Fruit of the earth ����Ī�P�� ����,gardening at home tips,natural and organic food fair london - 2016 Feature

Author: admin, 11.07.2014. Category: Organic Products

In the forests of central Africa, there’s a plant that looks like it’s growing its own Christmas decorations. They belong to a plant called Pollia condensata, a tropical metre-tall herb that sprouts its shiny berry-like fruits in clusters up to 40-strong.
In the animal kingdom, such tricks are commonplace – you can see them at work on the wings of a butterfly, the shells of jewel beetles, or the feathers of pigeons, starlings, birds or paradise and even some dinosaurs.
Silvia Vignolini from the University of Cambridge discovered Pollia’s secret at Kew Gardens in the UK.
The team thinks that Pollia is mimicking the tasty blue fruits of its neighbour, tempting birds with the promise of tasty pulp, but rewarding them with nothing but seeds to carry. Pollia condensata, a plant which American nurseries should develop an an ornamental or house plant. The fruit has the greatest reflectivity of any known biological substance, including beetle shells, butterfly wings, and bird feathers. I am also a bit skeptical of the claim that these are the shiniest living thing, even though the original PNAS article does claim this. But apparently all the other known examples are pretty weak, and this IS still the first example of strong iridescence in a plant. I love this article and photography, but I think some of the Adult Male Haplochomins (Cichlid fish from Lake Malawi Africa) in full breeding dress could give the fruit a run for the money in the area of shine (or any large scaled silver fish as was already mentioned in another comment).
I really wish such headlines could be avoided, since they always make a claim which goes beyond what we can know. I think it’s one of the things which encourages non-science journalists to treat tentative results as absolute fact and misrepresent the scientific process.
Incidentally the internet reports Morpho’s flashing wings being visible from half a mile away.
The harlequin glorybower is an ornamental tree that is native to China & Japan, but grows in large portions of the US. Thanks Ed—my concern is mostly about the way the popular press like to make everything absolute (except global warming, which they like to pretend is still disputed), and trying to avoid giving them opportunities to do that. Not Exactly Rocket ScienceDive into the awe-inspiring, beautiful and quirky world of science news with award-winning writer Ed Yong. YumEarth Organics Fruit Snacks that contain no artificial colors or flavors, no high-fructose corn syrup and no major allergens, such as gluten, tree nuts and dairy. Our family would eat YumEarth Organics Fruit Snacks after school and for a snack on the weekend. My kids love gummies and this would be perfect for snack time and especially for my son to bring to school for snack.
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These little orbs are iridescent – they use special layers of cells, arranged just so, to reflect colours with extraordinary intensity.


But in the plant world, pigments dominate and structural colours were thought to be non-existent are much rarer.
Her group, led by Ullrich Steiner, was scouring the plant world for species that bend light in interesting ways.
This is why, like Pollia fruits, the wings of many butterflies and the feathers of many birds, can still look stunning after years in a fusty museum drawer.
Vignolini hasn’t just found the first strong iridescent colours in a plant; she’s found the strongest iridescent colours in nature.
Alternatively, birds could collect the fruits to decorate their nests, or to use in mating displays.
Kinoshita is also the lead author of the 2008 article that is cited by Vignolini et al in their claim that Pollia has a higher reflectance than Morpho wings. Because, as you point out, it would be patently illogical to extend the claim to what is unknown.
Dr Vignolini, maybe I misunderstand your last sentence, but I see no mention of your own Morpho measurements in your paper’s Methods section, so I am confused. Assuming Steiner is right, the plant will have gradually evolved an appearance that matches those of the blue berries around it, just like virtually every other mimic in the natural world. For an option that is made with natural and vegan ingredients, YumEarth Organics Fruit Snacks are a perfect choice. YumEarth Organics Fruit Snacks capture the “fruitastic” flavors of real fruit by using organic fruit juice, fruit extracts and natural ingredients. Here you will find travel-sized and individual sized versions of your over the counter medications, first aid products, and more. EPOD will collect and archive photos, imagery, graphics, and artwork with short explanatory captions and links exemplifying features within the Earth system. The short-lived blooms of this plant last less than a single day and are the basis of its common name: flower of an hour.
This trick relies on the microscopic physical structures of the cells, rather than on any chemical pigments. Under the recommendation of the Smithsonian’s Robert Faden, Vognolini sought out Pollia, and with help from Kew’s Paula Rudall, she found a sample of the plant. The fibres all run parallel to one another, but each layer is slightly rotated against the one above it, producing an elegant spiral. Provided the layers are exactly the right distance apart, the reflected beams of light amplify each other to produce exceptionally strong colours.
By finding the same structures in Pollia, Vignolini has uncovered a great example of convergent evolution, where species from different branches of the tree of life arrive at the same adaptations independently. This means that the wavelength (and thus, the colour) of the light they reflect also vary from cell to cell. Well, you can eat them, but there would be no point, because they provide next to no nourishment. Either way, Pollia gets a free ride, and avoids having to spend energy on making sweet, nourishing tissues.
For example, the African iris Moraea aristata, Moraea villosa, and relatives have shiny iridescent blue patches on their petals.


Some of the species I mentioned can be seen from a plane flying over the jungle, flashing like signal mirrors. As luck would have it, the 2002 article tested two Morpho species, M didius and one of the brilliant species I mentioned above, M. The bit about misrepresenting science as a series of facts and not a process is very well taken, however. YumEarth, the leader in organic candy has created these yummy treats that feature parent-approved ingredients, kid-friendly packaging and flavors and overall fantastic fruit taste.
In the photo, we can't see the fruit itself, but rather the expanded globe-like sepals (calyx) that surround a five-part dry capsule. It looks as if Seurat, or some other pointillist painter, had turned their hand to sculpture. This means that the actual brightness depends on the amount of light shining on it in the first place. Morpho amathonte, cypris, and sulkowskii are probably the most iridescent, while the more common M peliades and other similar species are orders of magnitude less reflective. Ethologically it would be interesting to know whether the bird populations used to pick up these vegetal beads are especially attracted by the shining as there are everywhere bird species which like to collect small shining objects. When it does bloom, its tiny little hibiscus flower is about one to two and a half in (2.5 - 6 cm) wide -- petals can be white or yellow.
That’s why it looks pixellated.” Or pointillist, depending on whether you prefer your metaphors based on screens or canvas. Here’s another clue: Pollia grows in the same regions as another plant, Psychotria peduncularis, which also produces blue berries. So, as long as the source of environmental light is bright enough (say, an afternoon, summer sun) it should, in theory, always be able to produce more than organisms that manufacture their own glow. Morpho didius scales average about 30% reflectance (eyeballed from a graph) over the visible spectrum, with a peak reflectance of 55% in the blue part of the spectrum.
Some understory tropical rainforest fruits from other genera also seem to show structural color, usually blue.
The Pollia fruit is also reported to have 30% reflectance, so these two species are about tie for reflectance.
But Morpho sulkowskii has a peak reflectance of 70% in the blue (!) and has a MINIMUM of 30% reflectance (at the red end of the spectrum).
So its average reflectance over the range of visible wavelengths is far above 30%, the reported reflectance of Pollia. Maybe measurement methods are not comparable or maybe there is some other explanation, but I think the claim that Pollia is the shiniest living thing is wrong.



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