Food safety risk assessment matrix,healthy food and unhealthy foods,traffic light labelling food industry,vegetable outline clip art - For Begninners

Author: admin, 24.09.2015. Category: Organic Fertilizer

SQF states that you need a risk analysis conducted of those raw materials, ingredients and processing aids that contain allergens. Here is another excel format variation (from an older thread) where the allergen section is separated off from BCP categories. The various ingredients, packaging inputs are covered as per their entry into the main flow chart (see Receiving …). To provide a welcoming community for peer-to-peer collaboration supporting the effective implementation, operation and continual improvement of food safety management systems. In 1990, a joint consultation of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) established that the comparison of a final product with one having an acceptable standard of safety provides an important element of safety assessment (WHO, 1991). In 1993 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) further elaborated this concept and advocated the approach to safety assessment based on substantial equivalence as being the most practical approach to addressing the safety of foods and food components derived through modern biotechnology (as well as other methods of modifying a host genome, including tissue culture methods and chemical or radiation induced mutation).
The issue of scale-up also led to the important concept of familiarity, which is one key approach that has been used subsequently to address the environmental safety of transgenic plants. The concept of familiarity is based on the fact that most genetically engineered organisms are developed from organisms whose biology is well understood, eg, crop plants. As familiarity depends also on the knowledge about the environment and its interaction with introduced organisms, the risk and safety assessment in one country may not be applicable in another country. Familiarity comes from the knowledge and experience available for conducting a risk and safety analysis prior to scale-up of any new plant line or crop cultivar in a particular environment. In-depth investigation and understanding of the endosperm carotenoid biosynthetic pathway modification, which accurately explains the source of the golden colour of Golden Rice. Less than 10 transgenic events (from about 2000 created) were carefully selected to be able to fulfil regulatory requirements regarding the genetic structure.
Gene expression profiling of thousands of genes was carried out, showing no unexpected changes or gross perturbances in the expression profile as compared to the parent material. Allergenic potential has been ruled out at the prediction level using bioinformatic analysis of transgene proteins. High digestibility of the transgenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid has been demonstrated, further substantiating the claim of lack of allergenic potential.
It has been shown that Golden Rice diverts only a minuscule amount of carbon into carotenoids, so that changes in compositional analysis are minimal. Various taste trials have been conducted which have not detected taste differences to the parent material.
Tests have been conducted to determine β-carotene bioavailability and bioconversion to retinol (the most significant source of Vitamin A) by feeding deuterium-labelled Golden Rice to adults in USA as well as to a small group of children in China.
Scientists at the Federal University of Technology, Nigeria, have published a review about the progress of agricultural biotechnology and its potential to provide food security and reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.
Improving, but still a major concern: 59% of Europeans believe that tomatoes, and for that sake all plants and their products, do not contain DNA, unless they are transgenic.
Reducing risks from foodborne pathogens is an essential part of every food manufacturer’s responsibility to protect both its customers and its business. Risk assessment plays a pivotal role in the whole risk analysis process, which is composed of three components: risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication (illustrated in Figure 1 below), as advocated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CODEX) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in the 1990s. Risk assessment helps in establishing food safety standards, whereas risk management evaluates the decision making of risk as it relates to human health. As food safety management moves toward risk-based food management, food manufacturers will need to provide evidence that their foods comply with current safety standards. The estimation of the probable microbial risk can be qualitative or quantitative, based on the data and methods used.
A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can use either deterministic or stochastic models for overall assessment.

Additionally, data from clinical, epidemiological studies, as well as surveillance and outbreak investigations can be used in the MRA. MRA helps managers better understand the interaction between microorganisms, processes, foods, and human illness.
In 2000 the Task Force concluded in its report to the G8 that the concept of substantial equivalence will need to be kept under review (OECD, 2000). A comparative approach focusing on the determination of similarities and differences between the genetically modified food and its conventional counterpart aids in the identification of potential safety and nutritional issues and is considered the most appropriate strategy for the safety and nutritional assessment of genetically modified foods. A comparison of critical components can be carried out at the level of the food source (ie, species) or the specific food product.
However, as field tests are performed, information will accumulate about the organisms involved, and their interactions with a number of environments. Both trials were highly successful in showing that the human intestine is indeed capable of extracting β-carotene out of Golden Rice in a highly efficient manner [1,2]. Regulators allow informed individuals to eat Golden Rice prior to commercial regulatory clearance in a country for research purposes. According to Marc van Montagu, chairman of the International Plant Biotechnology Organization, the politically motivated position of the EU regarding transgenic crops is delaying access to this badly needed technology in developing countries unnecessarily.
According to the report, growth rates of crops under traditional plant breeding are declining, and thus, scientific advances offered by biotechnology and improved practices are necessary to increase agricultural yields.
Risk communication, on the other hand, ensures that the logic, outcomes, significance, and limitations of the risk assessment are clearly understood by risk assessors, risk managers, and stakeholders.
In MRA, the hazard characterization step provides a qualitative or quantitative description of the severity and duration of adverse health effects that may result from the ingestion of a group of microorganism(s) or the toxin byproduct in food.
The goal of the exposure assessment is to evaluate the qualitative or quantitative probability of microorganism(s) or the toxin byproduct in a food product at the time of consumption. MRA helps risk managers to properly manage a food safety system, evaluate risk management options, implement food safety programs, prevent a recall or outbreak, assure maximum food safety and advise on issues of public health. A qualitative MRA might be established before a quantitative MRA in order to give an idea of the potential magnitude of risk from foodborne pathogens, and to indicate whether or not a more in-depth analysis is needed to better understand the situation. The deterministic models do not include randomness whereas stochastic models include components of randomness. In the absence of such suitable data, estimates of risks can be obtained through attaining judgment from multiple experts. Depending on the complexity, the MRA may or may not determine whether a microbial risk is acceptable or not. MRA acts as a comprehensive scientific tool to identify and manage the risks posed by foodborne microbiological hazards with the objectives of producing safer food, reducing the numbers of foodborne illnesses, and facilitating domestic and international trade in food. The concept of substantial equivalence was developed as a practical approach to the safety assessment of genetically modified foods. Critical components are determined by identifying key nutrients, key toxicants and antinutrients for the food source in question. However, the concept facilitates risk and safety assessments, because to be familiar, means having enough information to be able to make a judgement of safety or risk.
However, the Golden Rice project has been careful to restrict usage only to that essential to the objectives of the project. And it is clearly political, because the EU has invested hundreds of millions of euros in bioafety studies, all of which have concluded that transgenic crops are no different from conventional crops. With climate change and increasing demand, new traits such as drought tolerance, pest resistance, and increased nutritional value will have to be introduced into African crops using targeted and efficient methodologies.
Hopefully, this website will contribute a little bit towards rising the knowledgebase of interestd readers of what transgenic crops are doing for humankind and how much more is in the pipeline.

Microbiological risk assessment (MRA) can be effectively used as a tool to manage the risks posed by foodborne microbiological hazards. In short, the step determines the relationship between a pathogen and any related adverse effect. This also includes the probability of microorganism(s) or the toxin as exposures from other sources including space. Here, the exposure and dose-response assessments are integrated to mathematically estimate the overall probability of the effect on public health. Also, deterministic models use single-point estimate values, whereas stochastic models use statistical distributions of values as inputs.
The acceptable limit is based not only on scientific data, but also on social, ethical, economic considerations and it should be determined in discussions with all stakeholders. Despite the limitations of microbiological risk assessment, it is clear that MRA provides a structured way of identifying and assessing microbiological risks in food, thus easing the interactions between decision makers, stakeholders, and the general public. It should be seen as a key step in the safety assessment process although it is not a safety assessment in itself; it does not characterise hazard, rather it is used to structure the safety assessment of a genetically modified food relative to a conventional counterpart. The comparison of critical components should be between the modified variety and non-modified comparators with an appropriate history of safe use.
Familiarity can also be used to indicate appropriate management practices, including whether standard agricultural practices are adequate or whether other management practices are needed to manage the risk (OECD 1993a). It is also important to raise awareness about the many forfeited opportunities due to regulations devoid of a scientific base.
In general, these microbial hazards are identified from publicly available databases such as published literature, epidemiological studies, foodborne disease reports, etc. This estimation is based on hazard identification, hazard characterization, and exposure assessment.
The QMRA is recognized as a resource-intensive task requiring a multidisciplinary approach.
The consultation concluded that the application of the concept of substantial equivalence contributes to a robust safety assessment framework. The data for the non-modified comparator can be the natural ranges published in the literature for commercial varieties or those measured levels in parental or other edible varieties of the species (FAO, 1996). Familiarity allows the risk assessor to draw on previous knowledge and experience with the introduction of plants and micro-organisms into the environment, and this indicates appropriate management practices.
MRA also helps in identifying control or management strategies that help in reducing potential microbial risks in food. Also, there are many scientific data gaps that limit the precision necessary for quantitative risk assessment. The comparator used to detect unintended effects for all critical components should ideally be the near isogenic parental line grown under identical conditions. While the comparative approach is useful as part of the safety assessment of foods derived from plants developed using recombinant DNA technology, the approach could, in general, be applied to foods derived from new plant varieties that have been bred by other techniques.
Both experience and analytical data are crucial for identifying realistic microbial hazards. Also, the hazard identification should include an assessment of impact of the hazard on human health such as when, where, how, etc.

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