Organic cotton yield vs conventional,princeton dining hall food,bbc news food security,total fresh food & beverage industry sdn bhd - Test Out

Author: admin, 23.03.2014. Category: Vegetable Garden

It’s a little known fact that us Brits wear just 70 per cent of the clothes that we have stored away in our wardrobes, which leaves us with a total of 1.7 billion unused items.
The spending habits of the average person in the West have changed dramatically over the last hundred or so years when it comes to buying clothing. The best way to rid your wardrobe of unwanted clothes is to donate them to a charity shop, as this generates revenue for the charity. Donated garments are sold in charity shops, but any clothes that aren’t sold will be resold to the used-clothing industry.
Although this process is good for the charity, it could be argued that this process destroys the textile industries of importing countries.
The CO2e emitted by us washing and drying our clothes in the UK equals 10 per cent of the amount of CO2e emitted from cars across the country. As we all know, aluminium cans can be recycled and formed into new cans, but what about clothing? The recycling and reclamation of wool or cotton clothing is even more complex, and it is sadly necessary to combine them with virgin fibres to achieve a marketable quality.
The demand for textiles keeps rising worldwide, especially in China – the country which produces much of the material that ends up in landfills.
China has 26 million tonnes of textile waste annually, but utilises less than 2.6 million tonnes (that is 10 per cent) without even been reused.
Germany collects and recycles 800,000 tonnes (42%) of waste textiles annually; 40% of these are second-hand clothes, and 25% are used as scrubbing clothes.
Japan creates about 1 million tonnes of waste textiles every year, but only 120,000 tonnes (12%) are collected and recycled because they are unable to expand on their textile waste collection services. It seems that people in the USA are generally very accepting of wearing second hand clothes. The below examples explain the different stages from upstream to downstream in the supply chain of clothes. Approximately 30 per cent of clothes in the average UK wardrobe are unused and worth a total of ?1,000 per household, amounting to a massive ?30 billion worth across the UK. Global production covers the worldwide flow of raw materials, all components, and finished products. These shops are receiving goods twice a week, including new items adapted to local demands.
This example looks at just one company, but what about the other big fashion retailers such as Nike, Adidas, H&M, and Marks and Spencer?
Until the early 20th century, the cultivation of cotton was organic, but the increased demand of a ‘cosmetically perfect produce’ caused the increased use of synthetic fertiliser and pesticides, which means that genetically modified cotton has emerged and rapidly grown to dominate the market. After more than half a century of the expansion of these unorganic crops, people have now begun to recognise the environmental impacts of these practises. From here, the production worldwide of organic cotton increased almost by 3000% between 1999 and 2007, and it is predicted that the demand will continue to grow, despite the fall in supply. So, why do people still prefer conventional cotton, even though it damages and pollutes the natural ecosystem? As you can imagine, the farming stage is the most crucial stage in organic cotton fibre production.
Using India as an example, many farmers don’t have an educational background, and this makes experiences difficult to share. On the other hand, Indian organic cotton tends to use up to 65% less labour for pest management, although more labour hours are used for weeding and applying fertiliser. This process removes seeds from cotton fibres and there is no difference between organic and conventional cotton production at this stage. This stage in production has sub-processes such as leaning, mixing, carding, combing, drafting, twisting, and winding. This is the final stage before the cotton garment is cut and stitched; it involves dying, printing, and mercerising amongst other processes. This is the final production stage before finished clothes are sent to distribution retailers.
Conventional and organic cotton are separated when stored because normal cotton sometimes contains formaldehyde, which could contaminate the organic products and therefore render them inorganic. As shown in the previous examples, fast fashion is a common strategy in fashion retailing that produces tight schedules and short product life cycles.
On the other hand, organic cotton adds value at each stage of the production process, and yields both environmental and social benefits. In the long-term, organic farming will lower the pest management costs, which reduces farm debts and helps to increase yields. The next phase of organic movement worldwide is Organic 3.0, which breaks organic out of its niche status.
But nowadays there is another problem; the supply is significantly lower than the demand for organic, because the production is not keeping pace. Failure to Yield is the first report to closely evaluate the overall effect genetic engineering has had on crop yields in relation to other agricultural technologies. Environmentalists everywhere will welcome the news that the United Nations is  backing more ecological agriculture; not just for its green benefits but in  order to produce an estimated doubling of yields in areas affected by food  shortages. Despite persisting concerns over genetically modified crops, a new industry report (PDF) shows that GMO farming is taking off around the world.


If all the world's GMO crop fields in 2012 were sown together, it would blanket almost all of Alaska. The ISAAA says the area of land devoted to genetically modified crops has ballooned by 100 times since farmers first started growing the crop commercially in 1996. But just looking at the United States—consistently the biggest GMO crop producer in the world by a long shot—there is much reason to doubt on some of ISAAA's claimed benefits.
As my colleague Tom Philpott reported earlier this month, nearly half of all US farms now have superweeds that can resist Monsanto's herbicide Roundup, which is sprayed on crops engineered by Monsanto. Back in January, more than 60,000 Mexican small-scale farmers marched through Mexico City in protest against Monsanto, Latin American news site Voxxi reported. As the FAO notes, in most cases these GM technologies are proprietary, developed by the private sector and released for commercial production through licensing agreements. Nonetheless, by ISAAA's count, developing countries show no signs of slowing their adoption GMO crop technologies. On average, a consumer keeps their garments for three years, but even more shocking than this is the fact that something might be frequently worn in the first year, and then phased into the stockpile of unworn clothes later on. Between 2002 and 2003, for example, people in the US spent, on average, four per cent of their income on clothes, whereas back between the years of 1934 and 1946, clothing used up 12 per cent of people’s incomes. These clothes are sorted into piles based on potential markets (type, condition of the clothes, and fabrics). In fact, as a result of this issue, over 30 African countries have actually prohibited import embargos of used clothes. It is a mechanical process that breaks down clothes with carding machines into fibre components; producing less material than before.
In fact, just three per cent of our old garments are sold for recycling and reclamation into textiles.
The USA creates 1.2 million tonnes of textile waste annually, which equates to 15% of total US clothing sales. If we wear items of clothes up to an extra nine months, it will reduce waste, carbon and water footprints by around 20 per cent to 30 per cent, and will reduce the cost of resources by ?5 billion (20 per cent). If every household washed clothes at a lower temperature, less often, and in larger loads, it would save every home ?10 a year and cut its footprint by 7%. This is because capital intensive and value added intensive stages are performed internally (designing, purchasing raw materials, cutting, ironing, labelling, distribution, etc.), and less value added tasks such as sewing and labour intensive tasks are outsourced. Now you can imagine the level of cargo movement all over the world that occurs just for clothes. Each stage will distinguish between organic cotton, certified organic cotton, and a conventional cotton T-shirt. At this stage, direct costs of normal cotton crops involve the purchasing of equipment, farmland (fixed cost) and labour, and raw materials such as seeds, water, and chemicals (variable costs). To get a full organic certification, the mill (producers) have to process and store organic cotton separately from non-organic crops.
There is no difference between organic cotton knitting and conventional cotton knitting, except for certified organic cotton, which does not allow oils to be used that contain heavy metals or other contaminating materials in the knitting process.
There are no regulations or standards of finish in regards to organic cotton products, which is why independent organisations have their own standards and methods of finish. Probably not, despite the cotton difference: they look the same, and probably feel the same too.
Cheaper clothing leads to a throwaway culture, or a situation where we have wardrobes full of clothes we no longer wear.
As shown in the above figures, organic cotton industries will affect the scope of retailing industries that is at the same time a benefit for the producers (as most of them are in developing countries). Organic 3.0 is based on the principles of Health and Ecology with the adoption of organic farming, a sustainable environment, and animal husbandry carried out with care. That’s why the next step of organic movement is absolutely necessary, before it is too late. It reviewed two dozen academic studies of corn and soybeans, the two primary genetically engineered food and feed crops grown in the United States. In 2012, GMO crops grew on about 420 million acres of land in 28 countries worldwide, a record high according to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, an industry trade group. As the chart from the report shows, globally GMO farming has been on an uninterrupted upward trend. Over the past 17 years, millions of farmers in 28 countries have planted and replanted GMO crop seeds on a cumulative 3.7 billion acres of land—an area 50 percent larger than the total land mass of the United States, the group adds. According to the ISAAA, GMO farming has reduced use of pesticides, saved on fossil fuels, decreased carbon dioxide emissions, and "made a significant contribution to the income of < 15 million small resource-poor farmers" in developing countries. A 2012 study by Washington State University showed that overall, GMOs lead to a net increase in pesticide inputs. The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation has pointed out (PDF) some of the downsides of GMOs for small farmers and consumers, such as pest resistance, contamination of non-GMO crops, and potential toxicity of GM foods and products. The company has been trying to obtain unrestricted permission to plant its genetically modified corn in the country. Adoption of GM technologies has also spurred a range of social and ethical concerns about restricting access to genetic resources and new technologies, loss of traditions (such as saving seeds), private-sector monopoly, and loss of income of resource-poor farmers. In 2012 they surpassed industrial countries in their share of the world's GMO crops, the group reports.


That is why the average British closet is so overstuffed: we don’t wear all of the clothes we own. It is a very complicated and difficult process, as synthetic fibres are melted (a chemical process) and respun to the same length as virgin fibres, with no loss in quality. Furthermore, it is predicted in “The Twelfth Five Year Plan” that the production of waste textiles will exceed 100 million tonnes in China.
More than 50% of this used clothing is donated to charity, and 226,000 tonnes of waste textiles are reused or recycled. The following figures indicate the regular weekly cargo movements to and from Zaragoza airport. Much of the time, farmers use pesticides to prevent pests, weeds, and diseases during production. This process also creates by-products such as cotton seed oil and cattle feed, which is produced after the seed is separated from the lint, thus this could also be sold under an organic certificate. This process produces a serious fabric wastage, which causes the price of organic cotton to rise, due to the higher cost of the raw material. Based on those studies, the UCS report concludes that genetically engineering herbicide-tolerant soybeans and herbicide-tolerant corn has not increased yields. What's especially noteworthy is the growth of GMO farming area in developing nations (see red line), which surpassed that in industrial nations for the first time in 2012. These small-scale farmers now make up over 90 percent of all farmers growing GMO crops, the group states.
And a Department of Agriculture-funded paper out this month found that genetically modified doesn't necessarily mean higher crop yields (PDF), one of GMOs' biggest selling points. The farmers fear that widespread planting of the modified corn will contaminate native breeds. After sorting, the clothes will be distributed all over the world, but in fact, most of them end up in countries such as Poland, Ghana, Kenya, and Benin. An innovative company, IRIS Industries, is currently using these shredded materials and converting them into furniture or countertops. This  means that 70 million tonnes of chemical fibres and 30 million tonnes natural fibres will be used. The following procedure monitors the geographical integration of the fashion production network of Zara. According to People Tree agricultural chemicals can take up to 60 per cent of a farmer’s budget,  and, as a result, in Punjab, between 1990 and 2007, 40,000 farmers committed suicide, because they could not pay back loans which they had taken out. For example, a t-shirt costs around ?21 (?9.50 more expensive than a normal cotton T-shirt). The ISAAA's report doesn't project into the future, but we may see this upward trend continue as "a considerable quantity and variety" of GMO products may be commercialized in developing countries within the next five years, according to a recent UN Food and Agriculture Organisation forum (PDF). Last week the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in a 2007 case Monsanto filed a against Vernon Hugh Bowman, a 75-year-old Indiana farmer. On average, just one person in the UK will produce 70 Kg of textiles waste per year – that is a lot of clothing.
Zara is one of the largest international fashion companies belonging to Inditex, one of the world’s largest distribution groups. Since 1992, environmental awareness has become more intense within the fashion industry and the public in general, with some companies and apparel designers launching eco-friendly ranges. Bowman, Monsanto claims, violated the corporation's patent rights by buying and planting second-generation Roundup Ready seeds, which Monsanto contractually forbids. Zara itself has over 2,000 stores strategically located in 88 countries, and its logistics hub is in Zaragoza (northern Spain). In 1994, a crisis in the market almost led to the death of the unorganic industry, especially in the USA.
Inditex don’t produce goods, but it is Zara‘s main supplier in India, China, and Bangladesh. According to Ton, in 2002 the production fell by a staggering 50 per cent, hence the awareness of organic growing. Recent figures show sales reaching 18,117 million Euros, with 46 per cent of sales being in Europe (excluding Spain).
In the early 2000s, a rekindling of sustainability and all the related products emerged, resulting in a huge expansion in design, range and quality of organic business. It also has 6,683 shops in 88 markets; 137,054 employees, and a net profit of €5,510 million in 2014.
The Government, media and the general public became increasingly aware of the environmental impacts of human behaviour. Nevertheless, the demand of organic cotton fluctuated and in turn influenced the revenue of production.



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