Common skin problems in horses,acnefree severe acne treatment system review,ways to treat acne naturally - For Begninners

The horse is no different to other domestic animal species, nor to humans, when it comes to skin disease: skin diseases are common, many different types can look very similar, and some diseases are very chronic and debilitating. Atopic dermatitis (atopy) in the horse, as in humans and small animals, is a genetically-linked sensitivity to environmental antigens (pollens, mould spores, fragments of insects, storage and dust mites).
Skin testing kit and intradermal injection technique used for intradermal testing in the horse.
The respiratory system is a common source of problems in the horse, ranging from reduced performance to life-threatening illness. The guttural pouches are out pouchings either side of the horse’s pharynx which are connected via slit like openings to the throat (a modification of the eustacian tube that joins the ear to the throat). Our powerful digital X ray system allows us to take radiographs of the chests of adult horses (as well as foals) for the assessment of lung disease.
Numerous techniques may be required to investigate cases of weight loss, diarrhoea and liver disease in the horse. Skin problems are common in horses and may be difficult to diagnose and frustrating to manage. At Avonvale, we have the facilities to provide intensive care for all types of horse, pony and donkey. Equine skin conditions are often difficult to diagnose and frustrating to treat, with causes ranging from fungus to allergens to who-knows-what. Also known as rain scold or dermatophilosis, rain rot is skin disease caused by the opportunistic bacterium Dermatophilus congolesis, which thrives in moist conditions and enters through damaged skin (think bites or chaffing).
Ringworm is caused by a highly contagious fungal infection, not a worm, and is named for the shape of the skin lesions, which take on a ring-like appearance. Tiny insects, such as mosquitoes, ants, and a variety of flies, can cause big skin problems for your horse. Learn how the all-important equine back functions and how to prevent problems from developing.
Typically, equine influenza occurs in sporadic outbreaks of horses after the introduction of a carrier animal. All horses should be vaccinated against tetanus whether they are retired, companion or competition animals.
Equine Herpes Virus (EHV) is a virus that can cause mild respiratory disease in young horses. This highly contagious bacterial infection (Streptococcus equi) is now common in many areas of the UK and causes major economic problems on big yards. Infected horses should be isolated and kept confined until they have recovered and been declared free from disease (this is achieved by 3 clear swabs taken from the nose or 1 clear wash taken from the guttural pouches at the back of the head). In the early stages it can be very difficult to distinguish between a mild problem that can resolve on its own and a more severe condition that is potentially fatal.
Colic signs may present mildly or be so severe that they are life threatening to the horse and to those trying to help it. If it helps relieve pain, the horse can be walked out around the stable yard until the vet arrives.
Pay close attention to times and details of when the colic started and how the horse has been managed so the vet can get a clear history. Your vet may decide to refer your horse to a hospital for further investigation or surgery. When laminitis occurs, the intertwining laminar attachments become weakened, resulting in a partial or complete failure (depending on severity) to oppose this shearing force, damage is caused and this results in pain for the horse. Grass associated - Usually associated with turnout on to a fresh lush pasture or when a horse eats lots of first flush spring grass, the exact reason for this is yet to be determined but it has been linked to the high level of a specific sugar being ingested.
Steroids – High levels of substances in the horse called steroids are known to cause laminitis. Acute onset - the horse with acute or rapid onset laminitis will be depressed and often will not eat. Injuries to the eye and surrounding tissues are common and should always be treated as potentially serious. NB Eye drops prescribed for one horse may not be appropriate for another horse showing similar signs. Cataracts can occur at an early age, known as developmental cataracts, or in older horses, known as degenerative cataracts. Menace response: When a hand is brought up sharply towards the eye the normal horse should flinch or display a blink response. Obstacle course: animals can adapt to a loss of sight remarkably well and a horse that spends all of its time in the same surroundings may not show overt signs of blindness immediately.
Squamous cell carcinomas are a type of skin tumour and are reportedly the second most common skin tumour of horses. They can occur anywhere on the skin of a horse but are more commonly found on the hairless areas such as eyelids, lips, nose, vulva, penis and prepuce. The most commonly diagnosed skin tumours found on horses are sarcoids, and they have been reported to account for nearly 90% of all skin tumours in horses.
Sarcoids can appear in a number of different forms and can look similar to other skin tumours. Rain scald is a bacterial infection of the skin of horses, which causes scabs to form on the back, rump and lower limbs. This is a skin condition caused by an allergy to the saliva of certain biting flies or midges. Reducing the exposure of horses to the flies is the best form of control of this condition.
Although Scabies or Sarcoptic mange has been eradicated from the UK, mange due to the mite Chorioptes equi is still relatively common.
Chorioptic mange, as with other types of mange, is associated with close contact of horses where the mite is able to easily pass between them.
Ringworm is not, as its name suggests, caused by a worm but it is actually due to infection of the skin by one or two types of fungi – Trichophyton or Microsporum. Signs of ringworm are small 1-2cm circular tufted areas from which the hair will eventually fall out revealing scaly skin. Many of the species of parasitic worms within these groups have evolved to live specifically in the gut of the horse.
Roundworm eggs are ingested by grazing horses from the field where they can remain infectious for many years. Clinical signs may be very variable, depending on the form of the disease that the horse is suffering, but can include patchy sweating, swallowing difficulties, recurrent impaction colic, dullness, lethargy, weight loss and depression.
Whether or not a horse survives Grass Sickness depends on the degree of damage suffered by the intestine and nervous system.
One method of assessing sympathetic tone is to administer phenylephrine into one of the horse's eyes. Heart murmurs are abnormal noises that can be heard amongst the normal heart sounds of your horse. A heart murmur indicates problems when its nature signals that the ability of the heart to pump blood is compromised. Cushing's disease occurs in horses when the pituitary gland in their brain becomes overactive.
There is currently no known reason why any given horse may develop this condition, although some consider that it is a natural result, in some ponies, of old age.
The signs can be quite subtle and affected horses may be lethargic, have poor performance, decreased appetite, weight loss and recurrent bouts of colic.
Stress, diet, exercise and certain drugs can all increase the risks of your horse developing gastric ulcers.
The first sign in some horses may be panic as they make repeated unsuccessful attempts to swallow the food.
Choke is a common condition and, although at the time it may look very dramatic, the obstruction usually clears by the time a vet arrives. Horses that make an abnormal inspiratory (breathing in) noise during exercise are termed either "whistlers" or "roarers". People are very familiar with seeing a dermatologist for their own skin problems, and are becoming more familiar with taking their dogs and cats to see a veterinary dermatologist, but are often unaware of the potential of seeing a veterinary dermatologist for skin problems in their horse. Atopy in people is associated with asthma and hay fever as well as skin disease (eczema, or atopic dermatitis). The most important mimicking possibilities in the horse include insect bite allergy (Qld itch), external parasites (e.g. The most important point to realise is that there is no single cause: pastern dermatitis (inflammation of the skin on the pastern region) has multiple possible causes that often all look alike. Whilst this is commonly caused by recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (collapse of the left side of the larynx) especially in larger horses, there are many other causes such as displaced soft palate, problems with the epiglottis, or even low grade infections, which must also be ruled out. Sugar absorption tests may also be performed in the investigation of weight loss, to detect horses suffering from malabsorption.


The skin condition may be a primary problem or it may reflect an underlying systemic disease which needs to be investigated. Check out our pictures of common equine skin conditions—patchy to scabby and everything between—in this slideshow. The most common are verrucous, with a warty look, or fibroblastic, which resembles proud flesh.
Rain rot is usually evident over the horse’s neck, back, and croup, but can also spread to the legs. The lesions usually form on the muzzle and lips and last approximately 60 to 100 days before the horse builds a natural immunity and the warts spontaneously disappear.
These skin growths are malignant tumors usually located near the anus, vulva, sheath, penis, ears, salivary glands, and underside of the tail. Horses become seriously ill and in many cases the disease is fatal despite all attempts at treatment.
Horses were designed to be 'trickle feeders', meaning they eat very little amounts often and typically would graze in excess of 20 hours a day. This is why ALL cases of horses with colic symptoms should be taken seriously from the start and veterinary advice sought immediately.
Very sick colicky horses rapidly become dehydrated and this is simple to diagnose by performing a blood concentration test (haematocrit).
The decision to send a horse for surgery will depend on the results collected from various examinations and tests. You could incur serious injury if you are caught in a confined space with a colicking horse.
The laminae bond the hoof wall to the pedal bone in the foot thus transmitting the entire weight of the horse from the hoof to the skeleton. However, by preventing horses susceptible to developing laminitis from over eating lush pasture and not overfeeding with concentrates, it can be controlled.
By leading the horse through a number of strange obstacles, defective eyesight will become obvious.
As the horse's eyesight deteriorates, it will become less confident during exercise and may trip or fall more frequently. They most frequently occur in horses between the age of 8 and 14 years but have been found in horses from 1 years to 29 years! Luckily, the majority are non-malignant (unlikely to spread) but they can invade local tissue and cause irritation to the horse. Rain scald can be avoided by ensuring the skin remains dry, so stabling the horse or applying a weather proof rug can reduce the risk of this condition developing. Therefore stabling the animals at high risk times, rugging the horse, reducing the number of insects present, and fly and insect repellents can all help to reduce a horse’s exposure.
However, any damage to the skin surface can allow the bacteria to invade the skin and cause problems. If legs do get muddy this should be allowed to dry and then brushed off and any scabs should be observed for signs for problems. The mite lives on the surface of the skin and its burrowing activities are what causes irritation to infected horses. Treatment for mites involves adopting good hygiene practices as well as certain parasiticides of which your veterinary surgeon will provide advice on the most suitable for your horse. Many horses will have some worms but, as long as the overall burden is low, the horse will suffer no ill effects. Female worms deposit their eggs around the anus using a sticky material; this is irritating to the horse.
In a horse suffering Grass Sickness, the eye that received the drops will open slightly and the eyelashes will assume a different angle to that of the other eye. Although they can sometimes indicate a problem with your horse's heart, fortunately, in most instances these murmurs are harmless. In the rare case that your horse does have a heart problem however, the clinical signs are related to disturbance in the blood flow through the heart and therefore the inability of the heart to pump blood efficiently to the body. As the hormones that are produced inhibit the horse's immune system, affected animals become more prone to developing other diseases such as liver disease and pneumonia. However, early diagnosis and treatment can ensure that the horse lives a relatively normal life for many years after the initial diagnosis.
It is important to notify your veterinary surgeon as soon as you suspect that your horse may be choking; they can then give you suitable advice and organise a visit. This toxin (Pyrillozidine) causes damage to the liver of a number of animals including horses and donkeys. The most common cause of horses developing these noises is a condition called laryngeal hemiplegia. Other causes of whistling and roaring include tumours, cysts in the larynx, infection and congenital problems (birth defects) of the larynx.
When the condition is mild, noise may only be heard when the horse is exercising strenuously. It is a disease which is fairly commonly seen in horses and typically affects their hindquarters and back. One of the easiest skin problems to identify and treat, scratches is a bacterial infection affecting the skin at a horse's pastern. The bacterium that causes rainrot, Dermatophilus congolensis, normally lives on the skin with no adverse effects.
In horses (and dogs and cats) it is mostly associated with skin disease alone, although may be important in some cases of respiratory disease (COPD). This obviously requires skin testing first to identify the relevant allergens for each horse, as they do vary tremendously between individuals.
As it is common, and occurs at times of insect exposure, a number of unrelated horses in a group can be affected at the same time.
Insect control on the horse can be catered to the clinical signs: at better times of year and when the horse is comfortable application can be reduced, but stepped-up again when signs begin to recur or weather changes suggest relapse may be imminent. Antihistamines are less commonly used, but are the mainstay of treatment in humans and are typically very effective and safer than glucocorticoids, especially when used longer term. Gastroscopy, passing a long endoscope into the horse’s stomach, may be performed to look for gastric ulcers which are a common cause of reduced performance.
This allows us to perform full echocardiographic examinations to investigate problems such as heart valve disease or congenital cardiac abnormalities.
Horses that have undergone colic surgery also require intensive monitoring and treatment to help them to make a rapid and full recovery. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is probably a causative factor in sarcoids, and a 2010 study of 222 horses at the University Equine Clinic of Bern identified a possible genetic basis for sarcoid development in horses as well. The horse’s mane and tail head are especially susceptible, and hair loss is often caused by rubbing the affected sites is common. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without written permission of The Horse Media Group LLC is prohibited. It is caused by a highly contagious virus and, while it does not normally cause long term illness, it will lead to your horse requiring time off from work and it can lead to serious complications in very young or old horses. The bacteria enter the body through cuts in the skin and puncture wounds in the foot, and then cause disease by producing toxins that affect the nervous system, ultimately paralysing the victim.
EHV can also cause the more serious problem of abortion in pregnant mares and it is therefore recommended that breeding animals (stallions and broodmares) should be vaccinated against EHV. This can be quite difficult to do unless the horse is adequately restrained and there are good levels of light.
The weight of the horse tries to shear the hoof wall from the pedal bone which, in the normal horse, is resisted by the laminar attachments in between the two. Your vet will diagnose corneal ulceration by putting a fluorescent dye into the horse's eye. Therefore, a horse with a cataract may experience anything from slightly impaired eyesight to complete blindness in that eye.
They are more common in lighter coloured horses, as sunlight has been implicated as a cause of them.
This condition is caused by prolonged wetting of the skin which allows the bacteria to invade. The allergy causes the horse to be itchy and thus rub the skin; in fact they can actually rub the hair off the affected areas (upper neck, back, tail base and ventral abdomen). This irritation causes the horse to nibble at the affected areas (hind limbs, belly forelimbs and groin). However, domesticated horses are kept on much smaller areas of concentrated grazing in close proximity to other horses.
The eggs are dropped onto the pasture when the horse rubs or passes droppings where they are potentially infective for other horses. Such murmurs may indicate a variety of problems including leakage of blood through the heart valves, thickening or narrowing of a blood vessel or even a hole in the heart wall.


Therefore if the defect is only small there may be no noticeable signs; a larger defect, however, may cause a decrease in the horse's performance and willingness to exercise. This excessive production of steroids causes the horse to drink excessively and produce large amounts of urine which is called polydipsia and polyuria respectively.
Horses affected chronically are also much more prone to developing laminitis and do not respond to normal treatment. It is important therefore that if you suspect your horse may have Cushing's disease you contact your vet to discuss any concerns with them. Small doses of the poison gradually accumulate in the horse's liver where it causes damage to the liver cells and scarring. This condition is caused by one of the two vocal chords in the larynx (voice box or adams apple) becoming paralysed; the left vocal cord is most commonly affected. The condition is seen most commonly in horses in training and occurs after a rest day on full rations followed by severe exertion. However, in more severe cases the horse may be unable to move and can even collapse; this may occur during exercise. Your veterinary surgeon will be able to give you advice on appropriate regimes for both feeding and exercise, as well as what to do if your horse has recurrent episodes.
The bacteria take hold when repeated exposure to wet conditions strips away the skin's protective oils, causing chapping and cracking.
Skin lesions are mostly caused by self-trauma, varying from mild to severe, and include hairloss (alopecia), scaling, skin wounds and grazes, and with time skin thickening and increased pigmentation. Topical agents (shampoos, rinses) to remove allergens, and moisturise skin may help partially. The spray must be thoroughly applied to the whole body, so does require considerable owner commitment and time to complete adequately.
Allergy investigation is warranted if there is no other apparent cause and the problem is persistent or recurrent: food trials, insect control trials, and intradermal skin testing can all be helpful. These medical conditions are investigated in association with any signs of lameness or back pain which may also be affecting the horse’s performance. This may detect blood, in the case of horses with exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH), pus in horses with pneumonia, or excessive amounts of mucus in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, also known as heaves, COPD or equine asthma).
They are also the most common site for horses to harbour Streptococcus equi (strangles) bacteria either as frank pus (known as guttural pouch empyaema) or in lower numbers in apparently normal horses following recovery from strangles infection. Diagnosis of gastric ulceration is made by passing an extra long endoscope into the stomach of the sedated horse.
In such cases, hospitalisation and placement of a lavage catheter under the eyelid enables topical treatment to be performed as frequently as is necessary around the clock, with minimal discomfort and irritation to the horse. We have two intensive care boxes in which horses can be given continuous intravenous fluids when necessary, and isolation facilities for horses with infectious disease. Fully vaccinated horses are able to neutralize the toxin before it can cause any ill effects and disease is completely prevented.
The procedure involves putting a needle into the abdominal cavity of the horse from underneath. Deciding to take a horse to surgery is not an easy decision or one that should be taken lightly. This problem is usually encountered in the warmer months when these insects are more active. This change in husbandry has increased the individual horse's exposure to worms and increased the chances of the development of large infections.
Recent studies have shown that between 70-100% of horses can be affected; this includes mainly sport horses and race horses in training.
Sugar beet often causes problems because, unless it is thoroughly soaked beforehand, it tends to swell rapidly when mixed with saliva as it is being chewed.
Poisoning generally occurs when horses ingest Ragwort in dried hay, which has been contaminated with the plant. This is thought to be due to injury to a nerve called the recurrent laryngeal nerve which runs up the neck of the horse. Do contact your veterinary surgeon for further advice if you suspect your horse may be suffering from this condition. For this reason it has also been called "Monday morning disease" from when carriage horses were worked after a rest day on Sunday. Other signs may also be evident, with affected horses showing colic signs such as "sweating up" and pawing at the ground. The earliest sign of scratches is formation of a crust on the back of the pastern, so do an inspection daily as you pick out your horse's hooves. Following is an outline of some of the more common or problematic skin diseases we see regularly in equine dermatology practice in Australia. It is often a severely irritating and potentially debilitating disease: some horses have behavioural changes or weight loss due to constant irritation. Rugs and hoods can be used to further limit exposure, but will be rapidly destroyed in some highly irritated horses before this disease is brought under control, and are not essential to the trial when the sprays are used thoroughly. Chlorpheniramine (Iramine®) is a small animal veterinary tablet used most commonly in our practice for horses, with multiple tablets given twice daily in a wet feed. Vaccination against EHV reduces the chance of becoming infected, and reduces the concentration of virus in the local environment, making infection of other horses less likely.
In rare cases horses can go on to develop 'bastard' strangles, where abscesses form elsewhere in the body. Due to the size of the horse and the length of the human arm this test is not always conclusive. It is very important that an inciting cause be properly looked for and this must be done by a veterinary surgeon, who may have to sedate the horse in order to conduct a full and thorough examination of the eye. Once a horse is older than 18 months, warts are very rarely seen as the horse develops immunity against them.
Grass sickness is diagnosed all over the UK and, invariably, horses affected ultimately die or are euthanased. Many horses have, in addition, a green nasal discharge that is associated with a difficulty in swallowing and regurgitation of stomach contents, which is particularly noticeable since horses cannot normally vomit. Although, if food is scarce or there are a large number of plants present within the pasture, horses may be forced to eat it.
Your best bet for keeping your horse's skin in good shape this winter is watching out for the conditions most likely to develop so you can begin treatment as early as possible. The earliest signs are ruffled-looking patches of coat---caused by hair follicles standing on end slightly---combined with warm and possibly sensitive skin. Although this is a complex disease, we know in horses as in people, that many suffers produce antibodies (specifically IgE antibodies) to some of the environmental allergens they are exposed to. A recent research study we performed at University of Sydney in normal horses, the most extensive of any similar studies performed around the world, has more clearly identified the ideal concentrations of allergens to use in intradermal testing to help minimise false positive reactions. Intradermal testing (using Culicoides and other insect allergens) can identify many horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity, but normal horses may also have positive reactions, and some affected horses (especially those with mainly delayed Type-IV hypersensitivity) will have negative skin tests. A small recorder is attached to the horse enabling the heart rhythm to be recorded whilst the horse is lunged or even galloped. These eggs, once on the ground, can then be eaten by other horses and are immediately infective to other animals. Horses will normally die or be euthanased because of the uncontrollable recurrent colic bouts. These signs can often come on suddenly although, in some horses and ponies, mild illness can precede more severe symptoms. The poison can also be absorbed through the skin of humans so it is important that impervious gloves are worn. Recordings can also be made over a period of several hours for suspected problems of a more intermittent nature.
Young horses are at greater risk than older horses as immunity to the fungi develops with age. Signs of chronic disease include loss of appetite, depression, diarrhoea, weight loss, sensitivity to sunlight and jaundice (yellow colour to skin or eyes).
Blood allergy tests are similarly helpful in humans for identifying relevant allergens once a diagnosis has been confirmed, however there is a higher risk of false positives, and no clearly validated tests are available as yet for horses in Australia. Lesions can occur anywhere on the body, although are especially common on the neck, trunk, upper legs. Always ensure that there is adequate grazing or alternative food sources such as hay, so that your horse or pony is not tempted to eat any ragwort, which may have been missed.




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