Kenya food security working group,food vector freepik,led garden light sets - And More

Author: admin, 04.11.2013. Category: What Is Organic Food

Frequently Asked Questions - Get answers to common problems and learn more about ReliefWeb. Modest improvements in food security have been reported in some marginal agricultural areas in the southeast and coastal districts as well as in parts of pastoral districts. Although the 2006 long rains ended in June in most of the country (all areas outside the western and Rift Valley highlands), parts of the country experienced generally unseasonable showers during late July and early August. Vegetation conditions have also responded to the rains and closely follow the rainfall pattern where good vegetation is evident in most of the western half of the country, while the northeastern pastoral districts and the southeastern marginal agricultural districts are reporting mediocre vegetation. The Arid Lands Resource Management Project (ALRMP) has reported that localized areas in the northwestern pastoral districts have received some reprieve from the dry conditions, after unseasonable showers in Marsabit, Baringo, Moyale, Samburu, West Pokot and Turkana districts toward the end of July and early August.
Livestock migrations are increasingly defined by the security situation as well the uneven distribution of the 2006 long rains.
Livestock body conditions are seasonably declining after improving significantly during the season, especially among goats and camels. The ALRMP has reported that livestock prices have recovered substantially and are close to their respective long term averages, particularly in the northeastern and southern pastoral districts including Mandera, Wajir, Moyale, Garissa, Kajiado and Ijara. Unfortunately, current improvements in livestock prices are not matched by an improvement in the productivity of the livestock. The 2006 long-rains season and the emergency operation have provided considerable relief to pastoralists avoiding a major catastrophe.
In all, about 31,000 MT of food distributed was distributed to beneficiaries in the 25 districts of operation. Recent in kind pledges from the governments of Japan and the USA have reduced the resource shortfall to 30 percent. The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) has once again revised downward expected maize output for the 2006 long-rains season.
The bulk of the remaining crop which is just under half the total national long rains output should be harvested between October and December, derived from the ‘grain-basket' western and Rift Valley highlands. Maize prices have begun to decline in most markets except in the marginal agricultural lowlands of Eastern and Coast Provinces, where prices have held firm, in most instances well above normal levels. The 2006 long-rains season in the pastoral and marginal agricultural districts has resulted in considerable relief after intense drought conditions that started during the first quarter of 2005 through March 2006. Despite a disease that has destroyed acres of maize, the country is expected to have a bumper harvest according to Agriculture Permanent Secretary Romano Kiome.
Despite a disease that has destroyed acres of maize, the country is expected to produce 38 million bags this season, according to Permanent Secretary Romano Kiome.
The sprawling slum of Mukuru on the eastern edge of Kenya's capital is a world apart from the glassy skyscrapers towering over traffic-clogged city streets. Heightened food insecurity persists in the pastoral districts of Mandera, Isiolo, Wajir, parts of Garissa, Marsabit and Tana River Districts, as adverse impacts of the poor 2001 long rains and preceding seasons continue to be felt.
According to the 2001 September-December short-rains season forecast, the already severely drought-affected pastoral and marginal agricultural districts of Eastern and most of Coast Provinces are likely to undergo yet another poor season. Expected above-average long-rains maize output in key producing areas has overshadowed poor production in all other arable areas. Food security assessments planned for November are expected to clarify the impacts of the 2001 long- and short-rains season on food security conditions as well as inform decision makers of the response-planning options. Food security has remained fairly favorable in the high-potential western grain basket of the country. The current food-security situation in the eastern and northern areas of the country - in the pastoral and coastal districts, in particular - continues to deteriorate.
A significant proportion of households in the marginal agricultural districts of Coast and Eastern Provinces are currently moderately food insecure. During the last week in August, national, regional, and international climate and food-security experts developed the Climate Outlook for the Greater Horn of Africa region for the October-December short-rains production period. Meanwhile, faced with the enhanced likelihood of below-normal rainfall in the already drought-affected eastern and northern pastoral areas and the marginal agricultural areas of Eastern Province during September-December, the implications for food security could be dire. The Kenya food-security outlook is similarly unfavorable in the marginal arable districts of Eastern, Coast, and the marginal districts of Central Province. While livestock prices have risen and are close to seasonal norms, productivity of livestock is low, after normal reproductive patterns were disrupted by the debilitating drought. Specifically, the showers are significant in the western half of the country as well as the southern coastal areas because the crop is still in the ground. The 2006 long rains were erratic, characterized by an early start and early cessation in drought-affected areas, compounded by uneven spatial and temporal distribution. The four divisional plots typify the performance of the rains in four key livelihood zones that suffered severe drought during the past season.
In most other pastoral districts, pasture, browse and water are steadily declining and will continue to deteriorate until the beginning of the short-rains season in October.
For example in Samburu District pastoralists and livestock are confined to a narrow central corridor which is considered relatively safe, while livestock from Wajir and Ethiopia have clustered around central and southern areas of Moyale, a result of poor rainfall in their dry season grazing areas.
However, the more fragile cattle and sheep have struggled to regain their condition and had not recovered sufficiently since the season ended early, particularly in the northwestern pastoral areas. Cattle and goat prices have increased by margins ranging between 10-30 percent in the eastern pastoral districts but have reduced by 5-10 percent in some of the western pastoral districts during June. However, considerable livestock losses experienced between December and March, coupled with an abbreviated long-rains season suggests that pastoral lives and livelihoods remain vulnerable to a further shock.
An estimated 3.1 million beneficiaries in 25 predominately pastoral, agropastoral and marginal agricultural districts are targeted with the July food distribution.

The food basket is a 75 percent ration, comprised of cereals, vegetable oil, corn soya blend and pulses for the pastoral districts and cereals and vegetable oil for the other districts.
However, more pledges are urgently required, particularly with respect to cereals, to address the projected pipeline break from end of September. The revision was necessitated by an extended dry spell in southern and coastal districts and the Rift Valley lowlands that lasted nearly one month and extended up to the harvest time. The October-December harvest coupled with the short rains harvest is especially critical and will determine whether or not the country will be maize-sufficient through the marketing cycle that ends in June 2007. The decline in prices in pastoral markets has little to do with on-going harvests and is principally attributed to increased supply of maize through the EMOP. Pastoralists remain highly food insecure and will require several more successful rainy seasons to begin to consolidate their livelihoods and rebuild their herds.
Kenya will only import one million bags to cover for the shortfall down from nine million bags in past years. In addition, 9 agropastoral and marginal agricultural districts are included in WFP’s Food-for-Work program. Prospects for above-average output during the 2001 long-rains season have been sweetened by the expectation of favorable rainfall during the September-December period. The poor rains during the recent critical March-June period have had a distinctly harmful impact on pastoral livelihoods. The Kenya Meteorological Department used the results refine the forecast for the country’s diverse climate zones. The greater likelihood of below-normal rainfall in these areas (Zone II) may cause these households to become highly food insecure; most of these are short-rains dependent, while the non short-rains dependent farm households have already suffered a poor long-rains season. Watering and grazing distances are increasing characteristically as livestock migrate to dry season grazing areas. Inevitably, migrations are taking away livestock and the little milk available from sedentary household members, that is, children, women and elderly. While cold temperatures have slowed down the degeneration of pasture and browse, low temperatures have been a setback for cattle, sheep and goats predisposing them to pneumonia.
Livestock prices have increased by a relatively smaller margin in markets that are far from key transport routes where markets are inadequately integrated. Calving and kidding patterns were disrupted by the extended drought that begun during the second half of 2005. The clearing modalities for the 20,500 MT of white maize, stored in Mombasa, held by a commercial supplier but bought by WFP, has now been finalized between the supplier and the relevant government of Kenya authorities. While some of the moisture-stressed crop reached maturity, with reduced yields, a substantial proportion of the late-planted crop in the southeastern and coastal lowlands failed to mature and wilted before the harvest.
The stage of crop development of the remaining crop ranges from tasselling to physiological maturity.
The slow recovery of herds, rising conflict and worrisome malnutrition rates underline the poor prospects that pastoralists face in the short and medium term. Nevertheless, maize prices in Kenyan markets remain significantly higher than those in most markets in Uganda and Tanzania. However, the optimism generated by these expected good harvests among key growers has been dampened by below-average producer maize prices in grain-basket markets. Mandera, Isiolo, and parts of Turkana, Wajir, Garissa, and Tana River Districts are the worst affected. As a result, gains from the long rains will be quickly lost in the event that another poor season occurs; these districts also fall in Zone II. In addition, a sizeable proportion of pastoralists lost substantial herds and many are now destitute, camped close to local centers.
Note the exceptionally poor rains during the 2005 October-December short-rains season in the northeast pastoral and both marginal agricultural areas. The watering distances vary widely ranging from five kilometers in northern Wajir to 15 kilometers in the lowlands of Samburu District in the northwest. Inevitably as the dry season intensifies, pastoralists are becoming less risk averse and venturing into conflict areas and this could precipitate severe conflict incidents such as those that occurred in the neighboring Turkana, Samburu and Marsabit Districts, toward the end of July. The ALRMP has reported an upsurge in contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia among cattle and the contagious caprine pleuro pneumonia among goats and sheep in Samburu, Marsabit, Moyale and Isiolo districts.
Cereal prices have marginally declined especially in the eastern pastoral districts, aiding somewhat terms of trade for pastoralists. Animals that survived the drought at the beginning of the rains in March have yet to reproduce. Yet food security for pastoral households remains precarious and dependent, for the most part, on emergency interventions. Difficulties in finalizing the agreement have affected the EMOP distributions in July and August. The MoA has estimated that 2.52 million MT of maize will be harvested at the end of 2006 or early January 2007, represents a 15 percent increase over the average long rains national maize output.
The wide variation in growth is attributed to an uneven onset that staggered planting dates.
While higher-than-normal maize prices in the drought-affected marginal agricultural areas are not expected to hold, they remain worrisome. The marginal agricultural lowlands also remain highly food insecure after a mediocre season followed on the heels of a failed season. In most of these areas, current output from livestock can no longer sustain pastoral livelihoods.

The forecast for the September-December period, which most closely resembles the 1996 rainfall pattern, depicts an enhanced probability of ‘Near Normal’ to ‘Above Normal’ rainfall in largely arable districts of western Kenya and highland areas around Kenya (Zone III in Figure 1). Food security in most pastoral areas remains precarious and pastoralists' food security is sustained, for the most part, by a large food intervention.
The rains will have little impact on crops outside western Kenya, since most of the crop has been harvested and may even cause pre-harvest losses in areas where harvesting is incomplete.
Good rains during 2006, as depicted by the red curve, in southeast and northeastern pastoral districts contrast with fairly poor rains in coastal and northwestern pastoral areas, after a series of poor or mediocre seasons.
Water trucking has re-started in localized areas such as in southern Wajir and northern Mandera due to the depletion of key surface water sources. The impact is more pronounced than during normal seasons because of the weakened state of the livestock that managed to survive the drought. Cattle and sheep prices in particular are expected to decline through October as dry conditions set in and trekking distances increase, further weakening animals.
In addition, the proportion of pastoral households that have lost their livestock and settled close to urban centers has increased markedly calling for long-term interventions that would protect and facilitate restoration of livelihoods.
The Kenya EMOP will also receive 25,000 MT of white maize procured from Mexico and is expected in the port of Mombasa in mid-August. Over 50 percent of maize crop has been harvested, from the lowlands of Nyanza, western, southern areas of the Rift Valley, coastal and southeastern areas as well as in the lowlands of the Rift Valley Province. Rains started early in the western highlands and a month later in the Rift Valley highlands. Both areas have had prolonged droughts spanning several seasons in some places, compromising household purchasing capacities. While the long-rains season is not the primary season in these areas, it often forms a critical bridge to the more significant short-rains season.
Mediocre harvests in the marginal agricultural areas suggest that current improvements are temporary and food security will remain problematic until the next key harvest in February 2007, assuming that the short rains are normal. However, the showers have benefited pastures and browse in the northwestern pastoral districts, after an unusually early cessation of the long rains in May. Unseasonable rains are expected to continue through August in the highland areas around Mt. Water quality is problematic and contamination by carcasses in parts of Mandera District and high salinity in Garissa District has limited the use of some key water sources. Subsequently, the proportion of pastoral children able to access milk is less than 20 percent in most pastoral districts, as noted by the ALRMP. The consignment will ensure a steady flow of cereals to the EMOP Districts until the end of September. Most of these areas are bi-modal and are expected to produce a second crop in February 2007. Most of drought-affected marginal agricultural areas are overwhelmingly short rains-dependent, underlining the importance of the October December short rains.
As such, farm households are eagerly anticipating a better short-rains season in October and many have already started preparing their farms in readiness.
In sharp contrast, highland cropping areas are reporting a favorable harvest and prices are beginning to fall in western and southwestern Kenya.
Little or no rains occurred in the eastern and northeastern pastoral districts except in localized areas.
Kenya and parts of the coastal areas, while normal seasonal rains are should continue through earlier September in the highlands of western Kenya and the Rift Valley.
The decline in rates of child malnutrition (see figure 3), in most pastoral districts is attributed largely to increase supply of food at the household level, through the EMOP, rather than to a significant increase in milk. The EMOP will start pre-positioning food under the Expanded School Feeding Programme in the course of August to cater for the needs of 535,000 school children in 15 districts for the third term. The crop harvested in July coupled with cross- border imports during the same month, have brought the domestic maize supply to an estimated 1.62 million MT.
If these rains are poor, farm households will be a precarious situation because the previous important season, the short rains season, was a complete failure.
The food insecurity problem is complex, and current emergency food and non-food interventions have undoubtedly averted a major catastrophe.
The ALRMP has indicated that an upsurge in diseases among children, particularly diarrhea, malaria and measles, compounded by poor hygiene and sanitary conditions, is limiting the effectiveness of the food intervention, slowing down the seasonal decline in child malnutrition and emphasizing the need for a well integrated emergency operation alongside multi-sectoral mitigation activities. In the event that such a scenario ensues, household food security could deteriorate to levels witnessed in March, at the height of the humanitarian crisis. However, parallel long-term mitigation and development interventions hold that key to reversing food insecurity of the drought-affected in any sustainable fashion. The total supply is expected to last through January and probably a little longer if maize flows from Uganda and Tanzania continue through that period. Fortunately, in the short to mid-term farm households in drought-affected areas are expected to experience a reprieve from lower food prices. Harvests from the key growing areas are substantial and low food prices in surplus markets will characteristically be transmitted to deficit markets in coming weeks. However, the fall in prices could be short-lived depending on the outcome of the October-December short-rains season.

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