All organic compounds are found in living organisms,raw food for life,healthway natural foods medford oregon - Easy Way

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The DNA Molecule On the back of your notes page write down 9 DNA bases down the left side of your paper: A-, T-, G-, G-, T- etc.
The DNA Molecule Compare your DNA molecule with the person sitting next to you Now compare your 2 DNA molecules with the students sitting closest to you Did anyone create the same DNA Molecule? Nucleic acids are macromolecules (big molecules) containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous. Watson and Crick Watson and Crick studied the work of others to determine the structure of DNA Figured that it is a “Double Helix”: –Twisted ladder.
Structure and Composition DNA is sometimes called "the blueprint of life" because it contains the code, or instructions for building and organizing and. Nucleic Acids Not considered a nutrient macromolecule They are complex compounds that determine how the cell functions and what characteristics it has.
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Structure DNA consists of two molecules that are arranged into a ladder-like structure called a Double Helix. CHAPTER 11 relating the structure of DNA to its function the role of DNA in protein production distinguish amongst different types of mutations. Nitrogen Cycle Lives in soil and in nodules on roots Ammonia picks up another hydrogen ion from water to form ammonium Nitrification – other bacteria in the soil converts ammonium into nitrates Producers absorb ammonium and nitrates from the soil and use them to build amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids. As these organisms eat, grow, and move through the soil, they make it possible to have clean water, clean air, healthy plants, and moderated water flow. The soil food web is the community of organisms living all or part of their lives in the soil. As organisms decompose complex materials, or consume other organisms, nutrients are converted from one form to another, and are made available to plants and to other soil organisms.
Organic matter is many different kinds of compounds - some more useful to organisms than others.
Intensive tillage triggers spurts of activity among bacteria and other organisms that consume organic matter (convert it to CO2), depleting the active fraction first. Soil organic matter is the storehouse for the energy and nutrients used by plants and other organisms. Living organisms: Bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa, earthworms, arthropods, and living roots.
Active fraction organic matter: Organic compounds that can be used as food by microorganisms. Particulate organic matter (POM) or Light fraction (LF) organic matter: POM and LF have precise size and weight definitions. Bacteria are abundant around this root tip (the rhizosphere) where they decompose the plentiful simple organic substances. Many different organisms are active at different times, and interact with one another, with plants, and with the soil.
The living component of soil, the food web, is complex and has different compositions in different ecosystems. Carbohydrates Monomer- monosaccharide Function- energy source and structure Tests: glucose-Benedicts starch- Iodine fructose Ex.
Goal 2 The learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical, and cellular basis of life. Science STAAR Notebook Biology - Category 1 Cell Structure and Function Cells – the basic unit of all living things. Biochemistry Identify the four basic macromolecules Nucleic Acids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids. Jeopardy The basic unit of all living things Inside the cell MiscellaneousCell chemistry Cell energy In and Out of Cells 100 200 300 400 500 Final Jeopardy. Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. Carbohydrates – The Monosaccharides A carbohydrate is a compound containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Carbohydrates – The Disaccharides Two monosaccharides can form a covalent bond between them to form a disaccharide sugar. Carbohydrates – The Polysaccharides When many monosaccharide molecules are joined together with covalent bonds, we have a polysaccharide. Organic Chemistry - Lipids Lipids or fats are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Triglycerides Triglycerides are lipid molecules formed from two building blocks, glycerol and three fatty acids. Phospholipids The phospholipid molecule is similar to a triglyceride except that the third fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group.
Phospholipid bilayer When phospholipid molecules are mixed in water, they will form a stable bilayer structure with the phosphate heads facing the water and the water fearing fatty acid tails facing each other. Organic Chemistry – The Proteins Proteins are very large, complex molecules composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Basis of Enzyme Action Each enzyme has a specific area for linking up with its own specific substrate. Examples of Enzyme Activities – Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis Two very common chemical reactions assisted by enzymes are dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. The Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a very complex double stranded molecule which stores all of the information needed by the cell and the entire organism to carry out life activities.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - DNA DNA is a very large molecule (macromolecule) which stores hereditary information that controls the activities of every cell of the body. Ribonucleic Acid - RNA RNA can be thought of as one half of a DNA molecule which carries coded hereditary information from the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm. Structure of DNA There are four kinds of nitrogen bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Download ppt "Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon. Nucleotides have A sugar A phosphate A nitrogen base (there are 5 different bases) What are the building blocks of nucleic acids? Function of DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) Contains sections called “genes” that code for proteins. Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids - Function Control the processes of heredity by which cells and organisms make proteins. All living things contain a blueprint for the entire organism inside a special molecule known as _____.
What is DNA DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA – The material inside the nucleus of cells that carries genetic information.


Exception – organisms living in deep dark oceans do not get their energy from the sun; prokaryotic producers can extract energy from sulfur compounds released by hydrothermal vents to make organic compounds.
The amount of energy available to top-level consumers is tiny compared to that available to primary consumers. Organisms die & decomposers break them down, supplying soil, water, & air with chemicals in inorganic form.
During cellular respiration producers & consumers break down organic compounds and release CO 2 gas as a waste product.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in soil and in nodules on roots of plants (peas, beans, alfalfa). Adding CO 2 increases greenhouse effect (a natural process) 1.CO 2 & water vapor are some heat absorbing gases. They range in size from the tiniest one-celled bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa, to the more complex nematodes and micro-arthropods, to the visible earthworms, insects, small vertebrates, and plants. Soil organisms decompose organic compounds, including manure, plant residue, and pesticides, preventing them from entering water and becoming pollutants.
A food web diagram shows a series of conversions (represented by arrows) of energy and nutrients as one organism eats another.
Most other soil organisms get energy and carbon by consuming the organic compounds found in plants, other organisms, and waste by-products.
As individual plants and soil organisms work to survive, they depend on interactions with each other. In general, soil organic matter is made of roughly equal parts humus and active organic matter.
Practices that build soil organic matter (reduced tillage and regular additions of organic material) will raise the proportion of active organic matter long before increases in total organic matter can be measured. Bacteria, fungi, and other soil dwellers transform and release nutrients from organic matter. The active fraction changes more quickly than total organic matter in response to management changes.
They are thought to represent the active fraction of organic matter which is more difficult to define.
Humus is not readily decomposed because it is either physically protected inside of aggregates or chemically too complex to be used by most organisms. Each species and group exists where they can find appropriate space, nutrients, and moisture. Fungi are common decomposers of plant litter because litter has large amounts of complex, hard-to-decompose carbon. Biological activity, in particular that of aerobic bacteria and fungi, is greater near the surfaces of soil aggregates than within aggregates.
Those arthropods and nematodes that cannot burrow through soil move in the pores between soil aggregates. In temperate systems, the greatest activity occurs in late spring when temperature and moisture conditions are optimal for growth. Even during periods of high activity, only a fraction of the organisms are busily eating, respiring, and altering their environment. The combined result is a number of beneficial functions including nutrient cycling, moderated water flow, and pest control. Management of croplands, rangelands, forestlands, and gardens benefits from and affects the food web.
The basic building blocks of carbohydrate molecules are the Monosaccharides (Simple Sugars)–Glucose, Fructose and Galactose. It is made up of four rings (1, 2, 3, 4) of carbon atoms joined together by covalent bonds. Collagen holds the tissues together throughout the body and strengthens ligaments and tendons. A catalyst is a substance that assists other chemical reactions to occur without being chemically changed itself. This is called an active site (the place where substrate and enzyme are attached) THE LOCK AND KEY MODEL 1.) An enzyme and substrate that are compatible link up at the active site. When the subunits of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are being put together to form larger molecules, water is removed by the action of an enzyme.
The nucleotides containing these bases are put together to form a structure called a double helix. Organic molecules : are compounds created by living organisms are compounds created by living organisms contain the elements. Importance & Properties of Water Molecular Shape and Properties A water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one. DNA is found in all living cells – It controls all functions inside a cell – It stores all the genetic information for an entire living.
A food chain is a pathway of food transfer from one trophic level (feeding level) to another (see Figure 36-2). The producers gain a renewed supply of raw materials for building organic matter, & the cycles continue. Carbon is found in inorganic form in the atmosphere as CO 2 gas and dissolved in water as HCO 3 -. Deforestation – clearing forests for agriculture, lumber, etc., affects carbon cycle by eliminating the plants that remove CO 2 from atmosphere. They sequester nitrogen and other nutrients that might otherwise enter groundwater, and they fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making it available to plants. A few bacteria, called chemoautotrophs, get energy from nitrogen, sulfur, or iron compounds rather than carbon compounds or the sun. As soil organic matter levels rise, soil organisms play a role in its conversion to humus - a relatively stable form of carbon sequestered in soils for decades or even centuries.
Because POM or LF is larger and lighter than other types of soil organic matter, they can be separated from soil by size (using a sieve) or by weight (using a centrifuge). Humus is important in binding tiny soil aggregates, and improves water and nutrient holding capacity. They occur wherever organic matter occurs - mostly in the top few inches of soil (see graph below), although microbes have been found as deep as 10 miles (16 km) in oil wells. It is teeming with bacteria that feed on sloughed-off plant cells and the proteins and sugars released by roots. Within large aggregates, processes that do not require oxygen, such as denitrification, can occur.


Organisms that are sensitive to desiccation, such as protozoa and many nematodes, live in water-filled pores. The next unit of the Soil Biology Primer, The Food Web & Soil Health, introduces the relationship of soil biology to agricultural productivity, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and to air and water quality. When the covalent bonds between the atoms in a triglyceride molecule are broken down, energy is released for life activities.
The phosphate end of the molecule will dissolve in water and is said to be hydrophilic (likes water). In the example to the right, molecule A and molecule B are joined together to form a new substance AB. 3.The products – the substances produced through the reaction of the enzyme with the substrate. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a single stranded molecule which is found in several locations within the cell. A nucleotide is made up of three kinds of particles: a sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate. A nucleotide of RNA is made up of three kinds of particles: a ribose sugar molecule, a nitrogen base and a phosphate. A double helix has the shape of a ladder that has been twisted lengthwise so that the sides of the ladder coil around each other. DNA Deoxy-ribose Nucleic Acid Deoxy-ribose Nucleic Acid Structure that has material that determines an. Primary productivity determines the maximum amount of energy available to all the higher trophic levels in an ecosystem.
These greenhouse gases let sunlight through but then trap heat radiated from Earths surface. Many organisms enhance soil aggregation and porosity, thus increasing infiltration and reducing runoff.
In turn, soil organisms support plant health as they decompose organic matter, cycle nutrients, enhance soil structure, and control the populations of soil organisms including crop pests. Bacteria tend to use simpler organic compounds, such as root exudates or fresh plant residue.
Bacteria cannot transport nitrogen over distances, giving fungi an advantage in litter decomposition, particularly when litter is not mixed into the soil profile. The remaining six units of the Soil Biology Primer describe the major groups of soil organisms: bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and earthworms. There are four basic groups of organic compounds in the body: Carbohydrates, Lipids (fats), Proteins and Nucleic acids. Maltose is a disaccharide containing two glucose molecules held together by a covalent bond.
An example of the action of a typical enzyme would be the reaction produced when the enzyme catalase is exposed to hydrogen peroxide.
When large organic compounds are being broken down into their subunits, an enzyme controlled reaction adds water between the subunits.
RNA carries a copy of the coded information in DNA to the place in the cell where that information will be used to manufacture enzymes needed to allow all of the chemical processes of life to occur in the cell. Photosynthetic producers, like plants, change light energy to chemical energy (organic compounds).
For most ecosystems, the amount of sunlight that enters the ecosystem determines the budget. As each consumer feeds, some energy is transferred from the lower trophic level to the higher trophic level. Fungi tend to use more complex compounds, such as fibrous plant residues, wood and soil humus.
Thus, much of the nutrient cycling and disease suppression needed by plants occurs immediately adjacent to roots.
However, bacteria are abundant in the green litter of younger plants which is higher in nitrogen and simpler carbon compounds than the litter of older plants. Many baseball and football players have been accused of using steroids to illegally increase their strength.
As amino acids are joined to each other with special covalent peptide bonds, the protein molecule grows larger and its shape becomes more and more complex.
Most food chains are limited to three or four levels because there is not enough energy at the top of the energy pyramid to support another trophic level.
Consumers feed on the producers, incorporating some of the chemicals into their own bodies and releasing some back into the environment as waste. Burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) & wood releases CO 2 gas into the atmosphere. Producers absorb ammonium and nitrates and use them to build amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Burning fossil fuels increases CO 2 levels & accounts for about 80% of CO 2 added to atmosphere by human activity. Bacteria and fungi are able to access a larger surface area of plant residue after shredder organisms such as earthworms, leaf-eating insects, millipedes, and other arthropods break up the litter into smaller chunks. 5.Hemoglobin is a blood protein that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. The shape of the enzyme molecule must fit the shape of the specific molecules the enzyme works on like a key fits into a lock.
An average of 10% of the available energy at a trophic level is converted to biomass in the next higher trophic level. Most producers can only use nitrogen in the form of compounds like ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ). Ecological pyramids are diagrams used to depict information about energy, biomass, and numbers of organisms at different trophic levels. 7.Enzymes are a special class of proteins that assist other chemicals to react with each other. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert N 2 gas to ammonia (NH 3 ) in a process called nitrogen fixation.
Polysaccharides are also found in the shells of such crustaceans as crabs and lobsters as a material called chitin.



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