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Author: admin, 12.12.2013. Category: What Is Organic Food

Our current best conceptual understanding of the stressor 'organic matter' is shown in Figure 1. Bacterial metabolism requires oxygen and therefore the breakdown of organic matter places an oxygen demand on the system. Natural organic matter or NOM is a broad term for the complex mixture of thousands of organic compounds found in water.
Natural Organic Matter or NOM is all the organic molecules found in water from plant or animal sources – this means it varies a lot from source to source.
From a drinking water perspective, our concern with natural organic matter is often focused on its interaction with treatment chemicals such as disinfectants and coagulants, as well as its fouling potential in filters and distribution systems. Disinfectants such as chlorine can interact with NOM to produce disinfection byproducts – some of which are known carcinogens. In distribution systems, NOM can act as a food source for bacteria and contribute to biofilm growth. These aspects of NOM can be determined through many advanced spectroscopic, chromatographic and mass spectrometric means. One of the most important keys to a healthy lawn is the soil, and organic matter is especially important for good soil.
Most soils contain 2 to 10 percent organic matter but we rarely see these percentages over 5% in Omaha. Omaha Organics has products to help you get the organic matter that you need, all of which are safe for pets, children, and your environment.
Call or e-mail us today for a free quote or to purchase our organic fertilizer and lawn maintenance products. Thanks for the great job on the edging and the bushes.  The look of my yard was complimented the day after you finished all of the work.
First have to say that I have been nothing but very pleased with your lawn treatments and service.
Thank you for your good service and last Wednesday’s mowing before our event.  The grass really looks nice!
Just wanted to take a second to show you a couple pics of our front yard taken this morning.
Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Soil Organic Matter Stability as Affected by Land Management in Steppe EcosystemsElmira Saljnikov1, Dragan Cakmak1 and Saule Rahimgalieva2[1] Institute of Soil Science, Belgrade, Serbia[2] West-Kazakhstan Agrarian-Technical University named after Zhangir-Khan, Uralsk, Kazakhstan1.
Potential causes of a change to organic matter and the condition responses observed as a result of this change. In undisturbed systems the demand is relatively small and has minimal impact on the system.
NOM is highly variable and relative concentrations of individual compounds can vary significantly from source to source. As a result, one goal of the drinking water treatment process is to reduce NOM concentration.
Due to its complex nature and variability from source to source, we do not routinely identify the individual compounds comprising NOM.
While these means can provide very specific information on NOM species, many are only practical in an advanced laboratory setting.
You may think of leaves, animal manure, kitchen waste, wood chips or broken plant parts as organic matter.
Hummus can hold 80-90% of its weight in its water, which means it’s amazing at protecting your lawn from drought. I wish that we had started service with you all a long time ago instead of going with the previous company!  Everything looks much, much better with you guys! Fitting curves of nitrogen mineralization in fertilization experiment in Uman, Ukraine, as described with the first order kinetic model: Nmin=N0(1-e-kt), where Nmin is the mineralized N at time t, N0 is the potentially mineralizable N (PMN), k is the mineralization rate constant.
Fitting curves of carbon mineralization in fertilization experiment, Kherson, as described by the first order kinetic model: Cmin=C0(1-e-kt), where Cmin is the mineralized C at time t, C0 is the potentially mineralizable C (PMC), k is the mineralization rate constantTable 7. General discussion of fertilization, manure application and irrigation experiments Table 6. Distribution of labile and stable C in different Mollisols from four studied sitesTable 12. It consumes oxygen when it degrades and is a source of 'recycled nutrients' for water column productivity. However, unnaturally large organic loads entering systems can stimulate bacterial activity (and thus increase oxygen demand) to the point where oxygen levels in the system may be reduced to very low levels.
More often, NOM is ‘characterized’ by aspects such as hydrophobicity, molecular weight, aromaticity, functional group, etc. Healthy soil is filled with organisms that perform many vital functions including converting dead and decaying matter as well as minerals to plant nutrients. In addition, hummus can help balance excessive pH levels and prevent disease and preserve overall soil structure. Organic matter is responsible for storing a large amount of the nutrients (such as nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus) in soil.
Increasing organic matter by as little as 1 percent can increase drought tolerance by 50%!  Organic matter also helps stabilize soil to prevent erosion, and keeps soil from being too sticky.  This allows the soil to be better permeated by water to water root systems and avoid crusting on the top.
You guys have been wonderful and we have enjoyed the organic service for our lawn not only for ourselves but for our dogs and the environment. Also love that after a treatment I don’t have to worry about my kids, dog, or our garden.
Set against our dark green grass I am ready to take lots of pictures to upload to Facebook.
Soil organic matter statusSoil organic matter (SOM) is most reactive and powerful factor in the formation of soil and in its fertility. Also, for comparison the continuous cropping of spring wheat (CW) and continuous fallowing (CF) were sampled for comparison. Organic matter can enter aquatic systems from external sources (catchment run-off or point-source discharges) or may be generated within the system via photosynthesis. In addition to being good for your plants, this also encourages the microorganisms that are responsible for making more healthy organic matter for your soil. A healthy level of organic matter is especially important in the spring and summer, when your plants grow the most. Formation of soil and accumulation of organic matter are a function of interactions between biological factors and parent rocks under certain hydrothermal conditions and are one of the sections of a continuous chain of the trophic bounds between different life forms, serving as a first and a last section at the same time.
Wines&Vines does not assume any responsibility for any unsolicited manuscripts or materials.
The increased oxygen demand and subsequent impact on dissolved oxygen levels caused by organic matter is the main stress factor considered here. The later is because SOM contain the main nitrogen stock, nearly the half of phosphorus, significant part of sulphur and other macro- and micronutrients for sustaining life and productivity of plants.
Living organic matter is consumed by secondary producers while dead organic matter is metabolised by bacteria and the breakdown products fuel further production. Different types of organic matter vary greatly in the rate at which they can be broken down.


Organic matter is what all those things become when they are broken down and begin to release their nutrients. The bulk compost is a mixture of lawn clippings, leaves and wood chips that are recycled for two years so that they can become as rich in nutrients as possible. Although soil organic matter comprise only five percent of total soil structure it has been a major research topic throughout the history of soil science, which is generally regarded to have been ongoing for approximately a century [1, 2].Discovering the role and fate of soil organic matter has been a great challenge for the scientists. SOC was inversely proportional to fallow frequency, indicating the negative effect of fallow on long-term accumulation of SOM. Some types of organic matter break down very quickly and therefore create a strong short-term demand on oxygen, resulting in rapid reductions in oxygen levels.
A soil test is recommended to check for these levels and other nutrient levels in your soil. One of the most dynamic definitions of the SOM was given by [3]: the amount of organic carbon contained in a particular soil is a function of the balance between the rate of deposition of plant residues in or on soil and the rate of mineralization of the residue carbon by soil biota. The highest TN concentrations were observed in the 6R and CW systems and lowest concentrations in the CF system.To protect the field against weeds and to store more moisture and nutrients in the soil, fallowed field are cultivated 4 to 5 times during the vegetative season.
In fact organic matter in soil always is in a very dynamic state, where transformations of bio-products occur constantly. Such intensive mechanical disturbance causes enhanced mineralization of SOM in fallow, firstly, due to better aeration of surface soil, and secondly, particular organic matter occluded within aggregates might become exposed to microbial attack after disruption of aggregates. The mechanisms through which soil organic C can be biologically stabilized depend on the decomposition of the soil mineral phase and the chemical structure of the organic residues added to the soil. Additionally, bare fallow does not contribute plant residues for the replenishment of SOM.In general, distributions of SOC and TN among rotations with different fallow frequencies were comparable to those reported by [50-52] for Chernozem soils. Climate is the most powerful factor that determines the array of plant species at any given location, the quantity of plant material produced, and the intensity of microbial activity in the soil.
Frequently fallowing systems such as 2R showed less SOM than less frequently fallowing systems, such as 6R.
Climate influences soil organic carbon (SOC) content primarily through the effects of temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. Related studies found that amounts of SOC were positively correlated with precipitation and, at a given level of precipitation, negatively correlated with temperature [4, 5].
Therefore, one of the focuses in this study was investigation of the dynamics of labile SOM under the different hydrothermal conditions of steppe ecosystems.Another powerful factor determining SOM reserves is plant biomass inputs and outputs. In agricultural systems, where soil and plant residues are often intensively manipulated, human impact on decomposition is especially pronounced [6]. Management practices like tillage, selection of crops and cropping sequences, and fertilization can alter decomposition rates by their effects on soil moisture, soil temperature, aeration, composition and placement of residues.
Many studies confirm that under the similar climatic condition, carbon and nitrogen retention in soil is influenced by crop management systems, such as crop rotation [7, 8], tillage [5, 9], residue management [10] and fertilization and fertility [7, 10, 11].
Decomposition Decomposition is the progressive break down of organic, ultimately into inorganic constituents.
The decomposition process is mediated mainly by soil microorganisms, which derive energy and nutrients from decomposing substrate.
Plant litter decomposes very rapidly and although the carbon from plant litter represents only a small fraction of C in soil, about half of the CO2 output from soil, globally, comes from decomposition of the annual litter fall [12].
Decomposition is central to the biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric systems. It releases nutrients and energy associated in organic materials and feeds them back into local and global cycles, thereby affecting land, and air and water quality (Fig.
Three interrelated factors regulate decomposition: the quality of the residue, the physical-chemical environment in which decomposition occurs and the type of organisms in the decomposer community. Vegetation can influence SOC levels as a result of the amount, placement and biodegradability of plant residues returned to the soil. The fate of surface deposited residues depends on the activity of soil microorganisms and fauna and their ability to mix these residues into surface mineral horizons.
Microorganisms are the major contributors to soil respiration and are responsible for 80-95% of the mineralization of carbon. Humans can affect decomposition by altering some of these factors, especially in agricultural systems. One of the effects of global warming is accelerated decomposition of soil organic matter, thereby releasing CO2 to the atmosphere, which will further enhance the warming trend [104]. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (Kyoto Protocol of 1997), allows organic carbon stored in arable soils to be included in calculations of net carbon emissions.
By altering organic matter production, litter quality, and belowground C allocation, however, changes in vegetation type can influence microbial decomposition [105] and root respiration and therefore soil respiration rates [80].
As a result of global climate change and alterations in land use many ecosystems are currently experiencing concurrent changes in the abiotic and biotic controls on soil respiration. Given the large quantity of CO2 that soils respire annually and the role CO2 plays in greenhouse warming, an understanding of SR response to climate change and alterations in vegetation resulting from land use is critical. Labile pool of soil organic matterLabile carbon is the fraction of soil organic carbon with most rapid turnover times and its oxidation drives the flux of CO2 between soils and atmosphere.
The biggest and main source for labile organic matter is a ‘light’ fraction organic matter (or particulate OM, or macroorganic matter; [8, 14-17] that consists of partially decomposed plant litter. Generally, soil organic matter is divided into stable (70-96%), active (2-30%) and plant litter (0-20%) fractions (Fig.2).
The active fraction mainly consists of microbial biomass and their metabolites, the organic substrate in different stages of decomposition and non-humic substances, with turnover time from 0.8 to 5 years. The stabilized or passive fraction of SOM is passive, chemically and physically protected matters. The physically protected OM has turnover time from 20 to 50 years; the chemically protected –from 800 to 1200 years. Although labile OM comprises a small part of total SOM, it is the main source for nutrients and energy for microorganisms and plants, and main source for carbon dioxide flux from soil. An active fraction mainly influences the activity of microorganisms, the stability of macroaggregates, filtration speed, and the speed of nutrient mineralization. Whilst, the stable fraction influences mainly water-holding capacity, soil cation exchangeable capacity and soil microaggregation. Fresh plant litter decomposes very quickly and the decomposition usually occurs not as a single step, but as a cascade.
Fresh material, usually plant residue, undergo hydrolysis and redox reactions and then converted into altered forms.
The transformed organic material, so called ‘light’ fraction (LF), in turn, is susceptible to further decomposition.
A small part of LF is utilized for microbial synthesis, which after death contribute back to LF. Greatest part of LF is subjected to further mineralization resulting in mineral products, which is of direct practical interest of soil scientists from agronomical and ecological point of view, because as mentioned above, about half of the CO2 output from soil, globally, comes from decomposition of the annual litter fall.Thus, transformations of SOM are generally concentrated within labile pool. Large amounts of mineralizable N can accumulate under grassland with the result that crops grown immediately after cultivation of long-term grass may derive much of their N from mineralization. In contrast, soils that have been intensively cropped often mineralize little N, leaving crops heavily dependent on fertilizer nitrogen.
This chapter will present the impact of different fertilization experiments on soil labile OM.Labile fractions of SOM neither have been fully described nor successfully isolated [19, 20].


However, procedurally defined fractions such as carbon and nitrogen mineralized under controlled conditions and “light” fraction organic carbon proved to be good indicators of subtle changes in SOM, because they affects the nutrient dynamics within single growing season, the organic matter content under contrasting management regimes, and C sequestration over extended periods of time. Organic matter quality may also be characterized by estimates of kinetically defined pools obtained by fitting the simulation models to data of carbon and nitrogen mineralization [21, 22].
Although soil labile organic carbon is constituted of amino acids, simple carbohydrates, a fraction of microbial biomass, and other simple organic compounds, a clear chemical or physical definition of soil labile organic carbon is difficult if not impossible. We here present a biological definition of soil labile organic carbon as microbial degradable carbon associated with microbial growth.
This biological definition includes two aspects: soil labile organic carbon is both chemically degradable and physically accessible by soil microbes. Organic carbon that is chemically degradable but physically inaccessible by microbes due to clay mineral protection is not regarded here as soil labile organic carbon [13]. Mollisols soils are the most fertile and productive soils and therefore they are often overexploited for agricultural needs. During the Soviet period the political aim was a rapid increase in grain production that was achieved by indiscriminate plowing of as large area of virgin lands as possible.
However, such intensive cultivation of these soils resulted in drastic decrease in its humus content.
Description of study sitesFour experimental sites from Eurasian steppes were examined for soil organic matter fraction. They are: Kharkov (dry forest-steppe, east Ukraine), Uman (moist forest-steppe, central Ukraine), Kherson (dry steppe, south Ukraine) and Astana (dry steppe, northern Kazakhstan,). The sites are located in different soil-ecological zones and differ in the amount of precipitation, temperature, soil type and vegetation2.2. Three sub-samples for chemical and five sub-samples for biological analysis were taken from each sampling point.
The soil samples were air-dried followed by grinding, and were passed through a 2-mm sieve for chemical analysis. The dried soil samples were analyzed for total N concentration using a full automatic analyzer (Shimazu NC-800-13N).
Labile carbon (Potentially Mineralizable Carbon, PMC)The rate of disappearance of plant residues can be described using a kinetic model. First-order kinetic model is usually used to characterize decomposition of plant residues, assuming that the annual input of plant residues is independent of the rate of their decomposition. Using first-order kinetics to describe decomposition implies that the metabolic potential of the soil microbial biomass exceeds the substrate supply. Carbon mineralization was determined using laboratory incubation techniques via measuring soil respiration. The fresh soils were brought to 50% of WHC followed by incubation in a square-plastic jar (500-ml) at 30oC for 70 days.
Labile nitrogen (Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen, PMN)Potentially mineralizable N is a measure of the active fraction of soil organic N, which is chiefly responsible for the release of mineral N through microbial action. Mineralizable N is composed of a heterogeneous array of organic substrates including microbial biomass, residues of recent crops, and humus. Despite a continuing research effort [26, 27], chemical tests that are selective for the mineralizable portion of soil N are not available and incubation assays remain the preferred way of estimating mineralizable N.Mineralized N was determined after incubation of soils for 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-weeks and analyzed for nitrate and ammonium N content by colorimetric method following extraction with 2NKCl solution. Nitrate N was analyzed after reduction of NO3ions to NO2 by passing the extraction through cadmium column.
The amount of mineralizable N (N0) was obtained after fitting the data of mineralized N (Nmin) every 14 days to the first order kinetic model [25 ]: Nmin=N0*(1-e-kt), where, Nmin is an experimental value of mineralized N at a given time (t) that was plotted to fit the equation, N0 is a potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) that was calculated after fitting the curve, and k is nonlinear mineralization constant. Microbial biomassSoil microbial biomass measurements have been used in studies of soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling in a variety of terrestrial ecosystems.
They provide a measure of the quantity of living microbial biomass present in the soil, and in arable soils account for ~1%–5% of the total soil organic matter [28, 29]. Measurements of the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contained in the soil microbial biomass provide a basis for studies of the formation and turnover of soil organic matter, as the microbial biomass is one of the key definable fractions [30]. The data can be used for assessing changes in soil organic matter caused by soil management [31] and tillage practices [32], for assessing the impact of management on soil strength and porosity, soil structure and aggregate stability [33], and for assessing soil N fertility status [21].Soil microbial biomass was determined by chloroform fumigation-extraction technique as described by [34].
For each sample, four sub-samples of field-moist soil were placed in flasks, moistened to field capacity and conditioned for 3 days at 25oC. Two sub-samples were fumigated with chloroform in a vacuum chamber for 5 days at 25oC and the other two sub-samples (controls) were incubated without fumigation at the same temperature.
Microbial biomass C was measured by dissolved organic carbon analyzer (TOC-5000) and microbial biomass N was determined by colorimetric method.
The residue was re-suspended and the procedure was repeated to ensure complete collection of the LF. Variability among treatments in each region was within the range of variability among the regions for all the cases. Sigma Plot 8 software [25] was applied for modeling C mineralization pattern and mineralization rate constant.3. Soil total C and N in fertilization experimentMean annual mineralization of humus depends upon many factors. However, in case of unified soil and climatic conditions the limiting factor of soil organic matter mineralization becomes the cultivated plant and the technology of crop cultivation. Time, depth, frequency and intensity of cultivation are directly related to the amount of humus mineralization [37, 38]. The experiment with application of different dozes of mineral and organic fertilizers was conducted on Mollisols, in Uman (Table 1).
The results of the study confirm the role of manure in contribution to both stable and labile soil organic matter.
The content of soil organic carbon was not increased after 36 years application of mineral fertilizer in most of the treatments, compared to the control, while application of high rates of manure (O) alone maintained the higher accumulation of soil organic carbon (Table 2). Manure contains humic acids [39], which directly contributes to the soil humic acids and favors humification processes [40, 41]. As this experiment has been performing since 1964, the long-term input of high rates of manure contributed to SOM via direct inputs of humic acids into the soil, showing the higher soil organic C than in other treatments. Content of total N in the treatments was not statistically different as indicated by the same letters in Table 2.
Soil total C and N in fallow frequency experiment in Astana, KazakhstanUnder nearly 50 years of monoculture of wheat, summer bare fallow has been practiced in crop rotation in order to retain moisture, to accumulate nutrients through mineralization and to control weed infestation.
Fallowed fields are usually cultivated many times to keep the land bare during the whole cropping season. Of great concern is, however, the adverse effect of fallow, that is, the changes in soil organic matter (SOM) quality and quantity in the context of degradation of the fertility of chernozem soils and subsequent agricultural sustainability. The studies of [43-45] have demonstrated that fallowing significantly exacerbates the depletion of SOM. Organic C and N content of soil after 33 years of cropping decreased with increasing frequency of fallow in a rotation on Canadian soils (53).



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