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An increase in blood levels of vitamin D can significantly reduce a person’s risk of heart disease, according to a study conducted by researchers from Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Salt Lake City and presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology in Atlanta. Researchers reviewed the health records of more than 9,000 people who had been diagnosed with vitamin D insufficiency and who had also undergone vitamin D testing at a later date.
Prior studies have shown a correlation between low levels of vitamin D and a higher risk of heart disease.
The only way to firmly establish a connection would be to conduct an experiment where only half a group of vitamin D-deficient participants is supplemented while the rest receive a placebo. Real food supplements, NPA MAHO, Carolyn Behrman, Plus CBD Oil, Stuart Tomc from CV Sciences! Wouldn’t it be great if one vitamin could build stronger bones and protect against diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cancer, heart disease, and depression? Some studies have shown a link between a low vitamin D level and type 1 and type 2 diabetes .
Vitamin D plays a role in brain development and function, and low levels of vitamin D have been found in patients with depression. Using sunscreen can interfere with getting vitamin D, but abandoning sunscreen can significantly increase your risk for skin cancer. There's a simple blood test used to check your vitamin D level, called the 25-hydroxyvitamin D test.
The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D is 600 IU (international units) per day for adults up to age 70.
Some researchers suggest taking far more vitamin D than the 600 IU daily guideline for healthy adults. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to a greater risk of heart attack, stroke, and heart disease.
Institute of Medicine: “Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D,” November 30, 2011. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, “Vitamin D and Cancer,” 2008. A very interesting study by Australian researchers at the University of Melbourne showed an association between Vitamin D levels and risk of food allergy in kids at 1 year of age.
This finding gives rise to the question of whether the correction of vitamin D levels might be associated with the resolution of allergic symptoms, said Katie Allen, MD, from Murdoch Childrens Research Institute at the University of Melbourne, and the Royal Children’s Hospital in Parkville, Australia. I am really interested in finding out if correcting the Vitamin D levels actually makes a difference.  For those of you living in states that have mandatory lead testing at 1 year of age (like Massachusetts), you may want to ask your child’s pediatrician to add a Vitamin D level to the blood work at that time since blood is being drawn anyway (no extra pokes! In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended doubling the recommended dose of Vitamin D because studies have shown that many children are not getting enough. The AAP recommends vitamin D supplements for infants, children, and adolescents, including those who are breastfed. In addition to vitamin supplements, enriched foods are another way to increase the vitamin D in your child’s diet. Vitamin D is found naturally in only a few foods — they include oily fish, beef liver, cheese, egg yolks, and some mushrooms. Breastfed and partially breastfed infants should be supplemented with 400 IU a day of vitamin D beginning in the first few days of life.
All non-breastfed infants, as well as older children, who are consuming less than 32 ounces per day of vitamin D-fortified formula or milk, should receive a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU a day. Adolescents who do not get 400 IU of vitamin D per day through foods should receive a supplement containing that amount.
Children with increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, such as those taking certain medications and with chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, may need higher doses of vitamin D.
I do supplement my little one (not too consistent about that, actually) but since I am having him retested for allergies in 3 weeks, I am definitely going to get a Vitamin D level.  He has had recurrent hives and I am having difficulty figuring out what is causing them.    Poor little one!
MEDICAL DISLCLAIMERThe information contained on this website is for informational purposes only.
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Vitamin D has other roles in human health, including modulation of neuromuscular and immune function and reduction of inflammation. Vitamin D obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements is biologically inert and must undergo two hydroxylations in the body for activation.
Severe deficiency of Vitamin D can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia, a similar disorder, in adults. Proposed by some as desirable for overall health and disease prevention, although a recent government-sponsored expert panel concluded that insufficient data are available to support these higher levels. Considered potentially toxic, leading to hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, although human data are limited.
Intake reference values for vitamin D and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies (formerly National Academy of Sciences). Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98 percent) healthy people.
Adequate Intake (AI): established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA and is set at a level assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. The FNB established an AI for vitamin D that represents a daily intake that is sufficient to maintain bone health and normal calcium metabolism in healthy people. In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued recommended intakes for vitamin D that exceed those of FNB. In 1988 to 1994, as part of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), the frequency of use of some vitamin D-containing foods and supplements was examined in 1,546 non-Hispanic African American women and 1,426 non-Hispanic white women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years).
The 2000-2004 NHANES provided the most recent data on the vitamin D nutritional status of the U.S. Nutrient deficiencies are usually the result of dietary inadequacy, impaired absorption and use, increased requirement, or increased excretion. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding without the AAP-recommended vitamin D supplementation is a significant cause of rickets, particularly in dark-skinned infants breastfed by mothers who are not vitamin D replete. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, resulting in weak muscles and bones. Older Adults: Americans aged 50 and older are at increased risk of developing Vitamin D insufficiency. People With Limited Sun Exposure: Homebound individuals, people living in northern latitudes (such as New England and Alaska), women who wear long robes and head coverings for religious reasons, and people with occupations that prevent sun exposure are unlikely to obtain adequate Vitamin D from sunlight. People With Dark Skin: Greater amounts of the pigment melanin result in darker skin and reduce the skin's ability to produce Vitamin D from exposure to sunlight. People With Fat Malabsorption: As a fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin D requires some dietary fat in the gut for absorption.
People Who Are Obese: Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30 typically have a low plasma concentration of 25(OH)D. Optimal serum concentrations of 25(OH)D for bone and general health throughout life have not been established and are likely to vary at each stage of life, depending on the physiological measures selected.
More than 25 million adults in the United States have or are at risk of developing osteoporosis, a disease characterized by fragile bones that significantly increases the risk of bone fractures. Most supplementation trials of the effects of Vitamin D on bone health also include calcium, so it is not possible to isolate the effects of each nutrient. African Americans have lower levels of 25(OH)D than Caucasians, yet they develop fewer osteoporotic fractures. Laboratory and animal evidence as well as epidemiologic data suggest that Vitamin D status could affect cancer risk. Vitamin D emerged as a protective factor in a prospective, cross-sectional study of 3,121 adults aged equal to or greater than 50 years (96 percent men) who underwent a colonoscopy.
Further research is needed to determine whether Vitamin D inadequacy in particular increases cancer risk, whether greater exposure to the nutrient is protective, and whether some individuals could be at increased risk of cancer because of Vitamin D exposure.
A growing body of research suggests that Vitamin D might play some role in the prevention and treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glucose intolerance, multiple sclerosis, and other medical conditions. A recent meta-analysis found that use of Vitamin D supplements was associated with a reduction in overall mortality from any cause by a statistically significant 7 percent. Vitamin D is one of several substances called vitamins, which the body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D also plays a role in promoting cell growth, in building our immune function, and in reducing inflammation.
Several studies link low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of fractures in older adults, and they suggest that vitamin D supplementation may prevent such fractures - as long as it is taken in a high enough dose.
Vitamin D may also help increase muscle strength, which in turn helps to prevent falls, a common problem that leads to substantial disability and death in older people. A recent vitamin D trial drew headlines for its unexpected finding that a very high dose of vitamin D increased fracture and fall risk in older women.
A reasonable conclusion would be to continue taking moderate doses of vitamin D regularly, since these have a strong safety record, but to avoid extremely high single doses. The heart is basically a large muscle, and like skeletal muscle, it has receptors for vitamin D. Since then, dozens of studies suggest an association between low vitamin D levels and increased risks of colon and other cancers. The active form of vitamin D tempers the damaging inflammatory response of some white blood cells, while it also boosts immune cells' production of microbe-fighting proteins. Children who have vitamin D-deficiency rickets are more likely to get respiratory infections, while children exposed to sunlight seem to have fewer respiratory infections. Adults who have low vitamin D levels are more likely to report having had a recent cough, cold, or upper respiratory tract infection. A recent randomized controlled trial in Japanese school children tested whether taking daily vitamin D supplements would prevent seasonal flu.
A promising report in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggests that taking vitamin D supplements may even reduce overall mortality rates: A combined analysis of multiple studies found that taking modest levels of vitamin D supplements was associated with a statistically significant 7 percent reduction in mortality from any cause. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released guidelines suggesting that most Americans and Canadians get enough vitamin D, and recommending modest doses of vitamin D supplements. Because fat stores vitamin D, obese people may need to take two or three times the usual dose of vitamin D. Sources of Vitamin D include fish liver oils, fatty saltwater fish, dairy products, and eggs all contain Vitamin D. According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, "nutrient needs should be met primarily through consuming foods. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy diet as one that use these recommendations. Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. Milk is fortified with vitamin D, as are many ready-to-eat cereals and a few brands of yogurt and orange juice. For more information about building a healthful diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Complete cloud cover reduces UV energy by 50 percent; shade (including that produced by severe pollution) reduces it by 60 percent. The factors that affect UV radiation exposure and research to date on the amount of sun exposure needed to maintain adequate Vitamin Dlevels make it difficult to provide general guidelines. Despite the importance of the sun to Vitamin D synthesis, it is prudent to limit exposure of skin to sunlight.
In supplements and fortified foods, Vitamin D is available in two forms, D-2 (ergocalciferol) and D-3 (cholecalciferol). Intestinal disorders and liver and gallbladder malfunctions interfere with the absorption of vitamin D. Excessive sun exposure does not result in Vitamin D toxicity because the sustained heat on the skin is thought to photodegrade previtamin D-3 and vitamin D-3 as it is formed. A daily intake above the UL increases the risk of adverse health effects and is not advised.
Corticosteroid medications such as prednisone, often prescribed to reduce inflammation, can reduce calcium absorption and impair Vitamin D metabolism.
Both the weight-loss drug orlistat (brand names Xenical and Alli) and the cholesterol-lowering drug cholestyramine (brand names Questran, LoCholest, and Prevalite) can reduce the absorption of Vitamin D and other fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin D is necessary for proper immune function, aids in Calcium uptake and is necessary for healthy bones and teeth and is also needed for adequate blood levels of insulin. Starwest Botanicals: Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) Tablets, 1000 IU, With Calcium, 120 mg, 100 Tabs.
Starwest Botanicals: Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol), 1000 IU, With Calcium, 120 mg, 500 Tabs. Did you know that in Australia just under one in four (23%), or 4 million adults, has a Vitamin D deficiency? Both D2 and D3 undergo chemical processes in the body that converts them to a more stable Vitamin D, as can be seen below in Figure 1.
Our Vitamin D heads to the liver where this process occurs to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) which is the substance measured in our blood to detect our Vitamin D levels.  25(OH) D is then processed again in the kidney to form 1,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin D, also known as calcitriol. Vitamin D is also involved in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts – cells involved in bone growth and development.  Support of this process is vital if there has been any damage to the bone, ie fractures.
The Australia Government site, National Health and Medical Research Council, (NHMRC) suggests that for adults we need between 5 – 15 mcgs (micrograms) (200 – 600 IUD) depending upon age, as seen in Figure 2.  Keeping in mind, that as we age our ability to synthesise Vitamin D and our exposure to the sun decreases. Often shorter periods of exposure are more effective than longer periods 12 and exposure time varies depending on skin type, location, season, time of day, cloud coverage.
If you are not getting enough Vitamin D in your diet there are many different forms of Vitamin D available, ie drops, sprays, tablets.  Vitamin D supplements usually contain either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3. They found that approximately 50 percent of all patients had achieved healthy vitamin D levels of at least 30 nanograms per milliliter by the second test.
Yet researchers have been unable to determine whether there is any direct connection between the two factors, since low vitamin D levels might also correlate with a number of other cardiovascular risk factors such as general poor health, poor diet or lack of exercise.
Because vitamin D deficiency has been proven to increase the risk of other diseases, such a study would not be ethical and cannot be conducted. Low levels of the vitamin have been linked to weakened bones and higher risks of infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases.?
Ted Cruz, Melania Trump mess, Ingraham is no Nazi, Facebook faces lawsuit, cannabis, Twitter censors Ghostbusters! For years, experts suspected a link between sunlight, vitamin D levels, and this autoimmune disorder that damages the nerves.
But studies don't show that Vitamin D supplementation will help reduce the symptoms of depression.  The best bet is to talk with your doctor about what might help reduce the symptoms of depression. Fish such as salmon, swordfish, or mackerel is one big exception and can provide a healthy amount of vitamin D in one serving. If you still need help getting enough, there are two kinds of supplements: D2 (ergocalciferol), which is the type found in food, and D3 (cholecalciferol), which is the type made from sunlight.
So it's worth looking for other sources of vitamin D in place of prolonged, unprotected exposure to the sun.

Breastfed babies need 400 IU of vitamin D until they're weaned to fortified formula and can drink at least one liter (about 4 ? cups) every day.
But newer studies suggest that people with higher levels of vitamin D in their blood may have a lower risk for colon cancer. Still, it’s not clear whether boosting vitamin D will reduce heart risks and how much vitamin D is needed. Researchers found that older people with vitamin D deficiency performed poorly on tests of memory, attention, and reasoning compared to people with enough vitamin D in their blood.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Wallpaper that displayed are from unknown origin, and we do not intend to infringe any legitimate intellectual, artistic rights or copyright. Allen’s group has also done research published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology last month that shows a difference in the occurrence of food allergy and eczema based on latitude in Australia. Look for foods fortified with vitamin D such as milk, cereal, orange juice, yogurt, and margarine.
It has many functions, and a lack of vitamin D can lead to serious health problems.Foods Rich in Vitamin DThe benefits of vitamin D for the body is extremely. It is required for the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus by the intestinal tract and maintaining adequate serum calcium and phosphate concentrations to enable normal mineralization of bone and prevent hypocalcemic tetany.
Many genes encoding proteins that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis are modulated in part by vitamin D.
It requires conversion by the liver, and then by the kidneys, before it becomes fully active. The first occurs in the liver and converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as calcidiol. Lesser degrees of deficiency may be characterized by loss of appetite, a burning sensation in the mouth and throat, diarrhea, insomnia, visual problems, and weight loss. It reflects vitamin D produced cutaneously and that obtained from food and supplements and has a fairly long circulating half-life of 15 days. DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used to plan and assess nutrient intakes of healthy people. AIs for vitamin D are listed in both micrograms (mcg) and International Units (IUs); the biological activity of 1 mcg is equal to 40 IU (Table 2). In both groups, 25(OH)D levels were higher in the fall (after a summer of sun exposure) and when milk or fortified cereals were consumed more than three times per week. A vitamin D deficiency can occur when usual intake is lower than recommended levels over time, exposure to sunlight is limited, the kidneys cannot convert vitamin D to its active form, or absorption of vitamin D from the digestive tract is inadequate. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a disease characterized by a failure of bone tissue to properly mineralize, resulting in soft bones and skeletal deformities. Additional causes of rickets include extensive use of sunscreens and placement of children in daycare programs, where they often have less outdoor activity and sun exposure. Symptoms of bone pain and muscle weakness can indicate inadequate vitamin D levels, but such symptoms can be subtle and go undetected in the initial stages.
For many people, consuming Vitamin D-fortified foods and being exposed to sunlight are essential for maintaining a healthy Vitamin D status. A recent review of reports of nutritional rickets found that a majority of cases occurred among young, breastfed African Americans. As people age, skin cannot synthesize vitamin D as efficiently and the kidney is less able to convert Vitamin D to its active hormone form.
Some studies suggest that older adults, especially women, with darker skin are at high risk of developing Vitamin D insufficiency.
Individuals who have a reduced ability to absorb dietary fat might require Vitamin D supplements. During menopause, the balance between these processes changes, resulting in more bone being resorbed than rebuilt. Strong biological and mechanistic bases indicate that Vitamin D plays a role in the prevention of colon, prostate, and breast cancers. This may be because many Alzheimer's patients are homebound, and frequently sunlight deprived.
However, most evidence for these roles comes from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies, not the randomized clinical trials considered to be more definitive. Vitamin D is famous for its role in helping the body absorb the calcium needed for strong bones and in maintaining an adequate level of calcium in the blood. New research is studying the role these activities may play in the development of several chronic diseases, including heart disease, multiple sclerosis, and diabetes.
A summary of the evidence comes from a combined analysis of 12 fracture prevention trials that included more than 40,000 elderly people, most of them women. Once again, vitamin D dose matters: A combined analysis of multiple studies found that taking 700 to 1,000 IU of vitamin D per day lowered the risk of falls by 19 percent, but taking 200 to 600 IU per day did not offer any such protection.
The trial's vitamin D dose - 500,000 IU taken in a once-a-year pill - was much higher than previously tested in an annual regimen.
This recent finding does present a challenge to scientists who will work to understand why the extreme single dose appears to have adverse effects. So perhaps it is no surprise that studies are finding vitamin D deficiency may be linked to heart disease.
The evidence is strongest for colorectal cancer, with most (but not all) observational studies finding that the lower the vitamin D levels, the higher the risk of these diseases. And could vitamin D supplements help boost our body's defenses to fight infectious disease, such as tuberculosis and seasonal flu? One prospective study to look at this question found that among white men and women, those with the highest vitamin D blood levels had a 62 percent lower risk of developing MS than those with the lowest vitamin D levels.
This seasonality led a British doctor to hypothesize that a sunlight-related seasonal stimulus triggered influenza outbreaks. The trial followed nearly 340 children for four months during the height of the winter flu season. The analysis looked at the findings from 18 randomized controlled trials that enrolled a total of nearly 60,000 study participants; most of the study participants took between 400 and 800 IU of vitamin D per day for an average of five years. The new treatment guidelines point to new data suggesting that the IOM recommendations may be inadequate. It is found in butter, cod liver oil, dandelion greens, egg yolks, halibut, liver, milk, oatmeal, salmon, sardines, sweet potatoes, tuna, and vegetable oils.
The flesh of fish (such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel) and fish liver oils are among the best sources.
Department of Agriculture's Nutrient Database lists the nutrient content of many foods; relatively few have been analyzed for vitamin D content. Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds that may have beneficial effects on health. Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation with a wavelength of 290 to 315 nanometers penetrates uncovered skin and converts cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D-3, which in turn becomes Vitamin D-3.
UVB radiation does not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors through a window does not produce Vitamin D. It has been suggested, for example, that approximately 5 to 30 minutes of sun exposure between 10 AM and 3 PM at least twice a week to the face, arms, legs, or back without sunscreen usually lead to sufficient vitamin D synthesis and that the moderate use of commercial tanning beds that emit 2 to 6 percent UVB radiation is also effective.
UV radiation is a carcinogen responsible for most of the estimated 1.5 million skin cancers and the 8,000 deaths due to metastatic melanoma that occur annually in the United States. Vitamin D-2 is manufactured by the UV irradiation of ergosterol in yeast, and vitamin D-3 is manufactured by the irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol from lanolin and the chemical conversion of cholesterol.
Some cholesterol-lowering drugs, antacids, mineral oil, and steroid hormones (cortisone) also interfere with absorption. Vitamin D toxicity can cause non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, and weight loss. High intakes of dietary Vitamin D are very unlikely to result in toxicity unless large amounts of cod liver oil are consumed; toxicity is more likely to occur from high intakes of supplements. These effects can further contribute to the loss of bone and the development of osteoporosis associated with their long-term use. Both phenobarbital and phenytoin (brand name Dilantin), used to prevent and control epileptic seizures, increase the hepatic metabolism of Vitamin D to inactive compounds and reduce calcium absorption. People in northern latitudes or those who do not drink adequate milk, at risk of osteoporosis, have dark skin, live in a cloudy environment, or get out in the sun very much will require more vitamin D-3 supplementation than people who live closer to the equator or sunbathe frequently. 1  Seems strange in a country that has so much good quality food and sunlight….  So what is Vitamin D and why is it so important? Supplementation is a reasonable alternative to sun exposure, although there is some evidence to suggest that sunlight does provide other benefits beyond Vitamin D production.
11  Given the NHMRC suggests the upper limit for Vitamin D is 80 mcg (3,200 IUD) this is well within range and most commonly recommended.
13  Studies have shown that for an older woman with fair skin, 15-30 mins of exposure to face, arms and hands, 2-3 times a week would provide the daily requirement.
Both of these supplements work well in your body and are equally effective.  As Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin, it needs to be taken with a meal containing fats to ensure best absorption.   But if you can, avail yourself of nature’s best source – the sunshine! Rates of heart disease were significantly lower in this group than among patients who were still deficient in the vitamin.
Researchers have high hopes for vitamin D -- which comes from our skin's reaction to sunlight, a few foods, and supplements.
In older adults, a daily dose of "D" and calcium helps to prevent fractures and brittle bones.
One newer clue comes from a study of a rare gene defect that leads to low levels of vitamin D – and a higher risk of MS. There's not enough proof for doctors to recommend taking this supplement to prevent diabetes. It's not clear whether obesity itself causes a low vitamin D level or if it's the other way around.
Some researchers recommend much higher doses of vitamin D, but too much vitamin D can hurt you. Very high doses of vitamin D can raise your blood calcium level, causing damage to blood vessels, heart, and kidneys. If you take digoxin, a heart medicine, too much vitamin D can raise the level of calcium in your blood and lead to an abnormal heart rhythm. Very high levels of vitamin D in the blood can actually harm blood vessels and the heart by increasing the amount of calcium in the bloodstream.
Still, better studies are needed to learn if vitamin D supplements could prevent dementia or slow mental decline.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. If you are the legitimate owner of the one of the content we display the wallpaper, and do not want us to show, then please contact us and we will immediately take any action is needed either remove the wallpaper or maybe you can give time to maturity it will limit our wallpaper content view. For example, 3.5 ounces of cooked salmon offers approximately 360 IU (about 90 percent of your child’s daily recommended value) of vitamin D per serving.
Many laboratory-cultured human cells have vitamin D receptors and some convert 25(OH)D to 1,25(OH)2D. The second occurs primarily in the kidney and forms the physiologically active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], also known as calcitriol. However, serum 25(OH)D levels do not indicate the amount of vitamin D stored in other body tissues. The AIs for vitamin D are based on the assumption that the vitamin is not synthesized by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D-deficient diets are associated with milk allergy, lactose intolerance, and strict vegetarianism. Rickets is also more prevalent among immigrants from Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, possibly because of genetic differences in vitamin D metabolism and behavioral differences that lead to less sun exposure.
In some groups, dietary supplements might be required to meet the daily need for vitamin D.
The sun is a potential source of Vitamin D, but AAP advises keeping infants out of direct sunlight and having them wear protective clothing and sunscreen. However, one group with dark skin, African Americans, generally has lower levels of 25(OH)D yet develops fewer osteoporotic fractures than Caucasians (see section below on osteoporosis). Fat malabsorption is associated with a variety of medical conditions including pancreatic enzyme deficiency, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, surgical removal of part of the stomach or intestines, and some forms of liver disease.
Obesity does not affect skin's capacity to synthesize Vitamin D, but greater amounts of subcutaneous fat sequester more of the vitamin and alter its release into the circulation. Although rickets and osteomalacia are extreme examples of the effects of Vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis is an example of a long-term effect of calcium and Vitamin D insufficiency. Hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone might be able to delay the onset of osteoporosis. The decreased risk of fractures occurred primarily in elderly women aged 85 years, on average, and living in a nursing home.
African Americans have an advantage in bone density from early childhood, a function of their more efficient calcium economy, and have a lower risk of fracture even when they have the same bone density as Caucasians. Emerging epidemiologic data suggest that Vitamin D has a protective effect against colon cancer, but the data are not as strong for a protective effect against prostate and breast cancer, and are variable for cancers at other sites. Alzheimer's disease is more prevalent in older populations, so the fact that the ability of skin to convert Vitamin D to its active form decreases as we age also may contribute to increased risk of hip fractures in this group. Until such trials are conducted, the implications of the available evidence for public health and patient care will be debated. A deficiency of vitamin D leads to a softening of the bones that in children is called rickets and in adults osteomalacia.
Researchers found that high intakes of vitamin D supplements - of about 800 IU per day - reduced hip and non-spine fractures by 20 percent, while lower intakes (400 IU or less) failed to offer any fracture prevention benefit. After up to 5 years of treatment, women in the vitamin D group had a 15 percent higher fall risk and a 26 percent higher fracture risk than women who received the placebo. The Health Professional Follow-Up Study checked the vitamin D blood levels in nearly 50,000 men who were healthy, and then followed them for 10 years. The study did not find this effect among black men and women, most likely because there were fewer black study participants and most of them had low vitamin D levels, making it harder to find any link between vitamin D and MS if one exists.
Evidence that vitamin D may play a role in preventing type 1 diabetes comes from a 30-year study that followed more than 10,000 Finnish children from birth: Children who regularly received vitamin D supplements during infancy had a nearly 90 percent lower risk of developing type 1 diabetes than those who did not receive supplements. More than 20 years after this initial hypothesis, several scientists published a paper suggesting that vitamin D may be the seasonal stimulus.
Half of the study participants received pills that contained 1,200 IU of vitamin D; the other half received placebo pills. Several case-control studies, when analyzed together, suggest that people diagnosed with tuberculosis have lower vitamin D levels than healthy people of similar age and other characteristics.
Keep in mind that this analysis has several limitations, chief among them the fact that the studies it included were not designed to explore mortality in general, or explore specific causes of death. In certain cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful sources of one or more nutrients that otherwise might be consumed in less than recommended amounts. Season, geographic latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, skin melanin content, and sunscreen are among the factors that affect UV radiation exposure and Vitamin D synthesis.

Sunscreens with a sun protection factor of 8 or more appear to block vitamin D-producing UV rays, although in practice people generally do not apply sufficient amounts, cover all sun-exposed skin, or reapply sunscreen regularly. Individuals with limited sun exposure need to include good sources of Vitamin D in their diet or take a supplement. Lifetime cumulative UV damage to skin is also largely responsible for some age-associated dryness and other cosmetic changes. The two forms have traditionally been regarded as equivalent based on their ability to cure rickets, but evidence has been offered that they are metabolized differently. More seriously, it can also raise blood levels of calcium, causing mental status changes such as confusion and heart rhythm abnormalities.
Rather, the excess is stored and used as needed to maintain normal serum 25(OH)D concentrations when Vitamin D intakes or sun exposure are limited.
Although Vitamin D supplements above recommended levels given in clinical trials have not shown harm, most trials were not adequately designed to assess harm.
Individuals taking these medications on a regular basis should discuss Vitamin D intakes with their healthcare providers.
Vitamin D is made in our bodies when sunlight converts a chemical in the skin into a usable form of the vitamin. 14 Of course in cooler climates with less sun or with darker skin, the exposure time will be more, ie 30 minutes in winter.
Time is taken to thoroughly explain ‘your’ condition, discuss treatment goals, intervening with evidence based treatments. Children need "D” to build strong bones and prevent rickets, a cause of bowed legs, knock knees, and weak bones.
Despite these links, there's not enough evidence to recommend vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of MS. But one small study of dieters suggests that adding vitamin D to a calorie-restricted diet may help overweight people with low vitamin D levels lose weight more easily. In children, a severe deficiency can lead to rickets and symptoms of soft bones and skeletal problems. Children with some chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency.
It's important to discuss your use of vitamin D supplements with your doctor or pharmacist.
The VITAL Study -- a Harvard university study -- of vitamin D and omega-3 is following 20,000 volunteers to find answers. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site.
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Other examples of oily fish include tuna, mackerel, trout, herring, sardines, kipper, anchovies, carp, and orange roughy. It is also important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and hypocalcemia, enhances immunity, and is necessary for thyroid function and normal blood clotting. It remains to be determined whether cells with vitamin D receptors in the intact human carry out this conversion. When the skin is exposed to the sun's ultraviolet rays, triggering vitamin D synthesis, a cholesterol compound in the skin is transformed into a precursor of vitamin D. Exposing the face and arms to the sun for 15 minutes 3 times a week is an effective way to ensure adequate amounts of vitamin D in the body. Circulating,25(OH)2D is generally not a good indicator of vitamin D status because it has a short half-life of 15 hours and serum concentrations are closely regulated by parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphate.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, German health care providers noted that consuming 1 to 3 teaspoons of cod liver oil per day could reverse rickets.
As noted earlier, AAP recommends that exclusively and partially breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU of Vitamin D per day.
Even with orally administered Vitamin D, BMI is inversely correlated with peak serum concentrations, probably because some vitamin D is sequestered in the larger pools of body fat. One reason for these issues of precision and variability is that no standard reference preparations or calibrating materials are available commercially to help reduce the variability of results between methods and laboratories. Adequate storage levels of vitamin D maintain bone strength and might help prevent osteoporosis in older adults, non-ambulatory individuals who have difficulty exercising, post-menopausal women, and individuals on chronic steroid therapy.
However, some medical groups and professional societies recommend that post-menopausal women consider using other agents to slow or stop bone resorption because of the potential adverse health effects of hormone therapy. Women should consult their health care providers about their needs for Vitamin D (and calcium) as part of an overall plan to prevent or treat osteoporosis.
They also have a higher prevalence of obesity, and the resulting higher estrogen levels in obese women might protect them from bone loss. However, the Women's Health Initiative, in which 36,282 post-menopausal women of various races and ethnicities were randomly assigned to receive 400 IU Vitamin D plus 1,000 mg calcium daily or a placebo, found no significant differences between the groups in the incidence of colorectal cancers over 7 years. One study of women with Alzheimer's disease found that decreased bone mineral density was associated with a low intake of Vitamin D and inadequate sunlight exposure. It is possible that giving the vitamin D in one large dose, rather than in several doses spread throughout the year, led to the increased risk.
They found that men who were deficient in vitamin D were twice as likely to have a heart attack as men who had adequate levels of vitamin D. Yet finding such associations does not necessarily mean that taking vitamin D supplements will lower cancer risk. In the meantime, based on the evidence to date, 16 scientists have circulated a call for action on vitamin D and cancer prevention: Given the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in North America, the strong evidence for reduction of osteoporosis and fractures, the potential cancer-fighting benefits of vitamin D, and the low risk of vitamin D supplementation, they recommend widespread vitamin D supplementation of 2000 IU per day. Other European case-control studies, when analyzed together, also suggest that vitamin D may help protect against type 1 diabetes.
Researchers found that type A influenza rates in the vitamin D group were about 40 percent lower than in the placebo group; there was no significant difference in type B influenza rates.
Such studies do not follow individuals over time, so they cannot tell us whether vitamin D deficiency led to the increased TB risk or whether taking vitamin D supplements would prevent TB. Vitamin D in these foods is primarily in the form of Vitamin D-3 (cholecalciferol) and its metabolite 25(OH)D-3.
In the 1930s, a milk fortification program was implemented in the United States to combat rickets, then a major public health problem. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet.
The UV energy above 42 degrees north latitude (a line approximately between the northern border of California and Boston) is insufficient for cutaneous Vitamin D synthesis from November through February; in far northern latitudes, this reduced intensity lasts for up to 6 months. Skin likely synthesizes some vitamin D even when it is protected by sunscreen as typically applied.
It is not known whether a desirable level of regular sun exposure exists that imposes no (or minimal) risk of skin cancer over time. Vitamin D-3 could be more than three times as effective as vitamin D-2 in raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations and maintaining those levels for a longer time, and its metabolites have superior affinity for vitamin D-binding proteins in plasma.
Evidence is not sufficient to determine the potential risks of excess Vitamin D in infants, children, and women of reproductive age.
We promise to provide you with extraordinary standards, a quality experience and welcoming customer service. But cloudy days, the low light of winter, and the use of sun block (important to avoid skin cancer and skin aging) all interfere. High doses can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, excessive thirst, muscle aches, or more serious symptoms. In the meantime, a healthy body weight, regular exercise, and the diet guidelines of the American Cancer Society may help prevent cancer. If vitamin D within the body is not fulfilled, the killer cells of the immune system the body isn’t able to fight off serious infections in the body. In the 1920s and prior to identification of the structure of vitamin D and its metabolites, biochemist Harry Steenbock patented a process to impart antirachitic activity to foods.
Efforts are underway to standardize the quantification of 25(OH)D to measure Vitamin D status. Further reducing the risk of osteoporosis in African Americans are their lower levels of bone-turnover markers, shorter hip-axis length, and superior renal calcium conservation. One study of Finnish smokers, for example, found that subjects in the highest quintile of baseline Vitamin D status have a three-fold higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
More recently, a clinical trial focused on bone health in 1,179 post-menopausal women residing in rural Nebraska found that subjects supplemented daily with Calcium (1,400 to 1,500 mg) and vitamin D-3 (1,100 IU) had a significantly lower incidence of cancer over 4 years compared to women taking a placebo.
Health care providers evaluate the need for Vitamin D supplementation as part of an overall treatment plan for adults with Alzheimer's disease. The study authors note that only one other study - also a high-dose, once-a-year regimen - found vitamin D to increase fracture risk; no other studies have found vitamin D to increase the risk of falls. Other studies have found that low vitamin D levels were associated with higher risk of heart failure, sudden cardiac death, stroke, overall cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular death. No randomized controlled trials have tested this notion, and it is not clear that they would be possible to conduct.
This was a small but promising study, and more research is needed before we can definitively say that vitamin D protects against the flu. There are also genetic differences in the receptor that binds vitamin D, and these differences may influence TB risk. Latitudes below 34 degrees north (a line between Los Angeles and Columbia, South Carolina) allow for cutaneous production of Vitamin D throughout the year. Because metabolite receptor affinity is not a functional assessment, as the earlier results for the healing of rickets were, further research is needed on the comparative physiological effects of both forms.
Calcinosis, the deposition of calcium and phosphate in the kidneys and other soft tissues, can also be caused by excessive Vitamin D levels. We do not provide product prices or shopping carts since you do not order these products directly from us, but from the merchant providing the products. We cater to the needs of the general public at all fitness levels, injured workers, office workers, mums and dads, cancer survivors, motor vehicle injuries and athletes. The process involved the addition of what turned out to be precursor forms of vitamin D followed by exposure to UV radiation.
However, despite this advantage in bone density, osteoporosis is a significant health problem among African Americans as they age. The small number of cancers reported (50) precludes generalizing about a protective effect from either or both nutrients or for cancers at different sites. Furthermore, there is strong evidence that more moderate doses of vitamin D taken daily or weekly protect against fractures and falls - and are safe. There is evidence that vitamin D plays a role in controlling blood pressure and preventing artery damage, and this may explain these findings.
Other dairy products made from milk, such as cheese and ice cream, are generally not fortified.
The percent DV (%DV) listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels tells adults what percentage of the DV is provided by one serving. We only provide the link to that merchant webpage with all related product information and pricing. The fortification of milk with vitamin D has made rickets a rare disease in the United States. This caution is supported by an analysis of 16,618 participants in NHANES III, where total cancer mortality was found to be unrelated to baseline vitamin D status. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals often contain added Vitamin D, as do some brands of orange juice, yogurt, and margarine. Both forms (as well as vitamin D in foods and from cutaneous synthesis) effectively raise serum 25(OH)D levels. The products are listed here by merchant, product use, quantity size or volume, and for nutritional supplements - dosage per unit.
Suggested dietary sources of vitamin D are highlighted below.Canned SardinesRich in vitamin D apart from other nutrients, canned sardines help in improving the general bone health and cardiovascular health. However, rickets is still reported periodically, particularly among African American infants and children. In the United States, foods allowed to be fortified with Vitamin D include cereal flours and related products, milk and products made from milk, and calcium-fortified fruit juices and drinks.
All product descriptions are provided by the merchant or manufacturer and are not our descriptive review of the product. A 2003 report from Memphis, for example, described 21 cases of rickets among infants, 20 of whom were African American. We do not endorse any specific product or attest to its effectiveness to treat any health condition or support nutritional requirements for any individual. Food labels, however, are not required to list vitamin D content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient. Foods providing 20 percent or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient. As such, make milk a part of your daily diet.CheeseVitamins D and C create a great duo, and both of them are essential in helping you feel healthier and appear younger. Swiss cheese is a viable source of these two vitamins, so if you’re worried you’re not getting enough of in both your diet, a quick way to help is by adding a slice of Swiss cheese to your sandwich or burgers, or sprinkling a number of shredded cheese over your salad or pasta. Eating free-range eggs from a local farm, if at all possible.SalmonSalmon is yet another one of the major sources of vitamin D. Actually, it is one of the natural sources of vitamin D and essential fatty acids that is very rare.
It serves as an anti-depressant and hence, assists in relaxing the brain, increasing brain efficiency, and improving memory.TunaEat 3 ounces of tuna daily for 50% of your vitamin D needs. Remember, eating oily fish can also lubricate the body with “good fats” that offer health benefits like better memory and brain function.Cod Liver OilCod liver oil is extensively noted for providing vitamin D in large amounts.
As a result, it is known for improving the condition of the heart and cardiovascular system.
Further, it helps in enhancing the functioning of muscles and supporting the elasticity of blood vessels. Researches have linked cod liver oil with reducing high cholesterol levels and thinning of blood, thereby reducing the chances of clogging arteries.OatmealLike many grain products, oatmeal is often fortified with essential Vitamin D.
Oatmeal is really a healthy way to start your day, thanks to all the vitamins and minerals it offers. One packet of fortified oatmeal provides about a quarter of the Vitamin D the average person needs each day, so check the nutrition labels to ensure you’re getting the most out of your meal.Vitamin D FoodsMushroomsApart from containing fewer calories, mushrooms are savored for his or her taste, texture, and high amounts of benefits, particularly vitamin D.
They are known for reducing hypertension, helping in weight loss, diminishing the chance of apoplectic attack, controlling migraine headaches, and maintaining healthy metabolism.

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