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Author: admin, 28.10.2015. Category: Healthy Foods

China's dependence on natural gas imports is expected to rise sharply over the next decade and demand is projected to drastically outpace domestic production.
In addition to China, other attractive Asian markets include South Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Indonesia which, although well-endowed with domestic gas resources, is unlikely to be able to meet rising domestic demand along with contractual commitments to LNG exports.
The tremendous pressure for the adoption of cleaner coal technologies, and volatility in international energy prices, has prompted India to seriously consider coal gasification as an alternative for power generation, fertilizers production, and other applications. In Europe, declining natural gas production coupled with rising energy consumption and tightening environmental regulations will result in rising demand for low-emissions use of natural gas imports.
Energy security concerns caused by increasing dependency on imports from Russia and other former Soviet Union countries, along with the high costs of LNG imports, have prompted governments in the region to seek alternative sources of energy supply.
Electricity is a secondary energy source derived by converting primary sources of energy such as coal, oil, nuclear power, or natural gas. Power generation fuel costs in dollars per million btu have increased over 15% for coal and decreased over 13% for natural gas from 2005 through 2007.
The EIA projects that the electric power sector will be holding an increasing amount of primary fuel inventory through 2009 for 3 out of the 4 categories tracked.
An exponentially increasing population growth rate, more volatile weather patterns, rising commodity prices (especially natural gas and oil), voracious appetites for electronic goods and services, and increased demand for electric and hybrid cars all set the foundation for an unpredictable near- and long-term economic outlook.
Thailand is a net importer of oil and natural gas, although the country is a growing producer of natural gas. Thailand has limited domestic oil production and reserves, and imports make up a significant portion of the country's oil consumption. In September 2006, a military coup overthrew the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra.
Thailand's primary energy consumption is mostly from fossil fuels, accounting for over 80 percent of the country's total energy consumption. According to Oil & Gas Journal,Thailand held proven oil reserves of 453 million barrels in January 2013, an increase of 11 million barrels from the prior year. Thailand's oil products consist primarily of diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and naphtha as these fuels feed the transportation, petrochemical, and other industrial, and residential sectors. The oil industry in Thailand is dominated by PTT Public Company Limited (PTT), formerly the Petroleum Authority of Thailand.
Thailand's oil sector is open to foreign involvement, although foreign companies often work in joint ventures with PTT Exploration and Production (PTTEP), PTT's upstream subsidiary.
The Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO), which is part of Thailand's Ministry of Energy, oversees all aspects of the country's energy policies, including the oil, natural gas, and power sectors. The Ministry of Energy is also responsible for the management of Thailand's Oil Stabilization Fund that regulates and, in effect, subsidizes retail and wholesale petroleum product prices. PTTEP plans to increase the company's upstream activities abroad, noting that domestic exploration and production (E&P) potential is becoming increasingly limited.
PTTEP announced in 2012 that the company plans to invest a total of $20 billion between 2012 and 2016.
Thai oil production has risen in the last few years, although production remains well below consumption levels.
Thailand produces significant amounts of condensate as a by-product of its wet natural gas supply. PTTEP and various foreign companies continue to aggressively explore for oil reserves throughout Thailand, although companies have had much more success locating additional natural gas reserves in recent years. Thailand is the leading producer of biofuels in Southeast Asia and third only to China and Indonesia in Asia. Thailand lacks crude oil pipelines, and it relies on several oil terminals and ports as well as floating facilities. The Thai government plans to construct an oil pipeline and storage facilities between the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand in order to facilitate transportation of crude oil imports from the Middle East to Southeast Asia. The Thai government is attempting to develop additional refining capacity both to meet expected higher demand for petroleum products domestically as well as to serve export markets in the region. Several new projects will increase natural gas production in Thailand, but the country is still considering various natural gas import schemes to meet growing domestic demand. According to OGJ, Thailand held 10.1 Trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2013, and reserves have experienced a general decline over the last few years. The Thai government is concerned that domestic production will peak and decline in several years, placing pressure on the country's energy security. Dry natural gas production and consumption were on par until consumption began to outstrip production in 1999.
The power sector currently accounts for about 60 percent of overall natural gas demand, though its share has gradually declined from above 80 percent before 2000 as other sectors have grown rapidly. As the power sector's share of natural gas has declined over the past decade, other industries have picked up market shares.
PTTEP has a stake in many of Thailand's natural gas producing fields, including Bongkot, the country's largest. The National Energy Policy regulates the domestic natural gas retail prices in Thailand which are below the international market level.
The government moved to increase natural gas prices for vehicles, the lowest paying customers, throughout 2012 and to remove subsidies for the fuel. A majority of Thailand's gas production is located in the Pattani Trough in the Gulf of Thailand. The Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (JDA), located in the lower part of the Gulf of Thailand and northern part of the Malay Basin, is a large contributor to natural gas supplies to Thailand.
Thailand's thirst for natural gas is prompting the government to enter political discussions with Cambodia to resolve claims over the overlapping territory between the two countries.
Although, Thailand's oil pipeline system is rather limited in scale, the country's natural gas transmission infrastructure is much more advanced. PTT plans to expand its gas network to meet the ever-increasing demand, and the company has three projects underway. Thailand supplemented its domestic production with pipeline imports from fields offshore of neighboring Burma beginning in 1998. PTTEP is partnering with the Burmese national oil company to develop the Zawtika field in Block M9 offshore of Burma.
As part of Thailand's efforts to secure more gas supply and supplement the country's pipeline imports from Burma, the country commenced operations of its first regasification terminal at Ma Ta Phut economic zone in the Rayong area in 2011.
Thailand's steadily growing electricity generation is highly dependent on natural gas, so the government is seeking ways to diversify fuel sources to include more renewable energy and potentially nuclear capacity in the long-term.
Thailand's rapidly expanding economy over the past two decades has spurred the need for building more generation capacity to keep pace with higher electricity demand. Thailand had an estimated installed capacity of 32.4 gigawatts (GW) in 2011, according to EPPO. The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the state-owned electricity generating company and sole electricity transmission provider, accounts for nearly half of the country's power generation.
Thailand's net electricity generation increased from around 90 terawatt-hours (TWh) in 2000 to over 152 TWh in 2011.
Conventional thermal fuels, particularly natural gas, meet nearly all of Thailand's power requirements. Thailand plans to reduce dependence on natural gas for generation in favor of renewable sources and nuclear power.
Most of Thailand's renewable power generation is from hydroelectricity, comprising 5 percent of generation or over 8 TWh in 2011. Thailand's electricity imports have more than tripled in the past decade as the country's electricity demand growth continues and as grid interconnections expand. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has proposed a regional power grid to enhance electric generation efficiencies across its member countries, increase supplies to meet the region's growing demand, and promote generation from renewable sources.
Russia holds the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest crude oil reserves. With high economic growth rates and over 15 percent of the world’s population, India is a significant consumer of energy resources.
Amazon Oil climbed above $100 a barrel in New York to a five-month high as Enbridge Inc.
Recognised as one of the world’s largest oil producers, Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, holds 94% of the country’s proven oil reserves and 90% of its natural gas, making it the wealthiest of the seven emirates in the federation. With very limited renewable water resources of its own, the UAE government has turned to desalination, an energy- intensive process that uses electricity or steam to remove dissolved solids from sea-water to produce water suitable for human consumption and agricultural use.  The United Arab Emirate has the third largest capacity of desalination behind Saudi Arabia and the United States.
Thus while there might be ‘enough resources to meet future demand’  in terms of oil (OPEC’s 2011 World Oil Outlook), Gulf countries including the UAE appear to be facing their own ‘energy crisis’ due to their dependence on natural gas as the primary fuel for electricity generation. ADWEC has forecasted that Abu Dhabi alone will need to meet 28,188MW of electricity demand by 2020, yet, according to a statement by the Policy of the United Arab Emirates on the Evaluation and Potential Development of Peaceful Nuclear Energy,“…known volumes of natural gas that could be made available to the nation’s electricity sector would be insufficient to meet future demand, providing adequate fuel for only 20,000-25,000 MW’s of power generation capacity by 2020”. It was also suggested by ADWEC that recent gas shortages in Abu Dhabi have also increased the consumption of oil sold locally at the world oil price; a direction which the government would choose to avoid due to its high marginal cost and its impact on increasing the price of electricity. Having recognized these concerns, the Abu Dhabi government has recently begun taking steps to diversify its economy and energy mix from a sole dependency on fossil fuels, and to create a market and an industry for renewable energy that will create opportunities for technology transfer as well as job creation. As suggested above, the price of electricity in Abu Dhabi is a major contributing factor to its unsustainable consumption.
Further examination of the data published by the Regulatory and Supervision Bureau (RSB) on electricity use during the hot summer period, shows that if the subsidies were removed, the cost of electricity would increase by nearly 40% for expatriates and 80% for local Emiratis, as shown in tables 2 and 3. In addition, the Abu Dhabi government has taken other proactive measures to drive supply-side management and to support the efficient use of electricity, as part of the long-term Abu Dhabi 2030 Plan.
Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently through such programs, coupled with encouraging sustainable and efficient buildings through Estidama’s Pearls certification, will utimately pave the way for a more energy conscious and sustainable society. Lara El Saad is an MSc graduate from Imperial College London, specializing in Energy Policy.  Lara currently resides in the UAE and carries five years of energy industry experience.
One of the largest and fastest growing opportunities is China as its appetite for LNG is increasing rapidly. According to the 2011 EIA Energy Outlook, OECD European natural gas import demand will increase from 9 trillion cubic feet in 2008 to 14.1 trillion cubic feet in 2035. Forecasts from the EIA indicate that, through 2009, the price of electricity generated with coal will increase by over 7% and with natural gas by over 29%. These countries tend to border the importing country and supply electricity directly to either end users or existing power plants for dispersion. The three that are expected to increase are coal (8%), distillate fuel oil (2%), and petroleum coke (19%).
These factors will likely impact the electricity markets greatly and put a strain on the standing capacity if more plants are not built. Thailand holds large proven reserves of natural gas, and natural gas production has increased substantially over the last few years. The change in leadership and subsequent protests have had little impact on oil or natural gas production. The country imports over 60 percent of its total petroleum needs and almost 85 percent of its crude oil consumption, leaving Thailand highly dependent on global oil markets and volatile prices.


Diesel fuel makes up about a third of the oil product mix and is a primary fuel for transportation. Although PTT is considered a national oil company (NOC), the company underwent a partial privatization in 2001, during which 32 percent of its equity was sold through the Bangkok Stock Exchange. PTT holds a 65 percent stake in PTTEP, which accounts for 32 percent of the country's domestic oil and gas production. The National Economic and Social Development Board oversees large energy infrastructure projects and also assists in the policy planning process. The government is attempting to limit the subsidies for LPG and diesel, but pricing reforms are typically caught between the dual pressures of protecting consumers and industry against inflation and the fund's depletion. To date, much of PTTEP's overseas investments have focused on other Southeast Asian countries, including Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. From this amount, capital investments consist of $12 billion, with over 50 percent slated for domestic oil and gas development and the remainder for overseas investments. About 80 percent of the country's crude oil production comes from offshore fields in the Gulf of Thailand.
As development of natural gas expands in the Gulf of Thailand's Pattani Trough, the level of condensate production should be sustainable over the next decade. Thailand wants to attract more investment in the upstream to meet rising demand for hydrocarbons while trying to boost reserves and production. The government intends to move away from crude oil dependency, particularly in the transportation sector, and the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (part of the Ministry of Energy) has actively promoted the use of alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, biodiesel, and ethanol. All of the country's production feeds consumption, and the government restricts all exports of biodiesel products.
PTT's subsidiary, Thai Petroleum Pipeline Company (Thappline), developed the country's main trunk line that runs from the Sri Racha Oil Terminal in the south to the northern Lumlukka and Saraburi terminals. EPPO ordered a feasibility study for the pipeline project and anticipates the study to be ready by 2013. Also, Thailand intends to increase competitiveness and flexibility of its refining sector within the region as well as promote domestic consumption of ethanol and biodiesel for transportation to relieve pressure on crude oil demand and refining. PTT owns a majority stake in many of the refining facilities through its subsidiaries, while other private investors own the remaining stakes. Almost all of the country's natural gas fields are located offshore in the Gulf of Thailand.
The Energy Ministry expects gas production to peak in 2017 and deplete by 2030 at current production levels and with no reserve additions. Thailand produced 1,306 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and consumed 1,645 Bcf of natural gas in 2011, resulting in net imports of nearly 340 Bcf.
The power sector is dependent on gas as a fuel, with gas-fired stations supplying 71 percent of Thailand's domestic generation in 2011, down from 76 percent in 2010 according to EPPO. According to EPPO, gas separation facilities are the second largest gas consumer group rising to about 21 percent of the gas market in 2011. Retail consumers are charged a pooled price based on weighted-average producer gas prices indexed to fuel oil prices and economic indicators.
The area is divided into three blocks, Block A-18, Block B-17, and Block C-19, and is administered by the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Authority (MTJA), with each country owning 50 percent of the JDA's hydrocarbon resources. The consortium at Bongkot began producing gas and condensates at the new Bongkot South field in early 2012. According to industry estimates, the overlapping region could hold over 6 Tcf of gas and over 350 million barrels of condensate, but there are no official reserves yet reported. PTT Natural Gas Distribution (PTTNGD) currently has 2,434 miles of total natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines throughout the country. PTTNGD constructed a third major natural gas pipeline pumping natural gas from the Arthit field once it came online to the Rayong province. Thailand has two natural gas import pipelines transiting gas from the Yadana and Yetagun fields in the Andaman Sea offshore of Burma to onshore Thailand and connecting to the Ratchaburi power complex.
So far, Thailand's installed capacity growth has exceeded its rate of power consumption growth which averaged about 5 percent a year over the past decade. Natural gas-fired generation consisted of over 60 percent of the capacity mix, with coal and renewable energy making up most of the remaining capacity.
Thailand awards licenses to private companies to promote competition and attract more investment in renewable energy generation and advanced technology of fossil fuel plants. The industrial sector is the primary consumer of electricity and accounts for 46 percent of the market.
Natural gas-fired generation consisted of 108 TWh or 71 percent of the total electricity supply in 2011 according to EPPO, followed by imported coal and lignite as the second largest feedstock with a 21 percent share. Other key renewable sources include biomass and biogas and made up almost 2 percent of generation in 2011.
Thailand imported 10.8 GWh of electricity in 2011 from neighboring countries Malaysia and Laos. Thailand is strategically located within Southeast Asia to be a conduit for electricity trade in the region.
In recent years, and despite the recent economic downturn, Abu Dhabi maintained a steady pace of development that was accompanied with steady increases in energy demand and consumption.
Prime amongst which is economic growth and the demographic pressures of a growing population.
With the UAE’s water consumption expected to increase at 5% annually, so will the need to increase desalination capacity and the amount of energy consumed.
As illustrated in Figures 1 and 2, the emirate has reached a point where consumption and demand for natural gas has exceeded production and continue to increase. According to 2008 estimates, natural gas accounts for 98% of the fuel feedstock for electricity generation in the UAE with the remaining 2% covered by oil (figure 3). This means that a mere 71%-89% of electricity demand can be met, and that  unless natural gas use is managed or alternative electricity production options are developed, Abu Dhabi could experience the same electricity shortages experienced by Sharjah in the Northern Emirates. The government stands to benefit more to conserve oil for export rather than making a loss to meet local power generation needs, and to reinvest the petrodollars into developing the city’s trade, finance, industry, and infrastructure. Electricity is sold to consumers at a heavily-subsidized standard tariff, that is much lower than the total economic costs of electricity. Yet it represents one part of a coordinated educational campaign for public awareness, which includes initiatives such as Heroes of the UAE which aims to make the UAE population more energy conscious.
The Estidama program, which includes energy efficient building codes and a semi-mandatory green building rating system, represents a major effort to reduce building’s demand for cooling, heating, and lighting by encouraging more efficient designs. For news and updates on sustainability from around the region, join Carboun’s Facebook page or follow its Twitter feed.
Energy Information Administration 2011 International Energy Outlook, the global market for natural gas was nearly $1 trillion in 2008. With high rates of economic growth and over 15% of the world's population, India has become a significant consumer of energy. In comparing winter peaks, January 2005 with December 2007, electricity generation in the U.S. Residual fuel oil inventories, on the other hand, are expected to decline by close to 2.5% through 2009. As the price of primary energy sources increase, so will the price of the secondary energy sources derived from primary sources (i.e.
However, the country still remains dependent on imports of natural gas to meet growing domestic demand for the fuel. As the economy expanded and industrialized, Thailand consumed more oil for transportation and industrial uses. About 78 percent of its crude imports originate from the Middle East, while another 8 percent are from other Asian suppliers. LPG, which has a 17 percent share of the oil product consumption, is mostly used in domestic consumption for residential cooking, transportation, and the petrochemical sector.
Foreign companies supply the bulk of Thailand's domestic oil production, with Chevron producing almost 70 percent of the oil and condensates production from its offshore fields in 2010. As a first step, the government's goal is to raise LPG prices, at least for industrial and petrochemical consumers, as part of pricing reforms. However, PTTEP has also invested in E&P projects in Algeria, Oman, Kenya, Mozambique, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Chevron is the largest oil producer in Thailand, accounting for nearly 70 percent of the country's crude oil and condensate production in 2011. Chevron carried out further development of the Pailin field which is the largest condensate play in Thailand, accounting for a quarter of condensate production. Thailand plans to hold its 21st upstream licensing round for 22 blocks, of which 11 are located onshore in the Northeast region, 6 in the onshore North-central region, and 5 in shallow offshore waters of the Gulf of Thailand. The biofuels market in Thailand has grown substantially since 2004 when global oil prices began escalating.
Thappline's oil pipeline infrastructure consists of the 153-mile trunk line and 70 miles of additional local spurs, which most analysts consider inadequate to meet the country's growing oil demand requirements.
In January 2012, Thailand became the first Southeast Asian country to implement Euro IV fuel standards for reducing sulfur dioxide and other emissions from gasoline and diesel. Most refineries and petrochemical facilities are located in the Map Ta Phut industrial zone, with the exception of Bangchak Petroleum's refinery located near Bangkok.
Natural gas production has risen steadily in the past decade, although not enough to keep up with the growth in domestic consumption. Thailand is keen to boost domestic natural gas supplies by slowing declines at mature fields and promoting exploration of technically challenging fields through licensing rounds. Imported gas prices generally run higher than locally-produced gas, and LNG prices are the most expensive.
Equity partners are drilling more wells to improve and sustain gas production in the field.
Production at Block A-18 started in 2005 at the Cakerwala field, and the project's second phase brought on the Bumi, Suriya, and Bulan fields in 2008. The 1,972-mile offshore transmission system links fields in the Gulf of Thailand to the country's six gas separation plants supplying gas by-products to petrochemical facilities and other markets. The trunk lines running from the Erawan field also connect with Thailand's production at the MTJDA fields. Thailand now has one of the highest electrification rates in Southeast Asia and delivers electricity to nearly all of its population.
In order to meet increasing demand, the government plans to double net electric generation capacity to over 70 GW by 2030 with the largest additions to come from renewable sources and gas-fired plants. Independent power producers (IPPs) make up over 35 percent of the generation mix, with GDF Suez as one of the main investors. The residential sector consumes over 22 percent and the small and medium commercial sector accounts for 26 percent of total power generation.
Oil-fired generation, mostly comprised of fuel oil, makes up only 1 percent of the power mix.


Following Japan's Fukushima incident in 2011, Thailand's first proposed nuclear facility has been delayed to at least 2026 and was scaled back from an originally proposed 5 GW to 2 GW.
EGAT currently imports electricity through a 300-Megawatt interconnector with Malaysia to serve the southern provinces of Thailand.
But equally important to these factors are the heavy subsidies on the domestic energy market, which encourages overconsumption, and the heavy subsidies on domestic water use, which play a major factor in the growth of energy use in Abu Dhabi.
Consumers are charged a subsidized unit rate per kilowatt hour (kWh) that is constant all year round, with domestic Emirati nationals and farms receiving the most generous energy subsidies.
The government is also implementing a national requirement for energy labeling of appliances. Worldwide total natural gas consumption is expected to expand to 169 trillion cubic feet in 2035 from 111 trillion cubic feet in 2008. The country currently lacks sufficient domestic energy resources and must rely on imports to meet the increasing demand. This is likely due to many factors including population growth, and a proliferation of goods and services highly reliant on electricity for power.
Natural gas consumed for electricity generation within the electric power sector increased the most out of any other primary source in this sector — close to 18%, from 2005 through 2007. The Thai government forecasts its economy to grow by 5.5 percent in 2012 in anticipation of post-flood reconstruction and higher domestic demand. Natural gas has replaced some oil demand and is the next largest fuel, growing to nearly a third of total consumption mix. The country's oil import dependency has spurred the government to promote the use of other fuels such as natural gas, renewable sources, and biofuels as well as to boost crude oil and product stocks and to encourage investment in marginal field production.
Thailand most heavily subsidizes LPG through Thailand's Oil Stabilization Fund, a monetary reserve used to maintain lower domestic retail prices on certain fuels when global oil prices are high, at the expense of taxes on other fuels such as diesel and gasoline sales. However, the government is considering selling 2 percent of its stake to Vayupak Fund, a Thai fund and 15-percent owner of PTT. Other players with sizeable stakes include Mitsui, Total, and BG Group as well as smaller independent companies. The Department of Mineral Fuels regulates the upstream sector of Thailand's hydrocarbons and is responsible for promoting oil and gas exploration and development including licensing rounds.
Recent overseas asset purchases include the nearby Zawtika gas field in Burma and an 8.5 percent interest in the Rovuma gas field in offshore Mozambique. The round was delayed from the first quarter of 2012 due to the floods several months prior, and it is uncertain when the round will begin.
Thailand's key biofuels are ethanol from molasses and cassava, and biodiesel from palm oil plants. Thailand's ethanol exports to regional sources accounted for about 27 percent of production and jumped dramatically in 2011 as the Philippines and Singapore imported more for gas blending.
A new mandate on B5 biodiesel blend was installed in 2012, and biodiesel intake is likely to increase in the next few years. However, Thailand's plan to become a regional hub for oil refining and trading faces stiff competition from the existing centers in Malaysia and Singapore.
Thailand is seeking ways to secure gas supplies through greater domestic production, imports via pipeline and new liquefied natural gas (LNG), and overseas upstream investments by PTT. Both production and consumption have doubled since 2000, and each grew more than 15 percent between 2009 and 2010. The industrial sector, holding about 14 percent of the natural gas market, has increasingly used gas for its operations especially in the past decade.
Chevron intends to invest more than $3 billion on oil and gas field development between 2011 and 2020. So, the government pools the prices based on two tiers, one including import and domestic prices and the other including only weighted-average domestic production prices. The Arthit field, located about 350 miles south of Bangkok, commenced operation in 2008 and the adjacent Arthit North came online in 2009. The 764-mile onshore portion consists of both eastern and western sections linking the gas separation plants and gas from Burma to power facilities.
Most of Thailand's onshore gas pipeline network is located around Bangkok to feed the electric facilities in that region. Concern for electricity supply security and grid reliability has prompted the Thai government to create policies that promote planned capacity expansion, diversification of fuel sources and increase of alternative fuel use, demand-side management, and management of electricity import dependence. Other small Thai state power producers or manufacturers that generate less than 300 megawatts account for the remaining portion. Also, the existing infrastructure and domestic resources make natural gas the most economic power source. Current tariffs paid by Emirati and non-Emirati consumers can be seen in table 1, with lower tariffs implying that a higher subsidy is applied. Much of this growth will come from natural gas consumption in emerging economies like China and India, where consumption is forecast to grow three times faster than industrialized countries from 2008 to 2035. Residual fuel experienced the greatest decline — nearly 55% over the same time period. In turn, oil and gas production and consumption are expected to increase slightly in 2012 and 2013, and industry sources estimate that the first half of 2012 shows a recovery in both oil and gas supply and demand from 2011 levels. Solid biomass and waste have played a strong role as an energy source in Thailand and comprise roughly 16 percent of energy consumption.
Reducing the government's stake to 49 percent would allow PTT to exit the state sector and loosen Thailand's hold on the company's finances and operations. PTT has a considerable presence in Thailand's downstream sector, with 28 to 49 percent-stakes in five of the country's key refineries as well as equity interests in downstream subsidiaries Thai Oil Company (ThaiOil) and the Thai Petroleum Pipeline Company (Thappline).
Other investments include fields in offshore Western Australia and a stake in the Canadian oil sands operated by Statoil. The Thai government currently subsidizes gasohol consumption through its State Oil Fund and approved the phasing out of Octane 91 regular gasoline in favor of ethanol blends in gasoline in 2012. Thailand anticipates exports to increase to regional markets and plans to designate some export-only ethanol plants. However, the government prioritizes palm oil for food over fuel use, and biodiesel production will be subject to these demands as well as the ability to boost crops. Thailand produced and consumed natural gas at a slower rate in 2011 following disruptions from an offshore gas pipeline leak and massive flooding that began in mid-2011. Thailand began promoting use of domestic natural gas resources for its growing transportation sector in 2004 through retail price controls, and currently natural gas vehicles consist of over 5 percent of natural gas demand.
PTT has a leading position in mid- and downstream natural gas activities, including Thailand's domestic transmission and distribution infrastructure.
As the country imports more LNG to fill the widening gas supply gap, retail prices for the highest paying consumers, the smaller power producers and industrial companies, will increase. The IOC is also part of a consortium developing the Ubon gas and condensate project which could produce hydrocarbons starting in 2016.
Thailand also commissioned its sixth and largest gas separation facility adjacent to the LNG terminal in order to separate condensates from the dry gas supply.
Thailand issues 20-year power plans to map out the capacity additions and goals to match the long-term power projections. EGAT sells and transmits wholesale electricity to Thailand's two distribution authorities, the Metropolitan Electricity Authority and the Provincial Electricity Authority. In its latest revision of the 20-Year Power Development Plan (PDP) released in June 2012, Thailand projects that electricity generation will double in size, reaching 346 TWh by 2030. As Thailand ramps up its LNG imports, older gas-fired stations likely will be replaced by newer combined cycle and cogeneration facilities. In comparing summer peaks, August 2005 to August 2007, electricity generation increased 4.3%. Through 2009, natural gas is forecasted to increase by more than 2% while residual fuel is projected to decrease by more than 5%. Most biomass feedstock is from sugarcane, rice husk, bagasse, wood waste, and oil palm residue and is used in residential and manufacturing sectors.
Likewise, on the biodiesel front, the government is introducing pilot projects for various biodiesel blends for trucks and boats and expanding production of palm oil yields.
Thai Oil plans to spend $1.8 billion over the next 5 years for upgrades and expansion of the Sri Racha refinery and its other petrochemical plants.
These disruptions affected primarily the power sector and manufacturing activities, and annual growth slowed to 2 percent for gas production and around 3 percent for consumption in 2011.
The anticipated growth is prompting the government to ensure electricity supply by expanding capacity and maintaining reserve margins to be no less than 15 percent of the system capacity.
The government intends to decrease the share of gas-fired generation to 58 percent of the mix by 2030 yet nearly double the absolute generation from natural gas from over 100 TWh in 2011 to about 200 TWh by 2030. While the EIA is expecting these numbers to be lower this year, electricity generation is projected to average a 2% increase from 2005 to 2009. Within the commercial sector, natural gas consumption for electricity generation increased by more than 7% from 2005 to 2007. Thailand has promoted biomass for heat and electricity, though growth has been very gradual due to industry inefficiencies and environmental concerns.
Bangchak Petroleum intends to invest $2.8 billion to expand and upgrade its refinery over the next several years, and some of this investment may be slated to repair damage to one of the units from a fire in 2012. As production declines in older fields, Thailand could depend more heavily on imports if no significant discoveries are made over the next decade. The countries signed another agreement for production from the Bumi Bumi field whereas 60 percent of the production will be designated for the MTJDA. There are still some undeveloped fields in the Pattani Trough which could provide more opportunities for exploration. Natural gas is likely to continue playing a major role in power generation over the next two decades. Thailand's new Alternative Energy Development Plan calls for renewable energy to increase its share to 25 percent of total energy consumption by 2022 in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Small independent companies, Salamander Energy and Coastal Energy, began exploring onshore and shallow water fields including Bualuang, Songkhla, and Bua Ban that came online in 2009. However, this is an ambitious target requiring significant resource development and subsidies. The industrial sector has been somewhat less volatile with natural gas consumption increasing approximately 2.5% from 2005 to 2007. As Thailand continues to expand economically, it will place greater emphasis on energy supply security by diversifying its fuel slate and promoting upstream development of hydrocarbons including alternatives to conventional fuels. Over the past two years, there has been no other significant change in primary energy consumption, with coal and petroleum levels both remaining relatively constant.



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