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LatestWhen the Camera Is a Computer: Computational Life Sciences ImagingSensors and cameras continue to progress, although life sciences imaging remains far from perfect. AUG28Optics & Photonics 2016 - San Diego, CAPlan to attend SPIE Optics & Photonics 2016, the largest international, multidisciplinary optical sciences and technology meeting in North America. LG.Philips LCD has developed the first full-color flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display that uses amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology. Flexible Organic Light-emitting Diode - Wikipedia, The A flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) is a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) incorporating a flexible plastic substrate on which the . Sony Global - Press Release - SONY BEGINS MASS PRODUCTION sony begins mass production of full-color organic light emitting diode (oled) displays. OLED - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia - An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light .
Flexible Organic Light-emitting Diode - Wikipedia, The - A flexible organic light emitting diode (FOLED) is a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) incorporating a flexible plastic substrate on which the . Sony Global - Press Release - SONY BEGINS MASS PRODUCTION - sony begins mass production of full-color organic light emitting diode (oled) displays. Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED)|Futaba Corporation - Futaba OLEDs use white light emission formed by the two-color combination of blue and orange light emitting materials. OLED Definition From PC Magazine Encyclopedia - (Organic Light Emitting Device, Organic Light Emitting Diode) A display technology that offers bright, colorful images with a wide viewing angle, low power, high . Digi-Key Corporation is one of the fastest growing electronic component distributors in the world. With a keen focus on design engineers and buyers demanding the latest products, Mouser is redefining customer-focused distribution. Allied Electronics is a high service level authorized distributor with 43 sales offices serving the North American marketplace. There are several benefits to a full color OLED Display especially when working with products that require a low power, wide viewing angle (>160°) and sharp picture quality display. In addition to these features, each full color OLED has specific characteristics unique to each of the different size options. Color OLEDs consist of a metal cathode with a negative charge, an electron transport layer, organic material, a hole transport layer, and an anode with a positive charge.
Using a single low-voltage power supply and either a parallel or serial interface, simple program code is sent from the main MPU to the OLED controller to perform commands or show fonts and images on the display. Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article!
Chicago's Crown Fountain (pictured) displays LED images of faces, which typically create the illusion of puckered lips spouting water? They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals.
In 1961, experimenters Robert Biard and Gary Pittman working at Texas Instruments,[11] found that GaAs emitted infrared radiation when electric current was applied and received the patent for the infrared LED.
The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps, and in seven-segment displays,[19] first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and even watches (see list of signal applications).
The development of LED technology has caused their efficiency and light output to increase exponentially, with a doubling occurring about every 36 months since the 1960s, in a way similar to Moore's law. In February 2008, Bilkent university in Turkey reported 300 lumens of visible light per watt luminous efficacy (not per electrical watt) and warm light by using nanocrystals [25].
In January 2009, researchers from Cambridge University reported a process for growing gallium nitride (GaN) LEDs on silicon.
Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. The wavelength of the light emitted, and therefore its color, depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface.
Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30–60 milliwatts [mW] of electrical power. One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting is its high efficiency, as measured by its light output per unit power input. It should be noted that high-power (? 1 W) LEDs are necessary for practical general lighting applications. Cree issued a press release on November 19, 2008 about a laboratory prototype LED achieving 161 lumens per watt at room temperature.
Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. The first blue LEDs were made in 1971 by Jacques Pankove (inventor of the gallium nitride LED) at RCA Laboratories.[43] These devices had too little light output to be of much practical use. Combined spectral curves for blue, yellow-green, and high brightness red solid-state semiconductor LEDs. White light can be produced by mixing differently colored light, the most common method is to use red, green and blue (RGB).
There are several types of multi-colored white LEDs: di-, tri-, and tetrachromatic white LEDs. What multi-color LEDs offer is not merely another solution of producing white light, but is a whole new technique of producing light of different colors. Spectrum of a “white” LED clearly showing blue light which is directly emitted by the GaN-based LED (peak at about 465 nm) and the more broadband Stokes-shifted light emitted by the Ce3+:YAG phosphor which emits at roughly 500–700 nm.
This method involves coating an LED of one color (mostly blue LED made of InGaN) with phosphor of different colors to produce white light, the resultant LEDs are called phosphor-based white LEDs. Phosphor based LEDs have a lower efficiency than normal LEDs due to the heat loss from the Stokes shift and also other phosphor-related degradation issues.
Technically the phosphor based white LEDs encapsulate InGaN blue LEDs inside of a phosphor coated epoxy.
White LEDs can also be made by coating near ultraviolet (NUV) emitting LEDs with a mixture of high efficiency europium-based red and blue emitting phosphors plus green emitting copper and aluminium doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu, Al). If the emitting layer material of the LED is an organic compound, it is known as an organic light emitting diode (OLED).
Compared with regular LEDs, OLEDs are lighter, and polymer LEDs can have the added benefit of being flexible. OLEDs have been used to produce visual displays for portable electronic devices such as cellphones, digital cameras, and MP3 players.
A new technique developed by Michael Bowers, a graduate student at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, involves coating a blue LED with quantum dots that glow white in response to the blue light from the LED.
Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that possess unique optical properties.[57] Their emission color can be tuned from the visible throughout the infrared spectrum. The main types of LEDs are miniature, high power devices and custom designs such as alphanumeric or multi-color. High power LEDs (HPLED) can be driven at currents from hundreds of mA to more than an ampere, compared with the tens of mA for other LEDs.
Some well-known HPLEDs in this category are the Lumileds Rebel Led, Osram Opto Semiconductors Golden Dragon and Cree X-lamp. LEDs have been developed by Seoul Semiconductor that can operate on AC power without the need for a DC converter. Superflux is the trademarked name for a series of medium power through-hole mounted LEDs of a particular shape manufactured by Lumileds. Flashing LEDs are used as attention seeking indicators without requiring external electronics. Tri-color LEDs are two LEDs in one case, but the two LEDs are connected to separate leads so that the two LEDs can be controlled independently and lit simultaneously. RGB LEDs contain red, green and blue emitters, generally using a four-wire connection with one common lead (anode or cathode). Wei-Ting Liu and Wen-Yao Huang"Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency", Opt.
Shibboleth is an access management service that provides single sign-on to protected resources. Liu W, Huang W; Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency. You: continuous spectrum = spectrum where all wavelengths are present, at least to some extent.
And most importantly: you would consider a discrete spectrum to be continous if it only doesn't leave big holes. A discrete spectrum with red,green,blue LEDs would be more continuous (in your terms) than a continuous spectrum (in my terms) entirely leaving out the green range. I think, we can easily agree, how this will be really problematic to correct by the camera or even in post-processing. Gallery Posts: 6,858 Originally posted by UnknownVT  I wonder what made it seem as we were talking about different things or languages then?
I struggled to explain why the fact that a spectrum is discrete doesn't mean it can't have a color temperature any less than a continuous spectrum can. If we look at the example of the composite white light LED, you may calculate this CCT from the emission peaks. Or you don't and end up woth the correlated color temparture (CCT) all spectra do have, discrete spectra included.
I think, that the difference between colour perception, which is a product of the physiological properties of the eye and post-processing (based on experience and applied fuzzy logic) by our brain, is very different from colour recording with a camera sensor.
If the subject is illuminated by a light source with only some strong emission lines (as is the case with those LED PARs under discussion in this thread), many coloured surfaces will not receive the wavelengthes representative of their surface colour and thus cannot reflect them.

White balance tries to correct this to a certain degree, by adding the Green-Magenta shift correction to the simple colour temperature shift.
Ofcourse there are some post-processing technologies available, that make use of fuzzy logic or AI algorythms to reconstruct these missing or off colours. My point only is, that this is today not possible to the full extend and continous light sources are much better (aks easier to correct, if correction is necessary at all) than line radiators.
This whole, lengthy discussion (from my side) only served the purpose to illustrate, that emission line based light sources pose much more severe problem for colour balancing and correction, than conventional temperature radiators do, and that obviously, we have to deal with two very different lighting concepts.
Although having said that white LEDs have uneven spectrum with spikes - so that its Color Rendering Index (CRI) is pretty poor at best about CRI=70.
White LEDs are being reconsidered in terms of traditional CRI and new ways of measuring the CRI for LEDs are being proposed - the reason is that white LEDs appear to be a bit better than their poor overall CRI rating. There is a lot of development and research work on white LEDs for commercial and domestic lighting where color rendition etc are of importance - so when LED lighting comes into the mainstream things have to somewhat acceptable - otherwise there the inertia will not be overcome and the majority will not accept them. For example discrete red, green and blue LEDs can get almost any tint of white and probably much more economically than any balanced white LEDs - so why have these not been even suggested for the home or commercial lighting - or even street lights - it's because they give pretty horrible color rendition (CRI) due to the very peaky uneven spectrum with deep troughs - we might see the light as white - but that combination probably will give us headaches pretty quickly. Rather tangentally, has anyone else viewed black and white chromes projected in a dark room and "seen" color in them? Using a-Si backplane technology allows LG.Philips LCD to use its existing TFT-LCD production line for these AMOLEDs, a major step toward demonstrating the commercial viability of such products. We need styles that are quick and easy to maintain without having to wake up at the break of dawn every morning to get it right.
Transparent OLED is a breakthrough transparent display technology that displays dynamic or interactive information on a transparent surface .
OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) is a flat light emitting technology, made by placing a series of organic thin films between two conductors..
Featuring 262K colors, these passive matrix displays have a sharper viewing quality when compared to LCDs because of their rich black levels and 2000:1 contrast ratio. The cathode and anode are arranged perpendicular to each other, creating a pixel where they intersect. By adjusting the intensity of each sub-pixel, the resulting combination of red, green, and blue provides the OLED's vivid color depth.
When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. Airbus uses LED lighting in their A320 Enhanced since 2007, and Boeing plans its use in the 787. The technology proved to have major applications for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP's early handheld calculators. These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. Light output per LED as a function of production year, note the logarithmic scale on the vertical axis. The advances are generally attributed to the parallel development of other semiconductor technologies and advances in optics and material science. Production costs could be reduced by 90% using six-inch silicon wafers instead of two-inch sapphire wafers. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. Advances in materials science have made possible the production of devices with ever-shorter wavelengths, producing light in a variety of colors.
Around 1999, Philips Lumileds introduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at one watt [W]. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficiency of standard incandescent lighting systems. In a lighting application, operating at higher temperature and with drive circuit losses, efficiencies are much lower.
They can be added to existing red and green LEDs to produce the impression of white light, though white LEDs today rarely use this principle. However, early blue LEDs found use in some low-light applications, such as the high-beam indicators for cars[44].
One is to use individual LEDs that emit three primary colors[49]—red, green, and blue—and then mix all the colors to produce white light. Several key factors that play among these different approaches include color stability, color rendering capability, and luminous efficacy. In principle, most perceivable colors can be produced by mixing different amounts of three primary colors, and this makes it possible to produce precise dynamic color control as well. A fraction of the blue light undergoes the Stokes shift being transformed from shorter wavelengths to longer. However, the phosphor method is still the most popular technique for manufacturing high intensity white LEDs.
However, much effort is being spent on optimizing these devices to higher light output and higher operation temperatures.
To function as a semiconductor, the organic emitting material must have conjugated pi bonds. Larger displays have been demonstrated,[54] but their life expectancy is still far too short (<1,000 hours) to be practical[citation needed]. They are usually simple in design, not requiring any separate cooling body.[59] Typical current ratings ranges from around 1 mA to above 20 mA.
For each half cycle part of the LED emits light and part is dark, and this is reversed during the next half cycle.
They consist of a square package, with the internal diode mounted to four leads (two cathode leads, two anode leads) for better heat conduction and an integrated dome lens. Flashing LEDs resemble standard LEDs but they contain an integrated multivibrator circuit which causes the LED to flash with a typical period of one second. The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. It replaces the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session.
It will record the combined light of this light source as white (correct WB provided), if it illuminates a white (grey, black) sheet of paper. A single wavelength can be given a color (a weight of its two neighboring receptor channels) but not every color corresponds to a wavelength, like white. The conversion operators (the spectral sensitivities I quoted above) may be slightly different but this doesn't matter in our discussion.
The most you can say, it has properties, equivalent to a colour temperatur, the "correlated colour temperature. A colour temperature is an inherent property of a continous spectrum, strongly related to the temperature of the radiating body. So, if we deal with a continous light source, will enable the sensor to record all the colours, present in the scene (represented by the wavelengthes, reflected by the surfaces, we perceive as coloured). They will appear in dull and different colours, than it would be the case under norm light. But with only few emission lines available, this is not possible, or at least not to the full extend. You can use face detection and then apply a correction algorythm to correct for skin tones automatically, as some software seems to do. Holiday AccommodationDigitalE3 Conference 2016"The Electronic Entertainment Expo is an exciting event and this year is no different.
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These displays also have 10μsec response time which produces faster and smoother graphic animations. When the controller sends an electric current to a particular pixel, the current passes through the organic material causing the material to emit light. Color OLED modules include built-in controllers that typically feature 256-step brightness control for each sub-pixel and support 18-bit (262k) colors. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962,[2] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. In the 1970s commercially successful LED devices at under five cents each were produced by Fairchild Optoelectronics. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light.
Therefore Light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development.
The highest efficiency high-power white LED is claimed[32] by Philips Lumileds Lighting Co. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25,000 to 100,000 hours but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. In the late 1980s, key breakthroughs in GaN epitaxial growth and p-type doping[45] ushered in the modern era of GaN-based optoelectronic devices.
Near-UV emitters at wavelengths around 375–395 nm are already cheap and often encountered, for example, as black light lamp replacements for inspection of anti-counterfeiting UV watermarks in some documents and paper currencies.

The other is to use a phosphor material to convert monochromatic light from a blue or UV LED to broad-spectrum white light, much in the same way a fluorescent light bulb works.
Because its mechanism is involved with sophisticated electro-optical design to control the blending and diffusion of different colors, this approach has rarely been used to mass produce white LEDs in the industry. Often higher efficiency will mean lower color rendering, presenting a trade off between the luminous efficiency and color rendering. As more effort is devoted to investigating this technique, multi-color LEDs should have profound influence on the fundamental method which we use to produce and control light color. The design and production of a light source or light fixture using a monochrome emitter with phosphor conversion is simpler and cheaper than a complex RGB system, and the majority of high intensity white LEDs presently on the market are manufactured using phosphor light conversion. For instance, the efficiency can be increased by adapting better package design or by using a more suitable type of phosphor.
This method is less efficient than the blue LED with YAG:Ce phosphor, as the Stokes shift is larger and more energy is therefore converted to heat, but yields light with better spectral characteristics, which render color better. For instance, purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have clear housings. The small scale sets a natural upper boundary on power consumption due to heat caused by the high current density and need for heat sinking. Since overheating is destructive, the HPLEDs must be mounted on a heat sink to allow for heat dissipation. This package is now often called a Piranha package, since the Superflux name is trademarked.
Current flow in one direction produces one color, and current in the opposite direction produces the other color. Others however, have only two leads (positive and negative) and have a built in tiny electronic control unit. If the maximum voltage rating is exceeded by a small amount the current rating may be exceeded by a large amount, potentially damaging or destroying the LED. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. With a continous spectrum light source, colour correction is much easier and more complete.
But if you illuminate a coloured surface, certain colour will be emphasized (those corresponding with the peak output of the LEDs) and other colours will be completely absent (those in the spctrum's valleys). The point is, after the conversion, it doesn't matter anymore how the spectrum looked like.
If the colour temperature of that continous light source is higher or lower than the conventional 5600K, white balance will shift the spectral sensitivity curve to match the colour temperature and thus provide a final image, that will be corrected to the 5600K convention (if we choose not otherwise).
The result may be an image, that can be perceived as having the correct whites and blacks, but nevertheless certain colours will be missing or off.
With very long life and low power draw, they are now available as replacements for standard lighting. It uses a stainless metal foil substrate to ensure durability and protection against heat, which improves the manufacturing process and enhances product stability. LG.Philips LCD will unveil the full-color flexible AMOLED display at SID 2007 in Long Beach, California, on May 20. These devices employed compound semiconductor chips fabricated with the planar process invented by Dr. As the LED materials technology became more advanced, the light output was increased, while maintaining the efficiency and the reliability to an acceptable level. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon.
Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die. With the development of high-power LEDs the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. Nevertheless this method is particularly interesting to many researchers and scientists because of the flexibility of mixing different colors.[50] In principle, this mechanism also has higher quantum efficiency in producing white light. However, before this type of LED can truly play a role on the market, several technical problems need to be solved. If several phosphor layers of distinct colors are applied, the emitted spectrum is broadened, effectively increasing the color rendering index (CRI) value of a given LED.
Philips Lumileds' patented conformal coating process addresses the issue of varying phosphor thickness, giving the white LEDs a more homogeneous white light. Due to the higher radiative output of the ultraviolet LEDs than of the blue ones, both approaches offer comparable brightness.
Quantum dot LEDs are available in the same package types as traditional phosphor based LEDs. There are also LEDs in SMT packages, such as those found on blinkies and on cell phone keypads (not shown).
In 2009 Seoul Semiconductor released a high DC voltage capable of being driven from AC power with a simple controlling circuit. The most common use of these LEDs are light panels, emergency lighting and automotive LED tail-light lighting (though they have recently been superseded by SnapLEDs in many automotive applications). Most flashing LEDs emit light of a single color, but more sophisticated devices can flash between multiple colors and even fade through a color sequence using RGB color mixing. Alternating the two colors with sufficient frequency causes the appearance of a blended third color. Seven-segment LED displays were in widespread use in the 1970s and 1980s, but increasing use of liquid crystal displays, with their lower power consumption and greater display flexibility, has reduced the popularity of numeric and alphanumeric LED displays. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. If your institution uses Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.
But obviously this light source could be more easily corrected, than the white composite LEDs. And of course, there is an infinite number of spectra which correspond to any given single color. How should any algorithm reconstruct the colour, as perceived under norm light, when the subject's colours fall completely into the emission gaps? There is nothing the camera does worse than the eye (except if it uses filters with inappropriate spectral sensitivity curves).
Since OLEDs are self-emitting, they do not require a backlinght which enables them to be 5mm thin fully assembled.
The overall contrast is enhanced by a micro-cavity encasement designed to greatly reduce ambient light interference.
However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.
Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor.[17] The combination of planar processing for chip fabrication and innovative packaging techniques enabled the team at Fairchild led by optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt to achieve the necessary cost reductions. The invention and development of the high power white light LED led to use for illumination[20][21] (see list of illumination applications). Conversely, although tetrachromatic white LEDs have excellent color rendering capability, they often have poor luminous efficiency. These certainly include that this type of LED's emission power decays exponentially with increasing temperature,[51] resulting in a substantial change in color stability.
With development ongoing, the efficiency of phosphor based LEDs is generally increased with every new product announcement.
Another concern is that UV light may leak from a malfunctioning light source and cause harm to human eyes or skin. A single HPLED can often replace an incandescent bulb in a flashlight, or be set in an array to form a powerful LED lamp. These wide angle LEDs provide large areas of light and a wide viewing angle in a small compact diode. May be my trial to summarize, what I mean was too short and again leads to misunderstanding.
While I don't shoot concerts, I have read through the thread with interest because I think all of us are going to be dealing with this issue very soon in our photos everywhere, not just concerts or holiday lights. Full color OLED displays are perfect for any industry, especially consumer and handheld because of their low power consumption. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50 which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively.[36] L50 is equivalent to the half-life of the LED.
Additionally, due to the larger amount of metal in the LED, they are able to handle higher currents (up to 70mA). Available upon request, Newhaven Display's full color OLEDs can include a resistive or capacitive touch panel. Therefore, many new package designs aimed at solving this problem have been proposed and their results are now being reproduced by researchers and scientists. The higher current allows for the much higher light output required for tail-lights and emergency lighting. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

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