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Author: admin, 15.10.2014. Category: Organic Foods

Organic agriculture can't compete with conventional in terms of crop yields, according to a new study. Besides occasionally finding a bug in your organic salad mix, what's the difference between conventional and organic farming?Well, one distinction is that, acre for acre, conventional farming methods are more productive than organic, as recent research shows.Scientists from McGill University in Montreal, Canada and the University of Minnesota looked at 66 studies that compared yields of 34 crops grown using organic and conventional methods. Organic farming practices appear to be particularly inefficient for grain and vegetable crops. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
A study was conducted to compare organic and conventional rice production within and between three agro-ecological zones (AEZ) under farmers’ management in Bhutan. ReferencesAdegunloye DV, Adetuyi FC, Akinyosoye FA et al (2007) Microbial analysis of compost using cowdung as booster. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Over the last decade, American consumers fueled a fast-growing market for organic food and U.S. Demand for organic food and other products in the United States has steadily increased since the late 1990s, providing market incentives for U.S.
Although not regulated by the Federal government, there is evidence that firms in the United States can capitalize on consumer preferences by labeling food as having been grown without the use of genetic engineering.
In the United States, the private sector has taken the lead in setting product-based standards to minimize the risk of contamination of non-GE products.
Many important foreign markets have regulatory requirements for non-GE products, and buyers may also set more stringent private standards in these countries.
Clearly we have a largely GE-indifferent mainstream food market, a well established and growing market for foods differentiated by the organic label, and evidence in the United States and abroad of another market for products specifically differentiated by their lack of GE ingredients. Contamination of differentiated products can occur at many different stages in the production and processing chain. Failure to manage biological confinement can lead to disruption of domestic and international markets for organic products since international and USDA organic regulations prohibit the use of genetically modified organisms in organic crop production.
Organic farmers also pointed out that genetically engineered varieties may destroy the effectiveness of natural pest controls.
Many of the organic farmers expressed a broad complaint about responsibility for transgenic crop varieties. The coexistence of organic and GE crops relies on management practices, segregation and identity preservation measures at every step in the food chain, from seed production through food or feed processing and transportation. Growers of GE crops that have pesticidal properties, such as Bt corn and cotton, also take steps to maintain susceptibility of the pest population. Post-harvest preservation of the organic or non-GE trait is accomplished by segregating the organic crops and their downstream products from GE crops.
A major organic producer organization in the United States, the Organic Farmers Agency for Relationship Marketing (OFARM), recently adopted its own protocol for minimizing GMO contamination. Moschini, Bulut, and Cembalo (2005) have demonstrated that the segregation and identity preservation costs imposed on the organic sector by the introduction of a GE innovation can be so high that they overwhelm the welfare gains, or economic benefits, from the GE innovation itself. We hypothesize for field crop producers in the United States that the widespread use of genetically modified crops may also play a significant role in dampening the adoption of organic farming systems. In the United States, an alternative approach has been used, implicitly allocating risks and costs to non-GE producers. Moving toward a more level playing field for organic and non-GE producers in the United States could involve a mix of strategies.
When the NAFTA nations meet Wednesday for the annual Three Amigos Summit in Ottawa, climate change and clean energy goals may be overshadowed by TransCanada's use of NAFTA to sue the U.S. Greenpeace was targeted by 100 Nobel laureates who signed a letter calling on the group to end its campaign against genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Chicago is quietly becoming the country's urban agriculture capital with 821 growing sites across the city. They found that crop yields produced using organic methods can be up to 34 percent lower  than those produced using conventional techniques.
The researchers suggest that lower yields are the result of the types of fertilizers that organic farmers use and how they use them. FAO projections for the period of 1999 to 2030 estimate an increase of global agriculturalproduction by 56 percent, with arable land expansion accounting for 21 percent of production growthin developing countries. Those farming systems that actively follow organic agriculture principles are consideredorganic, even if the agro-ecosystem or the farm is not formally certified organic.
The FAO Special Programme for Food Security, launched as a pilot to promote food securitydevelopment globally, today involves 105 countries, of which 33 are being scaled-up through nationalprogrammes.
Soil properties, rice grain yield and benefit-cost return (BCR) were compared between two production systems in 2012 and 2013.
The major components include bamboo biochar, bamboo vinegar, amino acids, humic acid and beneficial soil organisms, etc. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly. They address the methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops, livestock, and processed agricultural products that can be certified as organic. Individual companies have used a patchwork of non-GMO standards and label claims over the past decade. The coexistence of these markets is threatened by the possibilities of transgene flow, GE-induced resistance of pests to pest control products, product comingling, and other externalities.
Gene flow from genetically-altered crops, even those approved for food uses, is a particular issue for farmers that target organic food markets, but other modes of contamination may also occur. Markets for organic food differ in their tolerance levels for the adventitious presence of genetically modified organisms, with some countries and buyers setting a zero tolerance, and others allowing small amounts, generally under 1%. The University of Maryland in cooperation with a research team from USDA's Economic Research Service conducted a set of focus groups across the United States to explore the risks faced by organic farmers, how they are managed, and needs for risk management assistance.
For example, many organic farmers use Bt-based foliar pesticides, which are approved for organic use, to control insects. They explained that companies developing genetically engineered crop varieties provide a technology that is useless to organic farmers, while at the same time exposing organic producers to substantial risks. One way of managing the risk of transgenic contamination is to plant the organic crop one to two weeks later than nearby conventional farmers plant so that the organic crops would not pollinate at the same time as the predominant genetically engineered varieties.
Member groups, including the top organic grain marketing cooperatives in the Midwest, have agreed to the detailed set of GMO avoidance practices, including product testing for seeds and feeds, and a sampling protocol for products.
When a load is rejected, a producer loses their organic or non-GE price premium for the product, incurs additional trucking costs for transportation to a buyer who purchases GE grain, and may have other losses.
This finding relies on the existence of a non-GE differentiated market, like organic, at the time of the GE introduction.
In the EU, mandatory labels for GE products shift some of the cost of coexistence to GE product processors and sellers. Organic and other non-GE products are labeled, and the non-GE producers assume the full costs and liability of accidental contamination from GE crops. Farmers using conventional methods apply fertilizer, particularly nitrogen, as crops need it. Waste and distribution problems persist, so the world's food future may not just be found by increasing production.For her next project, Verena Seufert, an Earth system scientist at McGill University, and the study’s lead author, plans to compare environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming practices. For this same period, the share of irrigated production in developingcountries is projected to increase from 40 to 47 percent (FAO, 2006b).
However, the non-use of external agriculture inputs does not in itself qualify a system as “organic”, especially if thisresults in natural resource degradation (such as soil nutrient mining). Although the market in the United States is relatively small, it is quite strong and has realized double-digit annual growth rates over the last decade.
These requirements apply to the way the product is created, not to measurable properties of the product itself.
Spurred by organic and natural food companies needing a consistent, verifiable and reliable standard, a nonprofit group, the Non-GMO Project, emerged recently with an independent verification system for products made according to best practices for GMO avoidance, including testing of risky ingredients—for example, soybeans.
All products marketed in the EU for which the content of a product exceeds 0.9% GE ingredients must be so labeled.
We note that this is the case not just for organic markets and GE crop production, but also for commodities differentiated in other ways. The tolerance level that organic farmers must meet has largely been market driven, rather than regulatory driven in the United States.
Participants in these sessions included operators of about 60 farms, producing many different organic crops in various parts of the country. In recent years, transgenic varieties of corn containing the Bt protein have been developed, and organic farmers worry that their widespread use will hasten development of Bt resistance by insects and limit the usefulness of Bt organic pesticides.
This strategy has only been modestly successful because cool and wet spring weather can delay plant growth such that corn plants pollinate at about the same time regardless of planting date.


The strategy’s success relies on the cooperation of GE variety producers and EPA enforcement of the practice.
Segregating organic from GE crops requires substantially larger investment in infrastructure for handling the crop commodity and the intermediate and final products. According to Lynn Clarkson, of Clarkson Grain, several factors explain their recent rise in rejected loads. The European Commission published guidelines for developing national strategies and practices to ensure a fair balance between the interests of GE and non-GE farmers in July 2003, and recently determined that Member States had made significant progress in developing national strategies for coexistence.
By 2002, 8% of respondents to a national organic producer survey reported having direct costs or damages, such as testing costs and loss of organic sales or markets, related to GE crop production. Articles may be reproduced or electronically distributed as long as attribution to Choices and the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association is maintained. Organic farmers tend to apply fertilizer only at the beginning of the growing season, and these inputs take longer to be incorporated into the soil and absorbed by plants.
Arable land expansion andlarge-scale irrigation may be a cause of concern with regards the loss of ecosystem services. Water management is a limiting factor to better agriculture and livelihoods and the range of water technologies must also consider improved soil management and agro-forestry options for sustainable water supply. Soil organic matter (OM) and available phosphorus (P) were the only soil parameters that were consistently and significantly higher in the organic farm in both years. The potential for GE crop production to impose costs on organic production, via accidental pollination and other mechanisms, underscores the problem of coexistence between GE and organic crops.
In 2010, sales of organic food continue growing much faster than in the overall food market.
USDA regulations specify that organically produced food cannot be produced using genetically engineered materials. The product commands a premium price to cover the costs of such a program—and consumers are paying it. For example, in the United Kingdom, two differentiated varieties of non-GE rapeseed are produced for oil–one for edible oil, the other for an industrial grade product that is prohibited for human consumption. This discovery led to incineration of plants, both corn and soybean, across a wide acreage and fines on the firm that produced the transgenic variety. Contamination of organic production from genetically engineered crops was seen as a major risk, particularly by grain, soybean, and cotton farmers.
Set-asides are not costless but GE producers, as well as non-GE producers, benefit from their success. Harvesting equipment, sorting processes, on-farm or elevator storage facilities, containers and other transportation vessels, storage at point of shipment, and processing facilities essentially have to be distinct for organic and for GE.
First, the Non-GMO Project has sensitized many food processors regarding GMOs, and the numerous food processors that have joined this project are now demanding Non-GMO Project Verified ingredients.
California remains the leading State in certified organic cropland, with over 430,000 acres, over 40% of which is used for fruit and vegetable production. The coexistence approach in a number of these countries is to require GE producers to use buffers and other prevention strategies and to make them liable for economic damages to non-GE producers. The open-ended economic risk to non-GE producers from accidental contamination by GE crops may dampen prospects for growth in the domestic organic farm sector, particularly as GE technology spreads to the food crops that dominate the organic sector. Or, the private sector could step in by, for example, stacking a trait for unusual seed color or shape to avoid comingling.
Liability and Compensation Schemes for Damage Resulting from the Presence of Genetically Modified Organisms in Non-GM Crops. Althoughthe number of undernourished people will decline (from more than 850 million at present to about 300million by 2050), high rates of poverty and food insecurity are expected to continue with the presentmodels of food production and consumption, along with further natural resource degradation.6. To provide clarity on the organic claim, organic agriculture is governed by detailed standardsand lists of allowed and prohibited substances. Sustainable intensification of crops through organic agriculture can provide higher yields with a minimum dependence on external inputs but this requires linkage to markets and building marketing groups and farmers’ skills. Here we review evidence that consumer demand has led to markets for products differentiated on some basis of GE status, and that maintaining the integrity of those differentiated product markets relies on interventions such as physical distancing or product segregation. While these regulations are process-based and do not set a threshold limit for the accidental presence of GE materials in organic products, organic buyers in the United States and elsewhere have set thresholds and are increasingly requiring testing and other compliance measures.
According to industry estimates, packaged food containing a non-genetically modified organism (GMO) label claim accounted for nearly $787 million in sales in the United States between April 2009 and April 2010.
Action thresholds are set for high-risk inputs and products, such as corn and soybeans, and are set at 0.9% for food grains, for example. The different markets rely on strategies that assure coexistence without interference with one another. In 2000, StarLink, a gene-altered corn approved only as animal feed, was found in corn chips and other food products throughout the United States, prompting product recalls. Organic farmers at all the focus group sessions expressed considerable concern about risks from the use of genetically engineered crops by conventional farmers. In some cases, facilities used to process GE crops may also be used for organic crops by cleaning the facility first.
Also, more organic buyers are contracting for grain with non-GMO verification as well as organic certification.
Other top states for certified organic cropland include Wisconsin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana. Another coexistence strategy that is being examined in Europe is the use of insurance markets to help compensate for the economic losses experienced by organic and other non-GE producers (Koch).
In addition, the organic community 3 has adopted fouroverriding principles for organic agriculture. Diversification of income sources comes with improved management skills and access to new assets. American Society of Agronomy, Wisconsin, USACharyulu KD, Biswas S (2010) Economics and efficiency of organic farming vis-a-vis conventional farming in India.
Further, at present, the costs required to support the coexistence of all markets is borne disproportionately by producers and consumers of organic food in the United States. During the USDA’s final rule-making process, organic consumers unequivocally stated their preference that genetic engineering technologies be excluded from organic production and processing. The Non-GMO Project avoids legally and scientifically indefensible claims that products are 100% GE-free. Contamination from pollen drift from genetically engineered crops was seen as a particularly serious risk, one that the participants felt is now resulting in lost organic sales.
In addition to adding or increasing the size of buffers, adjusting the timing of crop planting, and changing crop location, additional risk management strategies that organic farmers may use to mitigate the risk of transgenic contamination include altering cropping patterns or crops produced and discontinuing the use of inputs at risk for contamination. For example, a cotton gin is cleaned by putting an initial load of organic cotton through the gin and treating that load as conventional product and forgoing the organic price premium on it. However, for the crops for which adoption of GE technology is greatest, organic production is low. Developing sustainable food security for all has been the key mandate of FAO since itsfounding. These subsistence and small holders livelihood systems are risk proneto drought and floods, crop and animal diseases and market shocks.
Principle of Health: organic agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal and human as one and indivisible.
Even where markets are not strong, household nutrition levels can be improved with indigenous crops and home and school gardens. In all three AEZs, there was no statistically significant difference in grain yields between organic and conventional rice farms. Research and Publications Ahmedabad, India, pp 1–26Chhogyel N, Legjay, Dema T (2013) Grain yield as affected by time of transplanting in mechanized rice farming in Wangdue-Punakha valley. The use of any of these risk management strategies may increase the costs of producing organic and non-GE crops. This mandate was reinforced by the World Food Summit in 1996 and its follow upmeetings and instruments, such as the Right to Adequate Food.
However they also possessimportant resilience factors associated with the use of family labour, livelihood diversity (non-farmactivities account for 30 to 50 percent of rural income) and indigenous knowledge that allow them toexploit risky environmental niches and to cope with crises. Principle of Ecology: organic agriculture should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them. People are central but their knowledge and organizational capacity must be improved to achieve better use of available resources or to identify new opportunities. However, the grain yield was highest in high AEZ and lowest in low AEZ for both the systems.The costs of plant protection inputs were significantly higher in conventional farm, and cost of manure application and weeding was significantly higher in organic farm. Bhu J RNR 9:15–19Cook RJ (1988) Biological control and holistic plant-health care in agriculture.
Pro-poor policies based on efficiency andemployment generation associated with family farms can be expected to improve these householdconditions.7.


Principle of Fairness: organic agriculture should build on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities. Building community organizations includes marketing groups, savings groups, multipurpose cooperatives or contract farming of various types. The gross returns from a hectare land did not differ significantly between organic and conventional farms but the production cost from a hectare land was significantly higher in organic farm. Whole Foods Market, the largest natural foods supermarket chain in the United States, is also partnering with the Non-GMO Project to use their non-GE testing and labeling protocol for its private label products. Household and national food security are complex and complicated goals influenced by manyfactors such as technologies, human capacities, policies, prices, trade and infrastructural context.Demand for food is certain to increase with increasing population pressure and income, even thoughthis demand and ability to supply the demand are not equal in all communities.
Worldwide undernourishment is not explained only by a lack of food availability as severalcauses of hardship lie outside the agricultural sector. Indeed, today’s totalglobal agricultural production is sufficient to feed the current world population and both necessarytechnologies and multilateral environmental agreements are available to help meet development andconservation needs.4.
However, there is need to seek new solutions toaddress the problems posed by growing populations (and disparities) and environmental degradationthrough new paradigms for agriculture and food supply chains. Organic agriculture can be described as “neo-traditional food system”, as it uses scientificinvestigation to improve traditional farming practices anchored in multicropping systems, natural foodpreservation, and storage and risk aversion strategies that have traditionally secured local food needs. OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE UNDER EACH OF THE FOUR FOOD SECURITY DIMENSIONS15. It is interesting to note that the overall yields did not differ between two systems; thus, at the present selling price of Nu. FAO, BanglamphuDuba S, Ghimiray M, Gurung TR (2008) Promoting organic farming in Bhutan: a review of policy, implementation and constraints. However, hunger, poverty and environmental degradation persist even as concerns aboutglobal human security issues continue to increase. The multidimensional nature of food security includes food availability, access, stability andutilization.
60 per kg for both organic and conventional rice, the gross returns are same for both the systems.
Council for RNR Research of Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Thimphu, BhutanDukpa W, Pem D, Lham G (2007) Growing rice in Bumthang: a dream realized by the farmers. Meeting government and private standards for non-GE crops is easier for farmers in many countries outside the United States where adoption of GE crops is low.
Moreover, the last decades provideuncompromising evidence of diminishing returns on grains despite the rapid increases of chemicalpesticide and fertilizer applications, 1 resulting in lower confidence that these high input technologieswill provide for equitable household and national food security in the next decades. For each dimension, organic agriculture offers benefits and experiences constraints, assummarized below. The study suggests that, with the present management conditions and without considering premium price of organic rice, the conventional rice production is more profitable than organic system in Bhutan. 4 It is important to keep in mind that, for each of the food security dimensions, thebenefits and challenges described will not apply evenly to all organic farming systems, which rangefrom non-certified production destined for local consumption to market-oriented certified systemsseeking price premiums. However, if organic rice fetches premium price, then the BCR of organic system may become similar to or higher than conventional system. In Indonesia, paddy rice production steadily increased despitethe removal of a distorting subsidy in 1986 that reduced national pesticide use by more than 50 percent. It is now commerciallypracticed in 120 countries, representing 31 million ha of certified croplands and pastures (~ 0.7percent of global agricultural lands and an average of 4 percent in the European Union), 62 million haof certified wild lands (for organic collection of bamboo shoots, wild berries, mushrooms and nuts)and a market of US$40 billion in 2006 (~ 2 percent of food retail in developed countries) (Willer andYoussefi, 2007). In all cases, synergies are possible, either by better linking good agro-ecological practitioners to markets or ensuring that specialized organic systems (monocultures) do notcompromise environmental and social benefits.
Lewis, Washington, DCGhimiray M, Wangdi K, Chhetri BG et al (2007) Rice commodity chain analysis. FAO-FNPP, Thimphu, p 49Ghini R, Hamada E, Bettiol W (2008) Climate change and plant diseases. Unlike legally protected labels, the term “organic agriculture” is used in this review in itsbroadest sense. Protracted conflicts seriously undermine food security (FAO, 2006).3 International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Availability refers to having sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, suppliedthrough domestic production or inputs, food aid and net imports. Organic agriculture as a holistic production management system that avoids use ofsynthetic fertilizers, pesticides and genetically modified organisms, minimizes pollution of air, soiland water, and optimizes the health and productivity of interdependent communities of plants, animalsand people. Delegates and observers are kindly requested to bring it to the meetings and to refrain from asking for additional copies, unless strictly indispensable.
549–554Jenkins HJL, Godwin JR, et al (2010) A comparison between conventional and organic farming practice. It includes the entire food supply chain, from production and handling, throughquality control and certification, to marketing and trade.10.
In the market place, the organic claim requires certification, and related products aredistinguished by an organic label.
Brisbane, Australia, ppKarma, Ghimiray M (2006) Rainfed lowland rice cultivation in Bhutan: a survey report. Bhu J RNR 2:93–114Lawanprasert A, Kunket K, Arayarangsarit L et al (2007) Comparison between conventional and organic paddy fields in irrigated rice ecosystem. Rice Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Pathumthani Rice Research Center, Thailand, pp 1–9Lee H, Fowler S (2002) A critique of methodologies for the comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.
281-284Luo Y, Teng P, Fabellar N et al (1998) The effects of global temperature change on rice leaf blast epidemics: a simulation study in three agroecological zones. S University of Idaho, MoscowMarinari S, Mancinelli R, Campiglia E et al (2006) Chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in organic and conventional farming systems in Central Italy.
Royal Government of Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture and Forests (MOAF), ThimphuNeuhoff D, Tashi S, Rahmann G et al (2014) Organic agriculture in Bhutan: potential and challenges. Org Agric 4:209–221Nguyen VN (2013) Factors affecting wetland rice production and the classification of wetlands for agricultural production.
Crop and Grassland Service (AGPC), FAO, RomeNorbu C, Floyd C (2001) Changing soil fertility management in Bhutan: effects on practices. National Soil Service Center, Ministry of Agriculture, SemtokhaNSSC (2009) A guide to fertilizer recommendation for major crops.
National Soil Service Centre, SemtokhaOehl F, Oberson A, Tagmann HU et al (2002) Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming. Chiba University, JapanPathak H, Kushwala JS, Jain MC (1992) Eyahiation of manurial value of Biogas spent slurry composted with dry mango leaves, wheat straw and rock phosphate on wheat crop. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 40:753–757Pattanapant A, Shivakoti PG (2009) Opportunities and constraints of organic agriculture in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Asian Pac Dev J 16:115–147Pimentel D (1993) Economics and energetics of organic and conventional farming.
Bhur, Sarpang, BhutanPulami T (2010) Economics and production trend of organic rice in Damji, Gasa Dzongkhag.
Lobesa, WangdueQuyenb NV, Sharma SN (2003) Relative effect of organic and conventional farming on growth, yield and grain quality of scented rice and soil fertility. Bhu J Anim Hus 5:55–62Roder W, Dorji K, Gratzer G (2003) Nutrient flow from the forest—source of life for traditional Bhutanese agriculture.
Austrian J For Sci 1:65–72Rubinos R, Jalipa TA, Bayacag P (2007) Comparative economic study of organic and conventional rice farming in Magsaysay, Davao Del Sur. University of Southeastern Philippines, Manila, PhilippinesSamui PR (1999) A note on the weather and rice yield relationship at some stations in India. Earth and Planetary System, IndiaSetboonsarng S (2006) Organic agriculture, poverty reduction, and the millennium development goals.
Asian Development Bank Institute, TokyoSiavoshi M, Nasiri A, Laware SL (2011) Effect of organic fertilizer on growth and yield components in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
J Agric Sci 3:217–224Surekha K, Jhansilakshmi V, Somasekhar N et al (2010) Status of organic farming and research experiences in rice.
J Rice Res 3:23–35Surekha K, Rao KV, Rani NS et al (2013) Evaluation of organic and conventional rice production systems for their productivity, profitability, grain quality and soil health. Purdue University, West LafayetteTashi S (2007) Organic nutrient management of citrus mandarin for Bhutan.
University of Melbourne, AustraliaThuithaisong C, Parkpian P, Shipin OV et al (2012) Soil-quality indicators for predicting sustainable organic rice production. Indian J Agron 55:6–10Vakali C, Zaller JG, Kopke U (2011) Reduced tillage effects on soil properties and growth of cereals and associated weeds under organic farming.



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