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Author: admin, 04.02.2016. Category: Gardening

Alaska Analytical Laboratory (AAL) is an environmental lab that provides quality analytical testing for soil and water. We are dedicated to producing high quality data at a reasonable cost and to providing a convenient service to our clients. Separation and removal of a variety of compounds including; TCE, PCE, TCA, DCA, BTEX, and DRO. The stacked tray air stripper uses forced draft, counter-current air stripping through horizontally extended trays to remove volatile organic compounds from water. H2k Designs and Develops custom chemical injection systems for a variety of applicaitons including Water pH level adjustment, Caustic fluid injection, Chemical metering pumps, Oxygen removal, Carbon dioxide removal, and Industrial process water adjustment and treatment. Featuring highly effective filtering of suspending solids from groundwater, wastewater, process water or drinking water. Ideal applications for Industrial waste water, removal of dissolved gasoline range organics (BTEX compounds), and hydrocarbons from water including MTBE. H2K's LLS series features a light non-aqueous phase product removal and free phase product separation. Our large format unit is ideal for oil, water, free phase product, and crude oil enhanced separation.
Ideal filtering for excavation dewatering and removal of low level free phase or emulsified product using oleophilic filter bags. We offer complete control system design-build capabilities, or can quote a project to your specifications. H2K Remote Telemetry can be accessed via a Remote Access System that allows full remote control of the treatment process real time via Cellular Internet Connection. H2K's products consist of a proven line of water, air and soil filtration and handling equipment sold nationally.
H2K provides complete submittal documentation packages with each order for customer approval prior to proceeding.
One facet of the US drive to seek energy independence is to increase oil and gas production in the states. The fracking process utilizes a well casing perforated in the zone that contains an oil or gas formation (zone of interest, ZOI). Naturally occurring sand grains, man-made or specially engineered proppants, such as resin-coated sand or high-strength ceramic materials like sintered bauxite, may to be used as part of the fracking fluid. The EPA has seen data that suggest that in fracking related situations enhanced migration of gas has occurred within ground water at depths used for domestic water supply and to domestic wells. The May 9, 2011 issue of a€?Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesa€? discusses systematic evidence for methane contamination of drinking water associated with shale-gas extraction.
While the above studies are significant, they raise many questions that need further investigation before appropriate mitigation can be successfully implemented. ProPublica is an independent, non-profit newsroom that produces investigative journalism in the public interest.Their work focuses exclusively on important stories that may affect the general public. New research has concluded that salty, mineral-rich fluids deep beneath Pennsylvania's natural gas fields are likely seeping upward thousands of feet into drinking water supplies. Though the fluids were natural and not the byproduct of drilling or hydraulic fracturing, the finding further stokes the red-hot controversy over fracking in the Marcellus Shale, suggesting that drilling waste and chemicals could migrate in ways previously thought to be impossible. The study, conducted by scientists at Duke University and California State Polytechnic University at Pomona and released in the July 2012 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, tested drinking water wells and aquifers across Northeastern Pennsylvania.

No drilling chemicals were detected in the water, and there was no correlation between where the natural brine was detected and where drilling takes place.
Still, the brine's presence – and the finding that it moved over thousands of vertical feet -- contradicts the oft-repeated notion that deeply buried rock layers will always seal in material injected underground through drilling, mining, or underground disposal. The NE Pennsylvania study is the second in recent months to find that the geology surrounding the Marcellus Shale could allow contaminants to move more freely than expected. In 2011, some of the same Duke researchers found that methane gas was far more likely to leak into water supplies in places adjacent to drilling. NE Pennsylvania research swiftly drew criticism from both the oil and gas industry and a scientist on the National Academy of Science's peer review panel. Another critic, Penn State University geologist Terry Engelder, took the unusual step of disclosing details of his review of the paper for the National Academy of Sciences, normally a private process.
In emails, Engelder told ProPublica that he did not dispute the basic premise of the article – that fluids seemed to have migrated thousands of feet upward.
Indeed, while the study did not explicitly focus on fracking, the article acknowledged the implications. For their research, the scientists collected 426 recent and historical water samples -- combining their own testing with government records from the 1980s -- from shallow water wells and analyzed them for brine, comparing their chemical makeup to that of 83 brine samples unearthed as waste water from drilling sites in the Marcellus Shale.
Nearly one out of six recent water samples contained brine near-identical to Marcellus-layer brine water. Nevertheless, Jackson, one of the study's authors, said he still considers it unlikely that frack fluids and injected man-made waste are migrating into drinking water supplies. Glass Expansion's cyclonic spray chamber designs improve sensitivity, and reduce washout times and matrix effects. The Jacketed Tracey spray chamber is made with an external jacket for the introduction of coolant for temperature control. The Twister cyclonic spray chamber features a central transfer tube which acts as a secondary particle separator helping separate larger aerosol particles from the sample.
The Jacketed Twister spray chamber is made with an external jacket for the introduction of coolant for temperature control. The Cinnabar spray chamber is a mini-cyclonic spray chamber which gives good sensitivity at very low uptakes. The Jacketed Cinnabar spray chamber is made with an external jacket for the introduction of coolant for temperature control. The Twinnabar cyclonic spray chamber is a low volume spray chamber with a central transfer tube (or baffle), combining the benfits of the Twister and the Cinnabar. Relying on laboratory methods to determine hydrocarbon contamination in soil is both time consuming and expensive. The analyst now has another choice; an environmentally safe, inexpensive, field portable test called PetroFLAG. AAL performs soil extractions for volatile organics, semi-volatile organics using the Accelerated Solvent Extraction 200 (ASE 200), and waste dilutions.
The services we provide are system startup, operator training and project-related engineering services. Our shop is well equipped to produce our stand-alone products as well as large scale integrated projects or building systems, with complete assembly and testing done within our facility prior to shipment. The US has large reserves of oil and gas contained in geologic formations (shales, tight sands and coalbed methane).

In active gas-extraction areas (one or more gas wells within 1 km), average and maximum methane concentrations in drinking-water wells increased with proximity to the nearest gas well. Researchers found that, in some cases, the water had mixed with brine that closely matched brine thought to be from the Marcellus Shale or areas close to it. A paper published by the journal Ground Water in April 2012 used modeling to predict that contaminants could reach the surface within 100 years – or fewer if the ground is fracked. They called the science flawed, in part because the researchers do not know how long it may have taken for the brine to leak.
If that were happening, those contaminants would be more likely to appear in his groundwater samples, he said. Thermostatting to constant temperature helps ensure highly reproducible results and long term stability. The Cinnabar's design and low volume is ideal for the reduction of memory and matrix effects and very fast washout. Laboratory methods, such as EPA Method 8015, are very expensive and have turnaround times of one to two weeks. Although this test is quite accurate for dry soils, the extraction efficiencies for wet soil can be as low 10%. The PetroFLAG system is a field portable method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. Everything needed to perform ten soil tests can be conveniently carried to the job site in a briefcase size carrying case. The business and product line is based on the owners' combined experience of over 40 years in the municipal, industrial, and industrial equipment markets. However they are hard to extract because of their poor flow rate caused by low permeability. Some of the fracturing fluids are returned to the surface where they are stored in open pits or tanks for treatment or reuse. The National Academy of Sciences should not have published the article without an accompanying rebuttal, they said. He also said the Marcellus was an unlikely source of the brine because it does not contain much water.
His group is continuing its research into how the natural brine might have travelled, and how long it took to rise to the surface.
Most samples analyzed by this method limit the results to Gasoline Range Organics (GRO) or Diesel Range Organics (DRO).
One approach to converting these reserves to production is the expanded use of the fracking (induced hydraulic fracturing) technique. PetroFLAG does not distinguish between aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, but quantifies all fuels, oils, and greases as total hydrocarbons.
Analysis of a 10 gram soil sample is performed using three simple steps: extraction, filtration, and analysis.

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