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Author: admin, 05.08.2014. Category: Organic Products

Scientists in the US and Germany have discovered two of the most complex molecules ever to be found in space, and their scientific models imply that even larger molecules, such as amino acids, may also exist. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, Cornell University in the US, and the University of Cologne in Germany have reported the discovery of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in space. Using the IRAM 30 m telescope in Spain, the team discovered emissions from molecules in a hot dense cloud of gas known as the "Large Molecule Heimat" in the star-forming region Sagittarius B2. The "Large Molecule Heimat" contains a newly formed star, and other large organic molecules - including alcohols, aldehydes and acids - have been previously found within the cloud. Atoms and molecules emit radiation at very specific frequencies, which appear as characteristic "lines" in the electromagnetic spectrum of an astronomical source. The IRAM telescope found 3,700 spectral lines, from which the team identified 36 lines belonging to the two new molecules. Scientists used a computer model to reveal how these large molecules, as well as others, form in space.
While chemical reactions are happening in space as the result of collisions between gaseous particles, small grains of dust within the interstellar gas can be used as landing sites for atoms to produce molecules.


Instead, the computational models suggest that the more complex molecules form section by section, using pre-formed building blocks that are provided by molecules, such as methanol, that are already present on the dust grains. Scientists will present their findings at the European Week of Astronomy and Space Science at the University of Hertfordshire on Tuesday. Many of the intermediates in the breakdown of foodstuffs by cellular respiration are carboxylic acids.
Acetaldehyde is produced during the conversion of pyruvic acid to ethanol when yeast ferment sugars [Link]. Phosphoglyceraldehyde is an intermediate in glycolysis and the "dark reactions" of photosynthesis. The nucleotides of DNA and RNA are linked by a double ester linkage called a phosphodiester bond. When glucose metabolism is suppressed, during starvation or in diabetics, fatty acids are used as a source of energy. Amides are organic molecules containing a carbonyl group (-C=O) attached to a nitrogen atom.


Recognizing the signature of a molecule in that spectrum is rather like identifying a human fingerprint. The converse is also true — acetaldehyde is produced in the liver as it metabolizes ingested ethanol (and may be the prime culprit in a "hangover"). But instead of entering the citric acid cycle, the acetyl-CoA produced from them is converted into the ketone acetoacetate. The peptide bond between the amino acids linked in a polypeptide is also called an amide bond.
Some of this is then converted into acetone (which can be smelled on the breath of patients whose diabetes is out of control).



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