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Author: admin, 23.11.2014. Category: Organic Foods

Great Expectations: Baby's First YearCaring for an infant can be exhausting, but there's so much to look forward to. Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, MD, medical epidemiologist, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC. Given enough uninterrupted time skin-to-skin, your baby may move towards your breast and begin feeding without assistance. If you experience greater than expected blood loss while giving birth or have retained placenta inside your uterus after birth, this can lead to milk supply problems. Make sure that the midwives are aware that no formula is to be given to your baby unless strictly necessary and not without your consent. Because they don't know how to breastfeed efficiently yet, newborns sometimes nurse for fifteen or twenty minutes (Gonzalez 2014).
As your baby's mouth is so small at this age, you may need to squeeze your breast (think of holding a sandwich) so that your baby can latch on to the nipple more easily. During your baby's first 24 hours, he might wet his nappy only once or twice (Fredregill 2004). Over the next 24 hours, your baby will begin to increase their hunger so they are having eight to twelve feedings per 24 hours.
Most babies (whether breastfed or not) will have a small amount of jaundice, which starts after the first 24 hours of birth, reaches a peak around day 3 or 4, and then gradually fades over the next week. Frequent breastfeeding or pumping during these crucial days after birth awaken receptors sensitive to the hormone prolactin, a key player in the production of mature breast milk. Your baby's bowel movements will now change to a greenish-brown colour and will look like thick pea soup.
By now you will have given your baby his first - and easiest - "immunisation" (antibody-rich colostrum) and helped to get his digestive system running smoothly. In these early days you may feel your baby's feeding pattern is quite unpredictable, but go with it. On average, feedings will take about 15-20 minutes on each side, although variations are normal. As a result of your milk coming in your baby will start passing soft mustard-yellow stools (or orange and even green can be normal).
Most babies of this age spend an average of 187 minutes per day nursing during their first two weeks of life (Fredregill 2004). Your nipples may be slightly sensitive during these first few days - a few seconds of 'ouch' at the beginning of a feed isn't unusual - but that's all. Your baby's bowel movements will now change to a loose, mustard-yellow, cottage-cheese or seed-like consistency. Your baby has now received five million cancer-busting stem cells from your milk (Williams 2013). Expect your baby to now gain around 4-7 ounces (112-200 grams) per week for their first month. By the end of this week your transitional milk will have turned into mature milk which is thinner and contains more water. You have reached the stage where your baby will probably have a little neck control and a decent latch which makes this the perfect time to practice the lying down breastfeeding position. Your baby’s weight will probably start to slow down a little from his previous rapid gain. There is no reason to expect your baby to put on weight at a steady rate, week after week, so there's no advantage in weighing her frequently. By exclusively breastfeeding for at least 1 month you have given your baby significant protection against food allergy at 3 years of age, and also against respiratory allergy at 17 years of age (Saarinen. At this point you may start to notice that your breasts stop feeling so hard and full before each feed, and stay much softer, but fear not, they are actually producing more and more milk for your growing baby. It’s common at this point to notice that one breast is producing more milk than the other or is easier for your baby to latch onto.
Leaking is likely to have diminished or ceased altogether now, although some mothers experience leaking longer than others. It is not recommended that you start expressing until you have had a chance to build up a good milk supply.
Your baby will still need to feed about every two to two and a half hours, although he may go three hours.
At this point, most babies, whether breast or formula-fed still need to feed once or twice during the night. If you choose to get your baby vaccinated they will have their first vaccination around now. By breastfeeding exclusively for 2 months, your child now has a lower risk of food allergy at 3 years old  (NCT). Even after the growth spurt has passed, a baby between three and four months old should be feeding at least every four hours during the day.
Some babies at this age, because they have become experienced feeders, will nurse for only five or seven minutes, or even as little as two or less per feed (Gonzalez 2014).
If your baby is beginning to give up his night feeds, you will find that he nurses longer at his day feeds. At this age, your exclusively breastfed baby may go for ten or twelve days without pooping (Gonzalez 2014).
You’ve probably heard the delicious fact that breastfeeding uses up the fat stores you laid down in pregnancy. By breastfeeding for at least 3 months you have given your baby a 27 percent reduction in the risk of asthma if you have no family history of asthma and a 40 percent reduction if you have a family history of asthma (Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-Based Practice Center). If you have exclusively breastfed for this long, your baby will have enhanced development in key parts of the brain compared to other children who were fed formula or a combination of formula and breastmilk (Dean et al). By this stage you have also given your baby between a 19 and 27 percent reduction in incidence of childhood Type 1 Diabetes (Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-Based Practice Center).
By now you have overcome early obstacles such as engorgement, sore nipples, and marathon cluster feedings.
Around this time teething may cause your baby to begin drooling, sucking on his fingers, or chewing on objects. Some babies will want to nurse more often while teething while others may nurse less often, some even refusing to nurse completely, often referred to as a nursing strike.
Some babies nurse very quickly at this age (3-5 minutes) and may become distracted at the breast, maybe even pulling off the breast after only a few sucks. By breastfeeding for 4 months you have given your child a lower risk of developing eczema and asthma (NCT). By 4 months, babies have entered a significant cognitive milestone; their brains are going through an enormous growth spurt, which accounts for all of the increased alertness and distractibility.
You may be preparing to return to work, and lots of breastfeeding mothers make the decision to switch to formula at this stage. You have greatly reduced your baby’s risk of developing allergies by waiting until at least now to introduce solids, this is particularly the case if you have a family history of allergies.
By breastfeeding for this long you have protected your baby’s intestinal tract so that it can now begin to produce antibodies.
Unless your baby is having other drinks (which would decrease her need for breastmilk as a drink), the number of breastfeeds she asks for probably won't change noticably at first; she will still carry on asking for them in her usual way but take slightly less milk at each feed. There is no need to weigh your baby more than once every two months now (Rapley and Murkett 2012).
A lot of childcare manuals suggest that your baby should have doubled their birth weight by now, but remember that each baby is unique. By breastfeeding for 6 months you have given your baby significant protection against eczema during their first 3 years (Chandra et al). You have also given your baby a 19 percent decrease in risk of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and a 15 percent decrease in the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-Based Practice Center). You'll notice that your baby asks for some milk feeds a little later than usual now, especially after a meal where she's eaten quite a lot of solid food (Rapley and Murkett 2012).
Babies breastfed for between seven and nine months have higher intelligence than those breastfed for less than seven months (Johnson). You have now seen your baby through the fastest and most important brain and body development of his life on the food that was designed just for him - your milk. MyPyramid, released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on April 19, 2005, is an update on the American food guide pyramid. 90% of the daily diet should be comprised of nutrient rich plant foods with health-promoting phytochemicals.  They are chemical compounds, such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants.
You may wonder why you don't just start feeding your puppy adult food in just one meal or so.
If you were to just drastically switch from one food to another without this transition period you will have runny poops and just overall messy poops and a puppy with an upset stomach. Take a tour of first-year "firsts" with WebMD's guide to the most anticipated baby milestones.

Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: A Handbook for Primary Care, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. A multitude of factors influence the rate of each baby’s individual growth such as genetics, form of delivery, gestation at delivery, medical issues, effectiveness of the placenta prior to delivery, and so on. This is particularly so with breastfeeding, as understanding breastmilk intake is more complex than looking at the oz mark on a bottle. One is fed the milk of its own species; the other is fed the milk of an entirely different species, so it is unsurprising that stark differences can be observed. At the moment, and for the first few days after birth, your breasts are producing small quantities of colostrum (about 3-4 teaspoons daily).
However you may find that he is very sleepy for the first few days and may not be interested in feeding. Many babies will feed more frequently than this and it may seem as though your baby is insatiable. It may be difficult to tell if a nappy is wet at this early stage, and it is normal to find pink crystal-like stains. A dummy, bottle, or sucking on your finger stimulates your baby’s mouth differently than your nipple.
Frequent and effective feeding during this time primes milk-making cells, laying the foundation for optimum milk production. If you become separated from your baby or your baby is unable to breastfeed, then pump your breasts with an electric breast pump every three hours.
Whilst agonising pain indicates a problem and should receive immediate attention, a moderate level of discomfort is normal during these early days as your breasts adjust to being suckled. He may lose between 8 and 10 per cent of his original birth weight, as he adjusts to the sudden loss of his beloved placenta. Overabundance at this time is normal as your body learns to predict exactly how much milk your baby needs (note that if you had a c-section or are diabetic, your milk may come in a few days later than this).
Try to avoid wearing a bra during this short engorgement phase if possible as a bra may compress your breasts and make swelling worse. At the moment your creamy transitional milk contains high levels of fat, lactose, vitamins and more calories than the colostrum. These are painless blisters that often form on a baby's lips in the early days and weeks of breastfeeding.
Once your baby is regularly gaining weight, it is no longer necessary to wake them to breastfeed.
This fussiness starts at around 1-3 weeks, peaks at around 6-8 weeks and is gone by 3-4 months.
It consists of 90 percent water and 10 percent of carbohydrates, proteins and fats necessary for both growth and energy. Encourage your newborn to breastfeed frequently during the day as well as during the night.
It usually takes a couple of weeks, and sometimes longer, for mothers and babies to get really good at nursing. Once mastered, this position will greatly aid night time feedings as you can snooze whilst your baby helps himself. However by now you and your baby will be getting to grips with the practicalities of feeding and leaning to trust each other.
Teething or illness may take their appetite away for several weeks and they may hardly gain at all.
Unless there are particular concerns about her health, there's no need to weigh her more than once a month (Rapley and Murkett 2012).
Some mothers never feel let-down at all, but they can tell by watching their baby's pattern of suck and swallow when their let-down is occurring. Newborns who are not breastfed are much more likely to get sick or be hospitalized, and have many more digestive problems than breastfed babies. The normal range is anything from eight to twelve feedings in twenty-four hours (West 2010). Always offer the second side but don't worry if your baby doesn't seem to want it or need it. Consequently, you may find that any over-supply or latching problems begin to correct themselves naturally around now. By breastfeeding you are enhancing your baby's antibody response, strengthening the effectiveness of the vaccine (Silfverdal. At three months, nocturnal sleep is actually increased in breastfed babies compared to formula fed babies due to tryptophan in breast milk which acts as a regulator (Cubero et al 2005).
This need to suck or chew on things can easily be misread as a sign that your baby is still hungry after a feed and ready to wean. Between four and six months, breastfed babies tend to gain weight slower than their formula-fed peers, although growth in length and head circumference are similar in both groups (Moody et al). Although you have solids to give, remember to offer the breast first as breastmilk is more nutritious. Compared to their formula-fed friends, breastfed infants gain an average of one pound less during the first twelve months. If too many nursings are replaced by solid feedings too quickly, he may not be getting enough fluid which can lead to constipation (evident in small pellet-like stools).
Don't be misled into believing that your baby's temporary lack of interest in breastfeeding is a sign he is ready to wean. You may even notice that he is more alert and more active than babies who did not have the benefit of their mother's milk.
This may be due to altered taste brought about by hormonal changes during your menstrual period (if it has returned yet) or a temporary loss of appetite due to a cold or teething. The new icon stresses activity and moderation along with a proper mix of food groups in one's diet. Phytochemicals are chemicals that may affect health, but are not established as essential nutrients. The microminerals or trace elements include at least iron, cobalt, chromium, copper, iodine, manganese, selenium, zinc and molybdenum.
Total German Shepherd I support this site using affiliate marketing and earn small commissions when you buy items here which helps further fund this site. SmilesAfter two months of sleepless nights and round-the-clock soothing, you've seen plenty of your baby's tears.
It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. This is a topic rife with large-scale confusion, especially as breastfeeding mothers are in the minority and can often find themselves, and their health workers, comparing their baby with formula-fed babies.
This is a concentrated clear yellow secretion which is high in protein, fat-soluble vitamins and minerals, as well as antibodies that protect your baby from bacterial and viral illnesses. This is because his stomach is so small it gets full very quickly and empties very quickly. Offering your baby a chance to feed whenever you notice a tingling sensation or a sudden leakage of milk will help it begin to work more reliably. If you are finding it difficult to judge if your baby’s nappy is wet, try putting a cotton ball in the nappy. A newborn can easily become accustomed to this overstimulation of the tongue and hard palate.
In many cases where breastfeeding goes wrong, the problem can be traced to this very early period (Rapley and Murkett 2012). If your baby has not had a movement by the end of today, your doctor should be notified (Spock 2004). In a recent Pediatrics study, three days after giving birth, 92 percent of new mothers say they were having problems breastfeeding. Breastfed babies, who have consumed only teaspoons of colostrum, generally lose more than bottlefed babies (Murkoff.
The photo bellow shows colostrum on the left expressed on day 4, and on the right is breastmilk expressed on day 8. Flow can also vary among mothers: some have a fast flow or milk, while others have a slower flow, making feeding last longer. I recommend speaking over the phone with a La Leche League leader or attending a La Leche League meeting. For a not-so-subtle hint, print THIS and put it on your fridge or in another prominent place.
There is more watery high-protein milk at the start of a feed, gradually gaining higher levels of fat as you go through the feed. Also wait until your baby has finished feeding from the first breast before offering the second.

It may not feel like a huge milestone but by focusing on breastfeeding for these first three weeks you have set up your long-term capacity to produce as much milk as your baby needs and laid the foundations for an easy breastfeeding relationship. When they feel better, their appetite revives and their weight catches up with a rush (Spock 2004).
In fact, between feeds your breasts will probably feel like they did before you were pregnant (Rapley and Murkett 2012).
If you decide to start pumping, be aware that pumping only small amounts is not an indicator of a low milk supply.
Also breastfeeding for 6 weeks means that your child now has less risk of chest infections up to 7 years old (NCT). When your baby seems distracted, take care that this doesn't mark the beginning of a habit developing when your baby feeds less and less during the day, then makes up for it at night.
Night waking may begin again or become more frequent as your baby tries to make up calories missed during the day (read more about sudden night wakings at 4 months here).
If your baby has been sleeping through the night you may find that he begins to wake for a midnight feeding during this growth spurt. The extra weight in formula-fed infants is thought to be due to excess water retention and a different composition of body fat (Dewey. As part of the MyPyramid food guidance system, consumers are asked to visit the MyPyramid website for personalized nutrition information. Micronutrients also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required as nutrients in tiny amounts by the body. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Breastfeeding in the delivery room or the recovery room after a caesarean section lays the hormonal groundwork for your future supply of mature milk. Undressing him and giving skin to skin contact will help wake him up and encourage him to feed.
Feeding frequently is also essential to build up your milk supply, so feed on demand rather than clock watching.
Half of the mothers reported problems with getting the baby to latch on to the breast, or other feeding issues like nipple confusion. As your baby starts to feed regularly your body will adapt to producing the right quantities of milk to nourish him. This frequency is only temporary, and as your milk supply increases and your baby gets bigger, the breaks between feedings will get longer. Your newborn’s hunger naturally corresponds to the rise of your breastfeeding hormones after midnight. They often seem 'unsatisfied' with their feedings and even seem to reject or cry at the breast" (Mother to Mother). UK Government guidelines state that weighing can occur "if parents wish, or if there is professional concern" (see here). Unlike a baby with newborn jaundice, the baby with breastmilk jaundice is alert, asking for feeds frequently, weeing and pooing normally and gaining weight. It is unfortunate that this change often occurs at the same time as the 6 week growth spurt, which naturally leads mothers to be unnecessarily concerned about their milk supply. Nursing during the vaccination process will also offer your baby a unique level of pain relief (Tansky.C and Lindberg.
Babies reach for everything, and they like to mimic as well, so doing mouth movements also does not indicate a readiness for solids.
If your baby still refuses the breast, you will need to pump your breasts frequently to prevent blocked ducts and maintain your supply. You’ll notice your baby doing lots of drooling, putting just about anything he can fit into his mouth, and gnawing on his fingers or hand. Engorgement is more uncomfortable for some women than for others and is typically more pronounced with first babies. Mothers who are particularly anxious to make a success of breastfeeding are apt to feel disappointed by this frequency on the assumption that it means the breastmilk supply is inadequate. So, although it can last for several weeks or even months, this type of jaundice doesn't usually need any treatment (Rapley and Murkett 2012). Likewise, some of your friends, baby food manufacturers and even health professionals may suggest that you introduce solid foods around now. If it is not possible to express, try a milk bank or as a last resort you could wean her onto formula during the day and keep her morning and evening breastfeeds going. The complex nature of a harmonious breastfeeding relationship cannot be weighed, measured, or plotted like scientific data on a chart.
Therefore try to avoid or delay your baby’s contact with non-breast suckling until he is at least 6 weeks old. A further 40 percent said they felt that they weren't producing enough milk (Pediatrics 2013).
Over time, the situation will evolve, and your baby will sleep more at night and be awake for more hours during the day. The UK Department of Health, WHO and Unicef all recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months (meaning only breastmilk). During acute teething, a tooth is actively cutting through the gum, which is a very painful process for most children. But remember, these are maternal perceptions and most likely not reflections of the physiological reality.
You may wish to apply chilled cabbage leaves to ease engorgement, however limit use to 20 minutes, no more than 3 times per day, as cabbage can decrease milk supply.
This is because your baby’s digestive system is unlikely to be sufficiently developed to cope with solids before then. Babies who are cutting a tooth are often less interested in the breast, or eating solids, as their gums feel sore and irritable when sucking or eating. If you find yourself in the majority of moms and feel you are having problems, please do contact La Leche League. Also contrary to what some health visitors may contend, starting solid foods before 6 months of age will not increase your baby's caloric intake or provide a health advantage to your baby. By 4 months, you can look forward to another sound, possibly the sweetest you'll ever hear -- your baby's laughter. Breastmilk has a higher concentration of fat and other essential nutrients than any solid food. Silly faces, tickling, and peek-a-boo are usually more than enough to set off lots of squeals and giggles. Sleeps All NightLike no other baby milestone, a full night of sleep becomes the Holy Grail for new parents. While it is unrealistic and unhealthy to expect a newborn to sleep all night, parents can rest assured that relief will come soon. Around 5 or 6 months, most babies can sit up with support -- either by resting on their hands in front of them or by leaning on pillows or furniture. By 9 months, most babies crawl using both hands and feet, though some babies never crawl, preferring to creep or wriggle instead. Crawling is not an essential baby milestone, and infants who choose to scoot or creep still tend to reach other milestones on schedule. Waves 'Bye-Bye'Waving "bye-bye" is not just a cute trick -- it is an actual expression of language. They understand that waving is connected to the phrase "bye-bye." Eats Finger FoodJust when spoon-feeding begins to lose its luster, babies are ready to feed themselves. Between 9-12 months, babies develop better control over their hands and fingers, making it easier to grab small objects -- like finger foods! Unfortunately, babies this age love to explore taste and texture, so food is not the only thing they'll try to pop into their mouths.
They also take small steps while holding onto furniture or other objects, an activity called "cruising." In the weeks or months before they walk independently, babies may spend hours cruising to practice for the real thing.
Perhaps no other moment is met with more anticipation (or camera clicks) than a baby's first step on his or her own.
The normal range is anywhere from 9 to 17 months, with most babies taking at least a few steps by about 13 months. Dada!" There's nothing like hearing your baby call your name, and it usually happens right around the one-year mark. By this time, most babies can say at least one real word and actively try to imitate others.

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