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Author: admin, 16.04.2015. Category: Organic Food Delivery

AAM: You recently participated in a panel discussion entitled, How to Build Resilience in the Face of Climate Change and Weather Shocks. Shenggen: I think a globally resilient food system is one where everybody has constant, stable access to nutritious food. Storage is one example of a business in Africa where private sector players can play important roles to build commercially viable businesses. We have talked a lot about having a globally resilient food system, but more importantly is the resilient community food system. Shenggen: Stocks and reserves are sometimes used interchangeably, but there are important differences. Strategic grain reserves are primarily intended to guarantee availability of food in situations of extreme weather or crisis. There are ways to develop smart strategic grain reserves, but they must be well managed and their policies must be market-friendly and context specific. AAM: How important a role does research into diverse crop varieties play in creating a resilient food system?
Farmers also need to diversify their crops so they are growing more than just one staple crop such as rice or wheat, which can be vulnerable to the elements.
Shenggen: At the global level I think it is clear that the size of farms has to be increased, particularly in emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and Vietnam. AAM: Is another reason for getting “pushed out” the increasing size of farms spurred by foreign investment? Shenggen: As I mentioned, increasing farm sizes can push people out, particularly in Africa where the rural, non-farm sector is not as developed. Foreign investment in land in Africa can benefit smallholders in need of investment in agriculture, but there are serious risks. Foreign direct investment in land must not undermine the food security and nutrition or the livelihoods of poor people. AAM: What role do local scientific institutions play in creating in-country policy and extension services? Shenggen: There are some good universities in Africa, for example the University of Ghana, Makerere University in Uganda, and many universities in South Africa. Africa Agribusiness Magazine exists in order to connect Africa’s agricultural sector to the rest of the world. Luz Marina Alvare International Food Policy Research Institute Informe de Trabajo Latindex- Nicaragua 2010 Ruth Velia Gomez Centro de Acopio Latindex-Nicaragua. CENTRO DE ACOPIO LATINDEX-NICARAGUA Universidad Nacional Agraria Centro Nacional de Informacion y Documentacion Agropecuaria (CENIDA) Km.
Situacion de las Revistas en Nicaragua Ruth Velia Gomez Managua, noviembre 21, 2012 Centro de Acopio Latindex-Nicaragua - Universidad Nacional Agraria. 87- ACTIVIDADES DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE DC&T Jose Roberto Alegria Coto Jefe de Departamento Sala de Ministerio de Economia (MINEC) 8 de octubre de 2007. MSPyBS INS CENTRO COORDINADOR NACIONAL Presentacion del estado actual de la BVS en Paraguay Lic. PLAN DE ACCION Para la Revision o Elaboracion de la Politica Nacional de TIC en Educacion de 25 Y 26 DE ENERO DE 2007 Nicaragua. Taller LATINDEX Criterios de calidad editorial de las revistas academicas y cientificas Universidad APEC, Santo Domingo, 25 de septiembre de 2009 Latindex. II Taller de Editores de Revistas Hotel Hilton Princess 20, 22 de Noviembre, 2012 Managua, Nicaragua.
Not all farmers need to individually have these facilities.  The farmer could pay a fee to store their grains in a commercial structure, which allows the private sector to make money.
It sets up warehouses in different parts of the country where farmers can store coffee, tea and grain.

For the consumption side, having adequate reserves plays a crucial role in preventing malnutrition crises. We learned that the international aid agencies like the World Food Programme needed access to food to purchase in order to distribute it to the poor in Somalia.  We need regional reserves in the appropriate quantity that are close to hotspots.
Everybody needs to make sure they have certain strategies to ensure their families have access to food, for example through insurance, their own storage or community sharing mechanisms. Establishing linkages with pre-existing food safety nets, like school feeding programs, can help improve the effectiveness of reserves. However, if farmers diversify, particularly with vegetables and fruits, they become quite resilient and they have the benefit of consuming more nutritious and micronutrient-rich foods. There are some small successes where farmers have begun to plant drought resistant crops, invest in irrigation, and diversify away from planting just one or two crops which are very vulnerable to climate change. Pulling out means that there are jobs in cities so people voluntarily go to the city for a better life, income and entertainment. If this is not happening yet, do you see this being a factor in the future as foreign investment increases in the agricultural sector and land concessions are given in Ethiopia, Ghana, and other countries?
There are risks of displacement of smallholders and reduced access to resources for local communities. To get to a win-win situation, there must be contracts in place so that poor farmers are not forcibly displaced, but can reap the benefits of increased investment and shared knowledge. Currently the major policies and technologies came from outside of Africa from organizations such as the World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization and IFPRI. They have trained lots of good scientists, researchers and government officials, but the scale is just too small. By doing so, we hope to act as a catalyst to the development of Africa’s agricultural sector. A resilient system occurs at a global level where there are functioning and efficient systems with no trade barriers, restrictions, and food can move to where it is needed.
By buying and selling grain at strategic times, marketing boards or governments can help support farmers and improve food availability to consumers through physical grain stocks. Most of the time, strategic grain reserves with this kind of price support does not work well. Overall, developing a functional grain reserve will provide an extra measure of food security in times of crisis.
We still have great potential to improve their resilience by increasing tolerance against heat waves, flood drought, frosts. However, we do know that in some of the dry areas, particularly just south of Sub-Saharan Africa (south of the desert) the droughts are already happening.
For Africa we have to be careful because urbanization has to happen, and the non-farm sector has to develop before farm size increases.
Foreign investment in land is happening in Africa, though there is no consensus yet of its impact on smallholders getting “pushed out”, or on food security. There are also implications for food security, as often times foreign investors buy fertile land in poor, food-insecure countries. Innovative joint ventures, such as contract farming, can meet the needs of both investors and rural communities.
We need hundreds, thousands, of universities where they can train Africans in technology, business, and policy. That is on the global level; the national level needs to produce enough nutritious food, which includes imports and stocks. Trade is a very important element because it is the best way to ship food from surplus areas to deficit areas. But this strategy has limitations—in particular, they do not effectively address food security emergencies during a national or international food crisis.

But a reserve like Ethiopia’s Emergency Food Security Reserve Administration, which is not involved in buying and selling grain, has been very successful. I’m afraid that because of climate change their frequency and intensely will increase.
For example, we need more research on  drought tolerant varieties, and more investment in irrigation and water catchment systems capable of moving water from surplus to deficit areas. Pushing out means that because of population pressure, the available land in your village continues to be divided to the point where there is not enough land for everybody. It is a task for the government to provide a strong legal and institutional framework to ensure that investments in agriculture benefit the poor. My vision is that in the future major policies should be analyzed, recommended, proposed, monitored and implemented by local agencies at the national level in Africa.  Technologies need to be adapted to local weather, climate, soil, and economic conditions.
We need to have the right amount of stocks because when there are shocks, whether they are weather or conflict-related, there needs to be adequate food in the national pantry so that food can be distributed efficiently.
As you know during harvest season everybody’s trying to sell, so the prices go down, but if they can store their produce they can wait until later in the season when there is high demand and therefore get higher prices. They have helped address quite a few food security emergencies since its creation in the 1990s.
The Sahel and the Horn of Africa, these are probably the two areas that will suffer the most from climate change.
Because people don’t have viable livelihoods in the rural area they move to the city.
We also need to empower local communities by increasing their capacity for land governance and contract negotiation skills. For this farmers really need to have good infrastructure: warehouses, facilities, and in many cases cold storage. This allows farmers to “go away” to wait for higher prices before they retrieve their grain to sell. The new varieties could have enhanced nutrition through the selection of seeds and through breeding to increase nutrition. Local companies that know the area can effectively disseminate knowledge and technology to farmers. It is very critical to make sure that unless they can move out voluntarily, simply increasing the size of farms would do more harm than good. The bad lesson was India some years ago, small holders lost their land and moved to the cities, but they did not have jobs so now you see big slums in Calcutta, Bombay and New Delhi. Unless Africans have their own capacity to lead, own and drive their strategies and technologies development will not come.
I think the first thing Africa needs to think about is the development of the rural, nonfarm sector. This is where smaller cities can be a good solution because they present economic opportunities for non-farm employment and are an alternative to megacities.
Se elaboraron cartas para presentar Latindex a los Rectores de las universidades del CNU, privadas e instituciones que editan revistas.
Se trabajo la propuesta a presentar al INASP en coordinacion con Jose Octavio Alonso Gamboa y Ana Maria Cetto.

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