Fruit crops definition,real raw foods naramata,organic things that get you high - Downloads 2016

Author: admin, 06.01.2015. Category: Organic Food

Here you will find fruit horticulture and agriculture tips for an online hort degree program for distance learning but you don't need to be a horticulture major or even working on a bachelor's or Master's degree to use the site. Over the years I have enjoyed hearing from students, teachers, professors, government officials, farmers, crop industry experts and others from all over the world about fruit crops. Also, please feel free to cite this information without permission for non-commercial purposes. On August 1, 2012, Mark Rieger took office as dean of the University of Delaware's College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Rieger served as associate dean and professor in the University of Florida's College of Agricultural and Life Sciences since 2006 and was interim dean in 2010-11.
Prior to joining the University of Florida faculty, he was a professor in the University of Georgia's Department of Horticulture from 1999-2006.
Rieger received a bachelor's degree in horticulture in 1982 from the Pennsylvania State University, a master's degree in horticulture in 1984 from the University of Georgia and a doctorate in horticultural sciences in 1987 from the University of Florida. Vitis vinifera is thought to be native to the area near the Caspian sea, in southwestern Asia, the same region where apple, cherry, pear, and many other fruits are native. Vitis labrusca is found growing wild from Maine to the South Carolina Piedmont, west to Tennessee. Vitis rotundifolia is native from Virginia south through central Florida, and west to eastern Texas.
Grapes are adapted to a wide variety of soil conditions, from high pH and slightly saline, to acidic and clayey.
Vinifera grapes can be characterized as requiring Mediterranean climates, as occurs in their native range. Vitis vinifera was propagated on its own roots from the time of its domestication until about the 1870s.
Most grapes are trellised and grown in long, narrow rows spaced about 9-15 ft apart depending on training system. A small scale winery in Tuscany, with a grape press on the right, which extracts the juice, and fermentation vats on the left where the juice is made into wine. A large scale fermentation vats in Sonoma, California, getting a test of their cooling capacity (note frost formation around the mid portion of the vat). Fresh vinifera grapes may be stored for relatively long periods of time at 310F and 95% RH – 3 to 6 months, depending on cultivar. Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, India, South Africa, Kenya, Philippines, Indonesia and several other countries in Asia, Africa and South America.
Prefers light to heavy sandy loams, of medium texture, but can be grown on many types of soils.
There is a strong believe about the passion flower, which is said to symbolize the torture and death of Christ. The Arecaceae or palm family is a large, distinct family of monocotyledonous plants, containing up to 4000 species distributed among 200+ genera. The origin of the coconut palm is obscured by the ability of the fruit to disseminate the species naturally over distances of thousands of miles. Coir – the fiber from the husk, used as packing material, rope, matting, fuel, and in potting mixes. Trees are typical single-trunked palms, reaching up to 100 ft in height, but generally 20-50 ft in cultivation. Separate male and female flowers are borne in the same inflorescence, which is a compound spadix arising in the leaf axil.
Planting Design – about 25 ft apart in all directions, often intercropped with staples like maize or even other tree crops. Pruning or training – none required, older fronds or those injured by frost or disease are sometimes pruned off. Fully mature fruit require about one year to ripen, and are brown or black, depending on cultivar. Coconuts intended for copra or oil production are split open with a machete, discarding the milk, and exposing the endosperm to the sun to dry. The Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., is a member of the Anacardiaceae family, along with mango, pistachio, poison ivy and poison oak. Cashews are one of the few fruit crops normally grown from seed, and few improved cultivars exist, at least in commercial production.
Cashew is native to northeastern Brazil, in the area between the Atlantic rain forest and the Amazon rainforest.
Cashews produce 2 additional products of commercial value from their fruit: cashew apples and cashew nut shell liquid. Flowering is similar to the close relative mango: both male and perfect flowers are borne in the same inflorescence (polygamous). The true botanical fruit is a nut, about 1″ long, shaped like a small boxing glove, hanging below a fleshy, swollen peduncle called the cashew apple or pseudofruit.
The nut shell has an inner and outer wall, separated by a honeycomb tissue infused with caustic oil.
Propagation is most often by seed, planted directly in the field where the tree is to be sited.
Rootstocks – generally none, but cashew seedlings can be used for rootstocks for grafted trees. Cashews form open, spreading canopies naturally, and very little information on pruning exists. The presence of caustic cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) in the shells makes cashew processing more difficult and hazardous than for other nut crops. Vacuum packed, roasted nuts can be stored for up to one year, and carbon dioxide packing extends life an additional year. The cashew apple may be consumed fresh, but contains high quantities of tannins yielding a bitter taste and dry mouth feel. Papaya belongs to a small family of only 4 genera and 27-30 species, the Caricaceae (some estimate up to 71 species). Active breeding programs in a number of countries have produced cultivars that match local preferences for fruit size, shape, flesh color, flavor, and other characteristics.
Papaya is native to tropical America, from Southern Mexico through the Andes of South America. Female flowers of papaya are pear shaped when unopened, and distinguished from bisexual flowers which are cylindrical. Plants are dioecious or hermaphroditic, with cultivars producing only female or bisexual (hermaphroditic) flowers preferred in cultivation. Bisexual flowered plants are self-pollinating, but female plants must be cross pollinated by either bisexual or male plants. Large, oval to round berries; sometimes called pepo-like berries since they resemble melons by having a central seed cavity. Fruits are hand harvested carefully to avoid scratching the skin, which would release latex and stain the skin.
To reduce post-harvest fruit rot, papayas are commonly heat treated postharvest (110-120°F), then rinsed in cool water.
Papaya grown in Hawaii is utilized largely for fresh market (93%), with small amounts processed into juices and other processed foods. The material is from the book that I wrote for HORT 3020 ('Introduction to Fruit Crops'), a book still used in the class today, and it is reliable as a reference for any internet-based or traditional college class. As associate dean, Rieger had major responsibilities in graduate programs, distance education, statewide degree completion programs, the honors program and international education. He joined the University of Georgia faculty as an assistant professor in 1987 and was promoted to associate professor in 1993 and professor in 1999. The genus Vitis is broadly distributed, largely between 25° and 50° N latitude in eastern Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America. The introduction of the phylloxera or grape root louse to Europe in 1860 devastated vineyards composed of the susceptible Vitis vinifera species, and created a need for resistant rootstocks.
Some wine is produced from all grape species (and many other fruits), but the bulk of commercial production is dominated by V. Seeds of grapes were found in excavated dwellings of the Bronze-age in south-central Europe (3500-1000 BC), indicating early movement beyond its native range.
This species has been enjoyed by southerners since antebellum times, and has received little attention outside of the southeast.
The grape industry is valued at $2.9 billion, making it the highest value fruit crop in the USA. Tendrils occur opposite leaves at nodes, and automatically begin to coil when they contact another object. Concord and muscadine grapes are better adapted to humid, temperate climates, whereas muscadines require longer growing seasons and milder winters than concord types.


The most common method of muscadine propagation trench layering, which is done by specialized nurseries. The grape phylloxera (Dactylosphaera vitifolii, Homoptera), also called the grape root louse (actually an aphid), was introduced to Europe from eastern North America in the 1860s, where it caused the most significant pest-related disaster in all of fruit culture. All muscadines are spur pruned since they are highly vigorous and have fruitful basal buds. The most important parameter is sugar content; grapes must reach a minimum of 150Brix for processing. Individual clusters are judged for maturity by pickers, and clipped from vines with minimal handling, and placed in plastic lugs. Muscadines ripen unevenly compared to bunch grapes, so individual berries are harvested instead of clusters. Packing and shipping occurs immediately after harvest or after short periods of cold storage. Soil between rows is smoothed to accommodate trays or papers used for field drying, and harvested grapes are placed onto drying papers in single layers, or in small clusters. Fermentation is stopped by racking or dispensing wine into containers; sometimes SO2 is used to stop the process and act as a preservative.
This is unusually long for a small fruit crop, which are generally perishable within only days or weeks of harvest.
The juice has a very strong taste and is often diluted or can be mixed with other fruit juices or in cocktails. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L., is undoubtedly the most economically important plant in the family, as it is used as both an ornamental and a food crop. Coconuts can float on the ocean for months and still germinate when beached, so they may have arisen anywhere between the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans. Leaves are among the largest of any plant (up to 20 ft), pinnately compound with 200 or more leaflets, and borne in a spiral arrangement at the apex of the trunk. Dwarf cultivars, particularly the popular ornamentals, are largely self-pollinating as opposed to the Tall cultivars of commerce which rarely pollinate themselves. The exocarp or skin is green, yellow, or bronze-gold, turning to brown, depending on cultivar and maturity. Enough light penetrates the palm canopy to allow grasses to grow beneath, and thus coconut is often a component of tropical silvopastoral systems for raising livestock. The endosperm, from which the copra and oil are derived, is mature at 10 months after bloom. Coconut oil is probably consumed in greater quantities than confectionary coconut products, but coconut oil would be only a small percentage of the 47 lbs of vegetable oils consumed annually. The Portuguese introduced cashew to the west coast of India and east Africa in the 16th century, shortly after its discovery in 1578. In older trees, spread may be greater than height, with lower limbs bending to touch the ground. Cracking the nuts fresh results in the oil contaminating the kernel, so nuts are roasted to drive off oils before they are shelled.
Frequent passes though the planting must be made if apples are to be utilized, as they are highly perishable. After harvest, the nuts are dried in the sun or in simple tray driers and stored for processing later. It is more often cooked, partially dried, or candied, as in the Dominican Republic and India. It was spread to the south by Indians, and throughout the Caribbean with Spanish exploration. Leaves are very large (up to 2 ? ft wide), palmately lobed or deeply inscised, with entire margins, and petioles of 1-3.5 ft in length.
Female flowers of papaya (right) are pear shaped when unopened, and distinguished from bisexual flowers which are cylindrical. Papayas are extremely perishable; shelf life at room temperature ranges from 3 to 8 days, depending on storage atmosphere. The species is extremely vigorous and disease tolerant compared to Vinifera grapes, and is well-adapted to the southeastern USA.
Vitis labrusca and other species native to the host range of the phylloxera (north-central USA) were hybridized with Vinifera grape to produce a range of rootstocks with resistance.
In addition to juice, jelly, jam, preserves, and some wine is produced from sweet juice grapes.
Several thousand acres are cultivated in the southeastern states, mostly Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. In the USA yields are twice the world average due to a greater proportion of acreage used for table grapes and raisins instead of wine.
Vinifera and American bunch grapes have loose, flaky bark on older wood, but smooth bark on 1-yr-old wood. Skin is generally thin, and is the source of the anthocyanin compounds giving rise to red, blue, purple, and black (dark purple) colored grapes.
Highly fertile soils are unsuited to high quality wine production, since vigor and yield must be controlled. Vinifera grapes have low chilling requirements, 100-500 hr, and tend to break bud early and are frost prone in many regions.
The search for resistant rootstocks led horticulturists to the native range of the phylloxera, where various species of American grapes had coexisted with the pest for millennia, and thus were resistant to it. Muscadines have similar trellises and row spacings, but are planted 20 ft apart in a row because they are extremely vigorous. Once the number of buds per vine is calculated from the formula, one must decide whether to leave the requisite number on several short stubs, or on just a few longer shoots. Wine grape clusters are clipped by hand, and special wines are made from hand-picked berries from particular areas of a cluster.
The largest, best colored fruits are harvested twice a week, either by hand or with mechanical shakers.
When they are dry enough (13-15% moisture) that juice cannot be squeezed out when pressed, they are ready for curing.
Vinifera grapes are nonclimacteric fruits, giving them the potential for prolonged storage.
The fruits has a thick peel and a soft to firm, juicy interior which is filled with many seeds.
The pulp of the purple form is less acid, is richer in aroma and flavor, and it has a higher proportion of juice than the yellow form. Prior to the age of discovery, coconuts were dispersed from east Africa to the Pacific coast of Panama. Leaf life span may be 3 years, and mature, healthy palms have about 30 leaves, forming a new one and dropping the oldest one each month. They are generally protandrous, meaning that male flowers release pollen before females become receptive. For coir production, fruit must be harvested about 1 month before full maturity, since the mesocarp fiber turns brittle and dark at maturity. Once dry, the copra is removed from the seeds with metal tools, and further dried to reach a water content of 5-6%. It is dried to 2.5% moisture content, shredded, and used in cakes, candies, and other confections. Anacardium contains 8 species, native to tropical America, of which the cashew is by far the most important economically. It was planted in India initially to reduce erosion, and uses for the nut and pseudofruit, the cashew apple, were developed much later.
Cashew is now the #1 tree nut crop in the world, since its production surpassed that of almond in 2003. Leaves are thick, prominently veined, oval to spatulate in shape, with blunt tips and entire margins. The nuts are about 22-30% kernel by weight, and kernels are difficult to extract whole compared to other tree nuts. Dried nuts can be stored for about 2 years at room temperature after reaching water contents of 5-10%. Stems appear as a trunk, are hollow, light green to tan brown, up to 8″ in diameter, and bear prominent leaf scars. Female and bisexual flowers are waxy, ivory white, and borne on short peduncles in leaf axils along the main stem. Fruits weigh from 0.5 up to 20 lbs, and are green until ripe, turning yellow or red-orange. Green or unripe papaya is used as a vegetable or salad garnish as well, but must be boiled first to denature the papain in the latex.


Most of the production is used to make wine, but it is also the primary species used for table (fresh eating) and raisin grape production. In addition to use as rootstocks, some of the hybrids had both phylloxera resistance and good wine quality attributes.
The Phoenicians carried wine cultivars to Greece, Rome, and southern France before 600 BC, and Romans spread the grape throughout Europe.
The major grape producing states in order of production include: California, Washington, New York, Michigan, Pennsylvania. The calyptra, or cap is the corolla, in which the petals are fused at the apex; it abscises at the base of the flower and pops off at anthesis. Thinning is not practiced for most types; crop load is controlled through meticulous pruning. Irrigation can be detrimental to grape internal quality, and is sometimes illegal for wine grapes, but is beneficial for table and raisin grapes where high yields are desired. Damage to primary buds occurs at 0 to -10 F, and trunks may be injured or killed below -10°F.
Muscadines have intermediate chilling requirements, but require several weeks of warm weather following chilling in order to break bud; spring frost is rarely a problem with muscadines.
Without severe, annual pruning, grape vines become tangled masses of unproductive shoots that decline in yield and quality very quickly.
Early research showed that the amount of buds to be left after pruning could be determined on a simple formula that employs the weight of shoots pruned.
Short stubs with few buds are referred to as spurs, whereas longer pieces of one-year-old wood are referred to as canes. Mechanical harvesters generally have horizontally pivoting arms which smack the canopy, or vibrating fingers which dislodge clusters and berries from clusters. Machines collect raisins from continuous paper trays, and fruit are placed in storage for curing and subesquently boxed for sale.
Spanish missionaries adopted the unique physical structures of this flower as symbols of Crucifixion. Coconuts provided the only source of food and water on many of the atolls across the equatorial Pacific, and the natural distribution of coconut may have influenced the initial colonization of the region.
Flowering occurs continuously, since each leaf axil produces one inflorescence, and new leaves are produced approximately monthly.
Water coconuts are harvested when about 7 months old, just after fruit reaches its full size and prior to mesocarp drying.
Coconut oil for is extracted mechanically by pressing, or chemically by the use of solvents. Alternatively, coconut oil is expressed from copra, which is used in a wide variety of cooked foods and margarine. Nut domestication  predated the arrival of Europeans to Brazil, although international nut trade did not occur until the 1920s. Nuts are re-hydrated partially by soaking or storing in high humidity since this facilitates extraction of whole kernels and CNSL. Flesh is yellow-orange to salmon at maturity, the edible portion surrounding the large, central seed cavity in the center. Fruit are packed into single-layer boxes (10-15 lbs), often with tissue or foam padding to avoid bruising.
Two classes of cultivars occur: 1) pistillate or female, and 2) perfect flowered or hermaphroditic. There are at least 5000 cultivars of Vinifera grapes grown worldwide, and some estimates put the number of known cultivars as high as 14,000.
Species in Euvitis may have 100+ flowers per cluster, whereas muscadine grapes have only 10-30.
However, French-American hybrids may require cluster thinning for development of quality and proper vine vigor. Concord grapes are more cold hardy than Vinifera or French-American hybrids, but will experience some damage at -10 to -20 F.
A considerable amount of research and time-honored practice has been devoted to vine pruning, and the following is a condensation of a considerable amount of literature.
To start, the pruner removes about 90% of previous season’s growth, then bundles and weighs it (or estimates its weight). Spurs are spaced 6″ apart on cordons, removing the weakest, thinnest shoots completely if overcrowding occurs. Raisin grapes are often harvested 4-8 days after pruning canes, which causes berries to abscise more easily from clusters. It is clear that there were no coconut palms along the east coast of the Americas, western Africa, or the Caribbean prior to European exploration in the sixteenth century.
India developed more refined methods for removing the caustic shell oil, and this country is given credit for developing the modern nut industry. Papaya was introduced to Hawaii in the 1800s, and Hawaii remains the only state in the USA to produce papaya commercially.
Fruits can be cured at 85F and 100% humidity for better color expression prior to shipping. Grapes came to the new world with early settlement on the east coast, but quickly died out or did poorly.
Vinifera and Concord grapes are perfect-flowered and self-fruitful, whereas some muscadine cultivars have only pistillate flowers. Muscadine grapes are the least cold hardy, being killed at temperatures below 0 F, and injured in the single digits F. In cordon training, the permanent part of the vine consists of trunk and 1-4 long, straight arms or cordons trained along a wire.
For a given grape type, about 20 buds are retained for the first lb of prunings, and 10-20 additional buds are retained for each additional pound of prunings. Spur clusters need to be thinned completely in crowded parts of the vine, allowing adjacent spurs to grow into the bare space.
The ten petals and sepals represent the Apostles (there were 12, but excluding Judas and Peter).
Today, coconut is distributed pantropically, and even reaches extra-tropical areas such as southern Florida and the Bahamas. Coconut water is obtained from immature coconuts, providing a welcome source of fresh, sterile water in hot, tropical environments. A small industry developed in Florida in the first part of the 20th century, but declined rapidly with the introduction of viral diseases that today threaten papaya elsewhere. Vinifera and American bunch grapes have large (up to 8-10″ in width) cordate to orbicular leaves, which may be lobed. George’) were exported to Europe for use as rootstocks with resistance to phylloxera, but unfortunately had low tolerance of the high pH soils of France.
This allows a neat, single layer of de-stemmed berries for harvest onto continuous paper trays. Wine quality generally improves with storage up to several years, with red wines capable of longer storage periods than white (in general). And finally the purple color of the petals corresponds to the purple robe used to make fun of Jesus’ claim to be a king.
Coconut palms have been used since ancient times as a source of food, fiber, fuel, water, and shelter, and many of these uses are still important today. The sap from the cut end of an inflorescence produces up to a gallon per day of brown liquid, rich in sugars and vitamin C. In fact, the recent decline of the Hawaiian industry was caused primarily by the same pathogen that destroyed plants in Florida – papaya ringspot virus.
Since bisexual plants produce the most desirable fruit and are self-pollinating, they are preferred over female or male plants. Spanish missionaries brought Vinifera grapes to California in the 1700s and found that they grew very well there. Coconut oil was one of the first, if not the first plant oil to be used by man, and was the leading vegetable oil until 1962 when eclipsed by soybean oil.
Today, US wine production is dominated by California, although Washington, Oregon, New York, Pennsylvania, and Michigan also have significant commercial wine industries based on Vinifera grapes or French-American hybrids. Unlike many tropical fruits, coconuts are still grown largely by small landholders instead of on large plantations, although plantations have become more popular recently. Since 1998, most of the papaya acreage in Hawaii has been changed to genetically modified cultivars.




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Comments to «Fruit crops definition»

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