, coordinating relations with advertising agencies, and planning and conducting marketing research, all for the particular product line handled by his or her division.
These forms have the downside of inhibiting entrepreneurial action and discouraging the use of individual initiative on the part of employees.
Seeking to overcome this centralization paralysis, Caterpillar underwent several dramatic rounds of reorganization in the 1990s and 2000s.Nelson, G. Therefore, employees respond to problems in a similar way across the organization; this leads to consistency of behavior. In such a structure, managers will be relatively unable to provide close supervision, leading to greater levels of freedom of action for each employee. Research shows that when employees work in product divisions in turbulent environments, because activities are diverse and complex, their performance depends on their general mental abilities.Hollenbeck, J. The presence of a mechanistic structure has been shown to be related to firm performance in new ventures.Sine, W. Relationships of tall and flat organization structures to the satisfactions of foreign managers. Organic shapes might look like something you recognize, like a leaf, or might simply look like a blob.
Relationships between organizational structure and employee reactions: Comparing alternative frameworks.
Research shows that when managers supervise a large number of employees, which is more likely to happen in flat structures, employees experience greater levels of role ambiguity—the confusion that results from being unsure of what is expected of a worker on the job.Chonko, L.
Revisiting Burns and Stalker: Formal structure and new venture performance in emerging economic sectors.
Structural contingency theory and individual differences: Examination of external and internal person-team fit.
The relationship of span of control to sales representatives’ experienced role conflict and role ambiguity. An example of a company that has an organic structure is the diversified technology company 3M.
This is especially a disadvantage for employees who need closer guidance from their managers. At 3M, there are close to 100 profit centers, with each division feeling like a small company. Moreover, in a flat structure, advancement opportunities will be more limited because there are fewer management layers.
Finally, while employees report that flat structures are better at satisfying their higher-order needs such as self-actualization, they also report that tall structures are better at satisfying security needs of employees.Porter, L.
As operations within each division get too big and a product created by a division becomes profitable, the operation is spun off to create a separate business unit. This is done to protect the agility of the company and the small-company atmosphere.Adair, J. The service industry is particularly susceptible to problems associated with high levels of formalization.
Sometimes employees who are listening to a customer’s problems may need to take action, but the answer may not be specified in any procedural guidelines or rulebook. We will be learning Complimentary, Analogous, Monochromatic, and Triadic for the first time.
For example, while a handful of airlines such as Southwest do a good job of empowering their employees to handle complaints, in many airlines, lower-level employees have limited power to resolve a customer problem and are constrained by stringent rules that outline a limited number of acceptable responses. Because tall structures are typical of large and well-established companies, it is possible that when working in such organizations employees feel a greater sense of job security.
Value - Value is every tone of a color from the darkest of the dark, to the lightest of the light. When black and white are arranged in a Value Scale it is sometimes called a Gray Scale, or a Key Scale.

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