Food security fao 1996,grow fruit and veg magazine,benefits of growing vegetables hydroponically - Review

Author: admin, 04.10.2014. Category: Organic Foods

Undernourishment means that a person is not able to acquire enough food to meet the daily minimum dietary energy requirements, over a period of one year. The Millennium Development Goal hunger target measures the progress made by countries towards halving, between 1990-92 and 2015, the proportion of people suffering from undernourishment, or to bring this proportion below 5 percent. The World Food Summit target measures the progress made by countries towards halving the number of undernourished people between 1990-92 and 2015. The latest global undernourishment estimates published in SOFI 2015 have been slightly revised due to a change in the underlying data of two countries.
These revisions do not change the overall assessment of the state of global food insecurity described in SOFI 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progressThis year?s annual State of Food Insecurity in the World report takes stock of progress made towards achieving the internationally established Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) and World Food Summit hunger targets and reflects on what needs to be done, as we transition to the new post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda. Progress towards the MDG 1 target, however, is assessed not only by measuring undernourishment, or hunger, but also by a second indicator – the prevalence of underweight children under five yearsof age. Overall progress not with standing, much work remains to be done to eradicate hunger and achieve food security across all its dimensions. In 1996 the World Food Summit (WFS) set the target of ''eradicating hunger in all countries, with an immediate view to reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015".
FAO received the mandate of monitoring progress towards the objectives set by the WFS and the MDGs. In 2011-12 the FAO methodology for estimating the prevalence of undernourishment went through a deep review, to identify the most appropriate model to describe the habitual dietary energy consumption in the population and improve the estimation of its parameters. The Dietary Energy Supply (DES) derived from the Food Balance Sheets is also used for estimating the prevalence of undernourishment at national, regional and global levels.
Food Balance Sheets are prepared by FAO using official statistics provided by the countries. Food consumption data from National Household Surveys are analyzed to compute a set of food security statistics at national and sub-national levels (including gender disaggregated data) and to derive coefficients on the distribution of food consumption within the population (coefficients of variation and skewness).
In collaboration with the World Bank, FAO has developed software – the ADePT FSM – that aims at improving the consistency and availability of food security statistics extracted from National Household Surveys (Household Budget Surveys, etc.) containing food consumption data. In line with the recommendations made at the Committee on World Food Security (CFS) Round Table on hunger measurement (September 2011), the FAO Statistics Division has compiled food security indicators aimed at capturing various aspects of food insecurity. Abuja – The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has called on the Federal Government to demonstrate political and financial commitment to the sustainable management of forests in the country.
Dr Louise Setshwaelo, the Country Representative of the organisation, made the call at the event to mark the 2016 International Day of Forests in Abuja on Monday. Setshwaelo said such commitments were necessary to effectively manage and maintain the nation’s forests cover. She said the theme of the event `Forests and Water’ was apt as there were correlations between the two to ensure effective sustainability.
According to her, it is important that synergy is achieved between forest and water communities through programmes at regional, national and sub national levels. She noted that one of the major constraints to halting and reversing global forest loss was negligence and inadequate compensation for forest managers. Mr Adeniyi Karunwi, the Director General, Nigerian Conservation Foundation, said the foundation would collaborate with government at all levels to rehabilitate and restore forests in the country.

Karunwi, however, called on the private sector and individuals to assist the government in tree planting and accord them the needed care to increase the country’s forest cover. According to him, proper management of trees outside the forests in the urban areas can serve to complement services from forest lands.
Mr Christopher Oyaleke , the President of Processed Wood Producer and Marketers Association of Nigeria (PROWPMAN), stressed the need for the government to pay attention to the development of forests to aid wood exportation. He expressed the associations’ readiness to collaborate with the government in tree planting.
The Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of Environment, Dr Bukar Hassan, said the event was unique as it was the first time that the country would be celebrating the day. He commended the National Agency for the Great Green Wall (NAGGW) for its efforts toward encouraging tree planting the country.
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Sierra Leone:- President Koroma attends the handing over ceremony of Military items to the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces.
Sierra Leone:- As Airtel Abusing its customers in Sierra Leone with impunity, NATCOM must act NOW. Both the nature and magnitude of the impacts of modern bioenergy development on food security will depend on a number of factors, related mainly to the type of bioenergy considered, the way production is managed, and the environmental, socio-economic and policy context in which such development takes place. When assessing the impacts of modern bioenergy development on food security, an important aspect to consider is the time horizon of the assessment, which may affect quite significantly its outcome and the analysis and interpretation of its results. The importance of some of the factors listed above and of the time horizon of the assessment is clear when considering, for instance, the impacts of bioenergy development on the prices of staple crops. Changes in the prices of staple crops may affect different types of countries and households differently in the short run. Some of the impacts (both positive and negative) of bioenergy on food security may arise from – and be attributed to – specific bioenergy projects and operations.
Other impacts of bioenergy on food security will be the result of the cumulative effects of the domestic bioenergy sector. For instance, each individual bioenergy project or operation may affect local water availability. Last, but not least, there is an important international dimension to the links between bioenergy and food security and to the impacts of the former on the latter.
Part of these variations may be transmitted to domestic markets, with repercussions for national food security. If negative impacts are identified through these assessments, appropriate responses should be implemented.
Sierra Leone:- How Foreign Bio-Energy companies are jeopardizing the livelihoods of thousands of subsistence farmers in Sierra Leone. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. In particular:New information on agricultural production in Senegal, provided by the Agence Nationale de Statistique et de la Demographie, has led to a revision of the national per capita availability of calories. The report reviews progress made since 1990 for every country and region as well as for the world as a whole.

Progress for the two indicators across regions and over time, is compared, providing insights into the complexity of food security.
The 2015 report not only estimates the progress already achieved, but also identifies remaining problems, and provides guidanceon which policies should be emphasized in the future. In 2000, the Millennium Declaration (MD) promoted the target to ''halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger''.
Available micro-data from surveys are now used to identify the most appropriate functional form for the habitual energy consumption. The main objective is to strengthen the national capacity to produce and use food security statistics derived from National Household Surveys. The derived food security statistics are crucial to assess and monitor food security at national and sub-national levels and inform food security programmes.
They influence the amount of water and regulate surface and ground water flows while maintaining high quality water.
For instance, an increase in the price of these crops tends to have, on average, a positive impact on net-exporting countries and net-producing households, and a negative impact on net-importing countries and net-consuming households, in the short run. In addition, in the longer-run, an increase in the price of main staple crops may trigger a supply response, which may reduce or even neutralise the impact of bioenergy on the prices of main staple crops. These impacts, which may not be attributed to specific bioenergy projects and operations, will have macro level implications, some of which will have repercussions for local food security as well. A third category entails the local-level impacts attributable to specific bioenergy projects and operations which may also trigger impacts at larger scales. In addition, the overall use of – and pressure on – water resources by all bioenergy projects and operations combined may compete with other water uses and affect water availability at larger scales (e.g. More precisely, food security in a country may affect (or be affected by) bioenergy production and use in other countries, for instance through changes in imports or exports of staple crops, which may contribute to variations in the international prices of these crops.
Food insecurity is a major issue for many people and households in poor and developing countries—it is estimated that 795 million people are undernourished.
Based on the updated data, new estimates of the Prevalence of Undernourishment and Number of Undernourished people for the periods from 2010-12 to 2014-16 were calculated.Estimates on food losses at the retail level for Oman were modified, leading to a minor revision of the national per capita availability of calories. Key factors that have determined success to date towards food security and nutrition goals are identified. Technical support is also offered for the design of proper food consumption and food security modules to be included in household surveys. Based on the updated data, new estimates of the Prevalence of Undernourishment and the Number of Undernourished people were obtained for Oman.As a result of these revisions, estimates for the relevant regional and global aggregates, as well as special country groups, have also been updated. And a new estimation method was introduced to estimate variability in habitual energy consumption for countries where no survey data are available, based on the observed relation between the Coefficient of Variation, GDP per capita, the income Gini coefficient and food prices.

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