Organic free range turkey whole foods,food industry in turkey 2014,foods to eat to lose weight nutrition - Tips For You

Author: admin, 02.07.2016. Category: Garden Soil

Thanksgiving is just a week away, and you may be wondering what kind of bird to serve (if you serve a bird at all). Around Thanksgiving time, the old adage "You are what you eat" rings true, thus you should select an organic, free range, antibiotic free turkey. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the single condition for the term 'free-range' is that birds have access to the outdoors. To prevent free-roaming birds from injuring each other in the grow-out quarters, a portion of their beaks and toes are severed without the aid of anesthesia.
Do your homework and buy a bird that has truly lived in ethical conditions before it ends up on your table, or you could avoid the bird altogether and have a vegan Thanksgiving. Healthy Eats Here!Fresh & Natural Foods, your health conscious grocer, advocating optimal health with pure food and clean products. Thank you Fresh and Natural Foods family and friends for making our Grand Opening a huge success!
Our mission is to provide fresh and natural foods, information, and services which help to promote healthy living, a cleaner environment, community involvement, and a healthy and positive environment for staff members to grow and develop character at the best possible wage. Australia’s chicken meat industry, or broiler industry, has a relatively brief history when compared with the other major Australian livestock industries. No official Government records were kept until the mid 1960s, so the exact time when  intensive poultry production began is not known.
Broiler industry facts and figures can be found at Australian Chicken Meat Federation (ACMF). As a result of these developments and the rise of the ‘integrator’ in the industry, further expansion of the commercial industry occurred in the 1960s. The establishment of Kentucky Fried Chicken in Australia, with its first store opening in 1968, had a major impact on the consumption of chicken. Before 1960 the traditional roast chook eaten on special occasions was either a spent layer (boiler) or a male from a layer strain which was reared to about 12-14 weeks of age especially for meat production. The chicken meat industry now operates largely through vertical integration, with company ownership of breeding farms, multiplication farms, hatcheries, feed mills, some broiler growing farms and processing plants.
Processing companies generally contract out the growing of their broiler chickens to contract chicken growers.
Chicken is marketed throughout Australia by the large and medium sized integrated companies under various brand names through numerous outlets. A diagram of the chicken meat industry’s structure and ownership can be found at ACMF.
Major centres of chicken meat production have developed adjacent to the major capital cities, although the industry is becoming more regionalised as those areas become increasingly urbanised. Hand-in-hand with the siting and location of poultry processing plants is the siting and location of chicken grow-out farms.
Smaller pockets of chicken meat production are found in the north east corner of NSW surrounding Byron Bay, Mareeba in Queensland and Tasmania.
Meat chickens today can reach a weight of approximately 2kg in 35 days while consuming only 3.2kg of feed.
In Australia, meat chickens are farmed in large open poultry houses called ‘sheds’, ‘houses’ or ‘units’. The chickens have adequate lighting to see by and to find feed and water, with some periods of darkness each day to allow them to rest and to avoid panic in the event of a blackout. Regular checks are made of the shed temperature, humidity and air quality and each parameter is adjusted according to requirements.
All mechanically operated sheds have back-up electricity and alarm systems which alert if there is a problem with the functioning of the shed or supply of inputs to it. The flocks are also checked regularly (usually daily) to monitor health and progress, to remove any dead birds, and to cull any sick or injured ones.
Feeders and waterers are regularly checked to ensure that they are working and to correct any spillages.


Over the life of the broiler flock, only about 4% of chickens are lost and these are through natural causes or culling. Around 50-60% of the improvement in growth rates since the start of intensive poultry farming is due to improved breeds of chicken. Definition – Animals produce hormones naturally to regulate their body’s biochemistry. Situation Analysis – No hormones are fed or otherwise administered to any poultry in Australia. Policy Statements on Hormones – No hormones are administered to meat chickens under any circumstance. All other facets of a free-range turkey's life can be indistinguishable from the living conditions of a conventional-raised bird. Reaching 'slaughter-age', turkeys are transported via multi-tiered, flat-bed trucks in overcrowded wire cages, enduring all types of weather conditions. However, industry sources estimate that three million broilers were produced in 1951, compared with an estimated 460.3 million in 2007.
Most production during this time was in the hands of ‘backyard’ producers and larger family operations. In the early 1950s the first real efforts were made to develop an Australian meat chicken breed, resulting in the release of Australia’s first scientifically bred meat chicken strain in 1959. These vertically integrated companies (fashioned on the highly successful US meat chicken company model) owned chicken breeding and hatching operations, feed mills and chicken processing plants and contracted out the growing of chickens from day-old to slaughter weight to ‘contract growers’. In the 12 months from 1970-1971 a total of 75 stores were opened and during the same period total Australian production increased by 38%. These male birds were crossbred layer strain birds, resulting from mating White Leghorn (WL) cockerels with Australorp (AL) hens. Three large integrated companies supply about 80% of broiler chickens marketed in Australia. These growers own the farm and provide the management, shedding, equipment, labour, bedding and other inputs for the rearing of the chickens.
Approximately 800 growers produce about 80% of Australia’s meat chickens under contract to processing companies. Poultry processing plants, together with all the other component activities in areas in an integrated operation, have developed in proximity to markets and a ready source of labour. Processing companies, be they totally integrated or independent processors, prefer the meat chicken growing farms that supply them to be located relatively close to the processing plant – preferably within about a 100km radius, or two hours travelling time, of the plant. Genetic selection is still leading to improvements in performance and the time it takes to reach market weight is gradually becoming shorter.
Shed sizes vary, but a typical new shed would be 150 metres long and 15 metres wide and hold about 40,000 chickens. The lighting provided is usually dimmer than natural lighting, as dimmer lighting tends to promote calmness in flocks of meat chickens. In many sheds, these factors are monitored automatically and adjusted by computer controllers.
Careful management of ventilation and waterers helps to maintain the litter in a clean, dry and friable (easily crumbled) condition. Chickens reach sexual maturity at about 20-25 weeks of age, then take only three weeks to start producing the next generation.
For current meat chicken breeds, the precise profile of nutrients such as energy, protein, essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals that the chicken needs at each stage of its growth has been studied precisely. Duncan, a professor of Poultry Ethology at the University of Guelph in Canada, says "the idea of beak trimming being a short-lived discomfort for the bird may be far from accurate.
Arriving at the slaughterhouse, the fully-conscious birds are hung by their legs and their throats are slashed. Most grow chickens under contract to meat processing companies and are known as ‘contract chicken growers’.


Most commercial meat chicken farms are intensive, highly mechanised operations that occupy relatively small areas compared with other forms of farming. With the introduction of continuous chain processing systems, the processing of chickens became faster and more efficient and the resultant economies saw a rapid fall in price of chicken to the consumer. Coupled with further improvements in the genetic material available, refinement of the nutrition and husbandry of broiler chickens, improvements in processing technologies and further growth in demand, the industry’s output increased more than five-fold in the 1960s and more than doubled again in the 1970s. These are usually described in the industry as WL x AL, with the breed name of the cockerel being placed first and that of the hen last. The biggest of these three companies is Inghams Enterprises, followed by Bartter Enterprises and Baiada. The processing company provides, and at all times owns, the chickens and provides the feed, medication and technical advice.
The balance of meat chickens are produced on large company farms, or on farms owned and managed by ‘intermediary’ companies which own a number of farms, each managed by a farm manager, and who enter into contracts with the processing companies to grow out chickens on a larger scale. Numerous smaller processors also market chicken either under their own particular brand or in some cases without any brand identification, other than their name and address on the original packaging. Many of the largest operations are established in, or within a 50km radius of capital cities. Poor litter management will impact on air quality and can lead to reduced bird health and performance as well as carcass downgrading at the processing plant. For each feed ingredient, the levels of these nutrients digestible by the chicken has also been established.
Hormones were originally used as an alternative to castration to improve the tenderness of the meat, but improved breeds of chicken have made this practice unnecessary.
The birthplace of the commercial industry was the outer Sydney metropolitan area, although other centres of commercial production quickly appeared near other major population centres. All three of these companies are privately owned and each has farming and processing operations in at least three states. The three major poultry producing companies also own their own breeding farms, supplemented by some contract operators, and supply eggs to their company’s hatchery. The obvious advantages are in distribution costs associated with transport of the end product, labour availability and services. With this information, feed can be formulated to match the chicken’s precise nutritional requirements throughout its lifecycle, thereby optimising growth. The balance of output is shared among seven medium-sized companies (each supplying between 1-3% of the market nationally), and a myriad of smaller processors.
The terms and conditions of the grower contracts, as well as the growing fees, are established by state government constituted committees in some states, or by negotiation between growers or groups of growers (under authorisation by ACCC) and companies in other states.
These companies also own their own feed mills in at least some of the areas in which they operate and have their own laboratories to test samples for common poultry pathogens and other bacteria. Other gains made in meat chicken growth and performance are due to better husbandry techniques and health management.
The main production systems are generally referred to as conventional, free range and organic. A number of the medium sized companies also own their own parent breeding farms and, in some cases, hatcheries. Each of the larger companies operating in the industry also has a product research and development facility.



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