Health chapter 8 food and nutrition review answers,yelp thai food upper west side,daily express gardening shop - Try Out

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Serving size is the amount of food in one serving and servings per container is the number of servings in a package of food.
Encourage your child to use the Nutrition Facts label as part of maintaining a healthy diet. This is the number of calories in one serving and the number of calories that come from fat in one serving. Pay attention to the amount of calories and calories from fat if you are concerned about your child’s weight. The percent Daily Value (% DV) provides the percent of nutrients in a serving of food based on the recommended daily allowance for adults. The * at the bottom of the Nutrition Facts food label is a reminder that the % DV is based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains that contain fiber will help reduce your child’s risk of heart disease and improve their digestive tract.
Most American children don’t get enough Vitamins A and C, iron and calcium, so choose the foods with the higher %DV for these nutrients. A complementary intervention is the establishment of demonstration gardens at health facilities. Both types of programme should ideally incorporate a nutrition education component that provides community members (particularly the chronically ill and their caretakers) with skills in food preparation and hygiene. As illustrated in Figure 6, VCT is an entry point to prevention, care and support services for PLWHA, their partners and children. All camp-based health service providers, including agency staff and volunteers, should be given nutritional training appropriate to their responsibilities.
In medical inpatient settings, particularly in environments with high HIV prevalence, the provision of meals to patients and the caretakers attending to them at the facility should be considered. Provision of meals to patients and their principal caretakers with them at the facility helps to ensure that ill patients receive adequate nutrition to support rehabilitation, and to reduce the impact of the caretaking burden on the rest of the household. The establishment at a health facility of a demonstration garden where nutritious food crops are grown can be considered as a possible component of a facility-based nutrition education programme. Demonstration gardens at health facilities present opportunities to educate families about how to grow productive and nutritious crops. Home-based care (HBC) programmes for chronically ill refugees and their families often reach a population with a high prevalence of HIV.
Through the outpatient home-based care programme, PLWHA and others who are chronically ill receive a regular food ration to ensure adequate nutritional intake and to increase their ability to benefit from certain medications. By ensuring adequate nutritional intake, this integrated programme may reduce morbidity, extend life, enhance human dignity, and support the ability of PLWHA to care for their children.
Refugee participants enrolled in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme may be poor and food-insecure, and unable to consume a nutritious diet, especially if they are not receiving a full ration. Provision of a supplementary ration to PLWHA taking antiretroviral therapy aims to increase the effectiveness of the treatment in suppressing the virus and promoting disease- free survival, by boosting the ill persona€™s strength, nutritional status and overall health and immune function.
Common household measurements are used to make it easier to compare similar foods, for example, apple juice is measured in cups. Remember when looking at the % DV that it is for the entire day not just for one meal or snack. Eating less of these nutrients helps your child reduce their risk for high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Sugar is an important part of the label if you are concerned with your child’s weight.
Eating enough of these nutrients can improve your child’s health and reduce their risk of certain diseases. Hospital feeding is a significant logistic and financial undertaking, in terms of securing adequate and diverse food commodities, and managing the associated preparation, delivery and disposal tasks. These can be used to demonstrate how locally appropriate and nutrient-dense food crops should be cultivated. For example, nutrition education and the involvement of family members during inpatient feeding can be used to relay useful information to households about care and support. It is vital that the implementation of VCT services go hand in hand with the development of care, treatment and support programmes at the facility and household levels.
Meal provision supports nutritional status and medical recovery, and may reduce the need for family members to bring food to the facility. In many refugee communities, family members must provide food to relatives in clinics and hospitals. The capability of the community to contribute to the feeding programme, particularly regarding fresh fruits and vegetables, should be assessed.

Additionally, the produce from the garden can be used to support inpatient feeding or a home-based care programme for households affected by chronic illness. Produce from demonstration gardens can be used to support an inpatient feeding programme, and to provide fresh foods to a homebased care programme. This programme requires collaboration among health facility managers, agricultural staff and nutritional education staff for planning and management of the garden and nutrition education activities. Communities should be involved in establishing the garden, including identifying and preparing the site, and selecting crops to be grown (based on nutritional value, local suitability and cultural preferences). Once the site for the garden has been selected, materials (tools, seeds, inputs) must be obtained and allocated to those charged with maintaining the garden; supervision systems should also be established. In Kala Camp, AAH established a UNHCR-supported demonstration garden at the Kala clinic (Photo 11). In the Acholi-Pii section of Kyangwali settlement, agricultural staff of AAH are establishing a demonstration garden at the Rwenyewawa clinic. Households with chronically ill adults may be less able to purchase a diverse diet, because of reduced capacity to earn income or the increased health-related expenses in the household. Health care staff involved in the HBC programme must collaborate with food and nutrition staff to acquire and distribute supplementary ration commodities.
Care should be taken to ensure that the supplementary ration is diverse and palatable to programme participants. Refugees enrolled in a home-based care programme may already be receiving a supplementary ration (see integrated programme strategies 6 and 15). Health staff must collaborate with food distribution staff and government to develop protocols for supplementary feeding with ART.
Refugee communities may have traditional beliefs about which foods an ill person should eat, and such beliefs may influence how nutritional supplements are perceived.
Antiretroviral drugs are not currently available in Kala or Mwange clinics, though they can be found at the referral hospital. If a serving size is ½ cup, and your child drinks 1 cup, your child is getting twice the calories, fat and other nutrients on the label. While fats and oils are part of a healthful diet and essential for growing children, eating too much fat can be harmful to your child’s body. Most of the sodium that children consume comes from processed foods and not the salt shaker. The produce from demonstration gardens is distributed to inpatients of the health facility, thus supporting the inpatient feeding programme. Demonstration gardens at the hospital can be used to supplement the diet with fresh foods, while at the same time encouraging households to set up homestead gardens producing nutritious foods.
The demand for VCT services is directly associated with the availability of treatment and management options.
With training, health service providers could advise patients on proper preparation of foods, home gardening, and dietary diversification. In settings with high HIV prevalence, affected families may be struggling to meet basic needs within the household and may be unable to consistently commit the time and resources needed to support an ill family member. Agreement must be reached on how the foods will be sourced, paid for, prepared and delivered, as well as on target guidelines for the nutritional content of the meals. Community members may also contribute to the maintenance of a hospital garden (see strategy 14). Meals should be provided to all inpatients, to avoid identifying specific ones as having HIV. Produce from the garden, including fresh vegetables, is given to the inpatient feeding programme of the clinic.
Caretakers should be taught how to prepare the ration so that it is easy to consume, palatable and nutritious.
According to WFP, key considerations when planning food rations for home based care programs include that the ration contains micronutrients, that it is energy dense, and if possible that it contains fresh fruits and vegetables. These patients may therefore have increased nutritional requirements and require a nutrient-dense supplementary ration. HBC staff should also work with community development staff to promote gardening and other food security interventions with participating families to diversify the diet.
The ration should be easy to eat, since beneficiaries may suffer gastrointestinal complications that make eating difficult. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, August 2003 (Technical Note No. The supplementary ration currently includes only a blended food commodity called high energy protein supplement (HEPS) (at 5.8 kg per month per person).

When the dry ration is brought to the patienta€™s home by the HBC Team, the patient and other household members and caretakers are advised how to select and prepare foods to meet the nutritional needs of the ill person. If they are not enrolled in a home-based care programme but are regularly taking ART, a supplementary ration combined with nutrition education may increase the effectiveness of the treatment.
Additional research is needed to determine the nutritional requirements associated with each antiretroviral drug regimen. The supplementary feeding programme run by AAH for the chronically ill in Kala Camp included only TB patients, as no one had yet "come out" to the programme staff as being HIV-positive.
To help reduce their risk of heart disease, choose foods that are lowest in trans fat and saturated fat. Use the Nutrition Facts label to compare the amount of grams of sugar in similar products and try to limit the foods with added sugars which add calories but not other nutrients.
Hospital feeding programmes, therefore, should generally include all inpatients, regardless of HIV status. This programme provides an additional benefit by educating the public about crops that grow well in the local environment, providing a reliable source of food and income for refugee families, and nutrient-dense foods for people suffering illness.
Outside the facility setting, nutritional support can be incorporated into AIDS-related care through provision of a ration (and nutrition education), either as part of a home-based care programme for PLWHA, or to all participants in an ART programme. Training should take into consideration locally available foods, particularly where a population relies on a general ration, and the financial constraints of the population. Agricultural and nutrition staff can provide technical advice on cultivation and storage of specific crops, and guidance on how to prepare unfamiliar foods for people with illness. The nutritional value of the supplementary ration is determined by whether it is intended to meet fully the nutritional needs of the patient (in which case it is affected by the age and sex of the patient), or to complement other sources as an additional dietary support. WFP often includes fortified blended foods or fortified cereals as part of a balanced food basket for such programmes. In the past, it has at times included sugar, milk and oil to improve nutrient density and palatability. Factors to consider in the decision include cost, likely adherence by participants and intrahousehold sharing.
Nutritional support should identify and reinforce positive traditional practices about nutrition during illness.
Provision of supplementary rations to people on ART requires an extremely stable supply of food aid commodities, as any breaks could affect patientsa€™ health and may risk promoting drug resistance if adherence to the treatment protocol is disrupted. TB patients enrolled in the home-based care programme who experience weight loss receive 5.8 kg of High Energy Protein Supplement (HEPS, a corn-soya blend) per month as a take-home ration. Look at the ingredients list for added sugar such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, or corn syrup.
Antiretroviral therapy remains unavailable or unaffordable for the majority of refugee communities in low-income countries. A hospital feeding programme also provides the opportunity to provide nutritional education to caretakers on long-term nutritional care of the patient. The sustainability of the hospital feeding programme, or a phase-out strategy, should be considered from the outset. Inability to consume a proper diet while on ART can lead to painful side-effects, reduce the medicationsa€™ efficacy, and promote drug resistance. Although research is continuing to determine for how long supplementary food support may be necessary, many programmes currently being implemented are suggesting at least six months. HEPS has at times been accompanied by oil, sugar, and dry skimmed milk when these commodities were available. Local health staff may be poorly equipped to identify and manage the opportunistic infections that frequently afflict those living with HIV, or to provide nutritional support or education.
In Zambia, for example, community health workers received training on incorporating nutrition into their regular health education activities. Participants admitted that the HEPS ration is sometimes shared with children in the family, particularly those who are malnourished or "hungry". TB patients also receive fruits and vegetables from a World Vision project, but the micronutrient content of this distribution varies by month, and the degree of sale of the ration is unknown.

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