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What is the meaning of education administration,first aid australia brisbane,emergency survival kit backpack - Review

The largest dictionary of idioms and phrases currently in use in british, american and australian english. K-8 elementary educational activities, games, themes, graphic organizers, writing prompts, benchmark papers, and research.. When company marketing resource employees , controlling message image portrayed general public.. Copyright © 2014 Review Ebooks, All trademarks are the property of the respective replica rolex daytona trademark owners. Restoring the Meaning of Education wants to: inform people about what's going on, generate a discussion, and improve the system. Participation in the seminar was conditional upon the satisfactory completion of an application form. International recognition that education systems should cater for diversity has been growing steadily in recent years. The industrialised countries of 'the West' are often seen to be taking the lead in policy and practice on inclusive education, yet in reality, this is far from the case. However, people involved in developing policy and implementing inclusive education in these countries are often extremely isolated from other practitioners and have few opportunities to learn from each other.
The ultimate aim of this seminar was to actively contribute to policy and practice development resulting in increased and improved inclusive education (IE) for all. This section summarises the main outcomes of the discussions which took place during the seminar. Participants were helped to think through their own situations and to work out their own context-specific solutions. There was very little time spent discussing the definition of inclusive education since the aim of the seminar was to share experiences of well established programmes, rather than to debate the meaning of inclusion.
The situation faced by most practitioners is that there is either no legislation, or bad legislation, and there is often no government recognition of IE. Save the Children Fund (SCF-UK)'s disability work in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) is being carried out in a situation of political instability and political change from communism to democracy. SCF's disability programme began in 1996 with a strong focus on children's rights and with a close partnership with local agencies, and parents' associations in particular.
Seminars have been held for parents, professionals and policy makers to promote the concept of 'parents as partners' and to facilitate dialogue between the three groups.
Although the overall system remains segregated, there have been some significant moves towards a more inclusive approach.
How can we influence governments to change their national policies towards disabled children and other marginalised groups? The starting point for influencing policy should be human rights and the improvement of education for all children.
Advocacy groups such as parents' pressure groups and disabled people's organisations have an important role to play in lobbying government to bring about changes in line with international legislation. What is the role of NGOs in IE and how can they be more effective in promoting IE, especially where there is no legislation? Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a unified education system made up of various government and church agencies.
Callan Services for Disabled Persons was created in 1990 by the Christian Brothers of Papua New Guinea as an NGO which would promote training in special education within the ordinary school system. In collaboration with other NGOs, Callan Services called upon the National Department of Education to take up its responsibility for approximately 60,000 severely disabled children by making the regular school system inclusive.
A limited understanding of the concept of disability, negative attitudes towards disabled people and a deep resistance to change are major barriers to inclusive education. What methods can be used to create positive attitudes in policy makers, families, disabled people and learners? Before reaching out to challenge the negative attitudes of others, it is essential to start by addressing our own attitudes and those of our nearest colleagues. It is also important to identify existing examples of positive attitude change such as health promoting schools or the enrolment of larger numbers of girl children. It is important to start by challenging and influencing the attitudes of policy makers and service providers. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the integration of children with special educational needs into regular schools since 1990.
Parents need basic information about their child's ability and potential, as well as their particular impairment. The Special Education Unit in the Ministry of Education in Lesotho believed that IE could only be successful if teachers worked in partnership with parents. How do we prepare non-disabled children and their families for IE and how do we address the needs of both disabled and non-disabled children through inclusion?
A Care in the Community Project for disabled children was initiated by SCF(UK) in Ho Chi Minh City in 1992.
An awareness raising workshop was organised for the parents of non-disabled children and for those teachers who had disabled children in their class.
Children who have AIDS, TB or leprosy or whose family members have any of these conditions are likely to experience discrimination and possibly exclusion from school. Participants produced a series of awareness-raising posters for children, parents, teachers, policy-makers and community members. The Lao government is a signatory to the UN Convention on Child Rights and the Salamanca Statement and in 1996 it adopted a decree on compulsory education, which includes disabled children.
Changes were first introduced through the 'demonstration kindergarten' attached to the teacher training institute.
The programme has been particularly successful in the pre-schools where staff have quickly recognised the connection between school improvement and inclusion. What are the criteria for screening the type and degree of disability and the child's potential for IE?
The Law on Compulsory Education (1986) and the Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Disabled (1991) have required and empowered provinces to introduce 'education for all'. Training was not only focused on the class teachers, but also on the local administrators, whose support is essential to the success of the project.
It is highly unlikely that there will be children with a wide range of disabilities in the same class if children attend their local school. What type & length should the training be and can it be incorporated into teacher training? In Lesotho in-service teacher training materials have been developed and successfully piloted. In Papua New Guinea a draft core curriculum on IE has been developed for all primary teachers' colleges which is currently being piloted.
The UNESCO Teacher Education Resource Pack consists of workshop materials and activities that can be used to support the development of more inclusive practices in the classroom. In Bangladesh 5 day basic training courses on disability and IE for non-formal primary education teachers are run by the Community Approaches to Handicap and Disability (CAHD) programme.
A developmental profile of a disabled learner will be more useful than a psychometric assessment. The lack of interest in IE by management and the inflated egos of individuals and organisations were identified as two of the major constraints facing implementers of IE. Is IE possible in rural areas, and if so, how can we develop and define context-specific models for IE in rural areas? It is essential to develop a sustainable support system for the implementation of IE in all schools, but this is perhaps especially true of remote, rural schools.
In Lesotho traditional healers have been invited to awareness raising and training sessions run by the Ministry of Education as part of their strategy to harness existing community resources for the support of IE. Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programmes promote informal education for children in their home setting. In 1992 the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare initiated a CBR programme in collaboration with the ministries of education and health and with disabled people's organisations. The educational component is managed at district level by peripatetic teachers, who are specialists in specific impairments. What methods are there for transforming special schools into resource centres - and what is their role in inclusion? There is a great danger in the creation of a resource room, or specialist facility, within a regular school.
Child-to-Child methodology is perhaps the most effective way of involving children in the process of implementing IE.
Disabled children have been integrated into pre- and primary schools as part of the Ministry of Health's CBR programme. Under the supervision of the CBR workers, school children and community members have been involved in adapting the physical environment to enable children with physical disabilities to be included in regular schools. Teachers have been encouraged to discuss disability issues with their classes and the children have been involved in developing short plays which depict the causes of disability and how disabled children feel about their disability.
A pilot project to promote inclusive education through the Child-to-Child approach was implemented in a mainstream school located within the Jerusalem Centre for Disabled Children, which is a national rehabilitation centre.
The overall aim of the Child-to-Child approach is that children should become more responsible for their own health and for that of their communities. The main aim of the pilot project in Jerusalem was to prepare the school environment to be more welcoming to all children.
The present Child-to-Child activity sheet on disability recommends the use of simulation activities. Community groups and IE support group members could take a lead in initiating community based education for disabled youth and those who have dropped out of the mainstream education system. Although there are many examples of good practice in the UK and Sweden, which were referred to in the discussions, the majority of seminar participants did not have any direct experience of inclusion in secondary schools. The Self-Help Education Programme Appropriate for Cultural Communities (SHEPACC) is an education programme working towards sustainable development among the Manobo communities in Mindanao in the Philippines. The SHEPACC project began by rebuilding the Manobo's self-esteem and self-worth through the provision of basic and functional education for their children. Participatory follow-up support and systematic monitoring are essential to the success of all development work and will ensure greater understanding of the IE process by the practitioners. Although there were some very positive results in terms of attitude change, improved awareness and confidence in teaching children with a range of different abilities, categorisation and labelling of children continued.
Key staff involved in PIED were subsequently invited to become part of the international team of advisers developing the UNESCO Teacher Education Resource Pack. The project aims to equip teachers to organise their schools and their teaching to meet the educational needs of all children. Despite the relative inflexibility of the school system, teachers realised that they could exercise some autonomy in curriculum delivery while still achieving the prescribed goals. The understanding of educational principles of both trainers and teachers was of a lower level than anticipated.
The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) is a multi-faceted scheme which aims to overhaul the primary education system and is giving the movement towards inclusion a much needed boost.
The participation of the director of the Kathmandu Association of the Deaf, Nepal, and his interpreter, helped to focus on the need for greater deaf awareness in society in general and among IE practitioners. A video of the Lesotho programme showed whole classes learning to sign in order to be able to communicate with the one or two deaf children in the school.
It is likely that the interim costs of changing the focus from special to inclusive will incur extra expenditure, but once it has been established it will be more cost-effective than running parallel systems, and it may be possible to redistribute some of the income allocated to special schools. The methodology used in the Agra seminar was not an optional extra; it was fundamentally linked to the aims and philosophy, and resulted in a process that was in itself an output - the seminar became a micro-model of an inclusive society, resulting in mutual enrichment and empowerment.
The Agra seminar had a clearly defined aim to help participants improve their practice so that education could become more inclusive. In addition, we felt strongly that the seminar itself should be a model of the inclusion it was seeking to promote; to respond to diversity, to be learner-focused, to ensure the format and structure evolved from participant's needs. Experience and research from both the fields of development and of education had proved that sustainable learning and outcomes can best be achieved through a participatory approach. The approach to planning, the formulation of the parameters of the seminar, the criteria for selection of participants and facilitators and the choice of venue were all integral to the overall methodological approach. When the facilitation team met for the first time in Delhi the day before the seminar began, there was an understandable anxiety about the task ahead.
This enabled both the facilitation team and participants to create the seminar on a daily basis, and to make adjustments based on lessons learnt during each day.
On the first evening, a buffet was held on the roof-top of the hotel to enable participants to mingle and to meet each other. After the introductions on the first day, participants were divided into small pre-assigned groups.
Volunteers from each group then got together and compiled the questions into key themes, e.g. Another exercise which helped participants get to make an initial analysis was the 'mountain journey' group exercise (Mountain Posters).
Central to the methodology was a continuous process of transferring 'ownership' onto the participants. Solution: "I will raise this issue at the end of today to see if we can have more time in small groups tomorrow". Then give the piece of paper to your partner, whose job is to make sure you act upon this and find a solution to your problem. This simple exercise places the responsibility for meeting needs firmly with the participants.
In this exercise, participants are asked to give feedback on 'one thing you liked about today, or one thing you learned'. The advantage of this exercise is that participants have a chance to really voice their opinion without fear of being criticised.
This exercise proved that it is impossible for everyone to be kept happy all of the time, and that humour and compromise are necessary.
Participants were asked to spend ten minutes writing down some of their reflections on the day. This was essentially a private and personal reflection exercise which the participants were encouraged to do throughout. It was decided that the seminar would not consist of presentations of papers and key note speeches, but instead there would be mostly group work and opportunities for participants to discuss and problem-solve together. On reflection, the overall balance of small-group work with short presentations was a good one. Effectively communicating one's experience is increasingly crucial to being able to gain support for one's projects, and to being able to share with others and improve practice and policy. It may be better in future to spend a few days prior to the seminar, to help presenters to develop presentation skills, and to maybe have a 'co-presenter' who can support them and help them make sure they communicate key issues and the most relevant information.
A successful outcome of having daily evaluations and an on-going opportunity for participants to offer to present their work, was that those who were initially too shy, or who felt their experience was not so relevant, gradually began to come forward and insist that they had some time to present.
In order to enable participants to have in-depth discussions on issues of relevance to themselves, small-groups formed the main part of the seminar. Facilitators were a bit concerned that this was similar to a grading or 'streaming' approach in schools which creates marginalisation and segregation! Members of group (a) sat on a panel and were asked prepared questions from the other groups. This demonstrated perfectly the message that we all have our own expertise and only we can find solutions to our problems. Small group work certainly facilitated more participation by those who were not using their mother-tongue and who used interpreters. Not everyone was comfortable or familiar with communicating with people through an interpreter. There was an extremely wide range of views and experience within participants, despite having criteria for participation. Those with experience who wanted more depth and detail had to compromise their needs to enable those with less experience to learn.
Facilitators had long discussions about the necessity or otherwise of a session on disability awareness.
On reflection, it would have been useful to have an awareness-raising session focusing on our own attitudes and behaviours, before going on to discuss other people's. The facilitation team felt that the seminar was an extremely challenging and stimulating experience.
The Agra seminar proved that it is possible for a large group of very diverse persons to come together to learn in the same environment.
IE is still an evolving concept, but now there is a clearer focus on how to change systems, methodologies, policies, curricula and environments, rather than on how to prepare or change individual children. A deeper understanding of IE as an appropriate strategy for achieving quality education for all. The ongoing and increasing need for useful resource materials and training courses on inclusive education and related issues, such as Child to Child.
It was a collaborative venture between a small number of international non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the Enabling Education Network (EENET). This included an explanation of the relevance of the seminar to the applicant's work and a definition of the term inclusive education.
The methodology used to structure the participants' questions into a problem-solving and experience-sharing agenda was fundamentally linked to the philosophy of inclusive education. The 1990 United Nations (UN) Conference in Jomtien focused on 'Education for All' and the 1994 Salamanca Conference on Special Needs added to this impetus by drawing attention to the large numbers of groups of children currently excluded from mainstream education. In three quarters of the world, the so-called 'developing countries', have many examples of excellent policy and practice in inclusive education, despite large class sizes, few material resources, and limited access to information. The lessons of their experience are not only relevant to other 'developing' countries, but also to the industrialised countries of 'the north', particularly in the current climate of declining resources.

Political instability, refugee and conflict situations, natural disasters and the lack of a basic infrastructure were identified as conditions which make the enormous challenge of implementing IE more difficult. They were also encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning by identifying the individuals who could help them most with their particular questions and by referring to the resource materials set out on the displays on each project which remained on display throughout the seminar. Interestingly no-one signed up for the interest group entitled 'philosophy' which would have discussed the definitions of concepts in detail. A lack of inter-ministerial and inter-agency collaboration makes it very difficult to introduce new ideas. A dominant medical model of defectology focuses on the 'defect' or impairment, rather than on the child's ability and potential.
Its aim is to promote community, rather than institutional ways of working and to influence professionals and policy makers to consider adopting new methods of working with disabled children. Parents and professionals from day care centres have received training and individual programmes have been developed for each child. Existing national and international legislation and documentation on IE should be collected and used as reference material to initiate policy development. The report involved extensive consultation with all the key stake-holders in special needs education and took one year to complete.
All salaries are paid by the government and diverse identities and philosophies of the agencies working in partnership with government are respected and upheld. The Christian Brothers had established a centre for blind children in 1982, outside the regular school system and had found themselves negotiating with mainstream schools to accept blind children. Christoffel Blinden Mission (CBM) assisted Callan Services in introducing special education into the three year curriculum at Wewak teacher training college in 1991. Lack of knowledge, and an unwillingness to share knowledge and information, feed prejudice and discrimination against disabled people.
Links can then be made with other issues of difference prior to embarking upon an awareness raising campaign. This could be done by identifying key policy makers and arranging personal meetings with them to discuss IE and its potential to transform the whole educational system. However, this has been done on a very individual basis and without the full support of the education system as a whole.
Three primary schools will be supported to adopt a culture of reflective enquiry, collaboration and training. The major focus should be on the importance of encouraging their children's independence through participation in family activities and developing skills and confidence in the activities of daily living.
Since there was no parents' organisation in the country in 1991 when the IE programme started, they took a lead role in the formation of the Lesotho Society of Mentally Handicapped Persons (LSMHP). At that time SCF's main partner was the Centre for Research and Education of Disabled Children in the Education Department.
The parents of non-disabled children were reassured in the workshop that the presence of disabled children did not mean that the teachers were less caring towards their children.
If the social stigma resulting from these medical conditions leads to a child being excluded from education then it is necessary to target these groups as part of an inclusive education initiative. This situation was borne out by the school visits made during the seminar to local schools in Agra.
It may be necessary to be selective in the initial pilot stages in order to develop models of good practice, but ultimately inclusive education is for all children in all schools. The needs of girl children and the complex cultural and linguistic context of education are two other major issues of marginalisation being considered by the Ministry of Education. In 1989 plans were made to improve the quality of teacher education, teaching methodology and of the curriculum. This enabled students to acquire practical skills while at the same time providing the administrators and teacher trainers with an experimental situation from which to devise the programme in schools. Any difficulties faced in the primary schools have been where school improvement had not been adequately addressed before including the disabled children. Since education is for all children, theoretically it should not be necessary to screen children prior to inclusion. Anhui Province Integrated Education Project was initiated in 1988 with the support of SCF(UK). Initially this training took place in the Salvation Army kindergartens in Hong Kong, but, following the success of the pilot project, it now takes place in Anhui.
In order to cater for these children the teaching methodology in the kindergartens has been transformed. It is much more likely that there will be an even distribution of disabled children throughout the various grades and schools. These include teachers' guides to the four basic categories of impairment, an assessment booklet and a parent training manual.
An in-service training package has also been produced which includes a resource book, a presenters' manual and a participants' handbook. There are two videos which accompany the pack: the first puts forward the rationale for the UNESCO project and the second illustrates the experiences of schools in Spain, England, Portugal, New Zealand and Jordan. This is essentially a CBR initiative aimed at community development NGOs which run literacy programmes. The whole family should be included in the assessment which should include family values, resources and literacy. Some were at the beginning and were unsure of the philosophy of IE, whereas others had been actively involved in IE for almost ten years.
It was recognised that many of the possible constraints haven't yet been identified as most practitioners are just getting started with IE programmes. This should include general access to education services and drop-out and repetition rates.
Traditional healers are far more numerous than medical doctors, especially in rural areas, and are therefore an important and influential section of the community which needs to be mobilised if inclusion is to succeed. Examples were given from India, Bangladesh, Uganda and Swaziland where CBR programmes are providing informal education opportunities in the absence of an IE programme. Its aims are to improve the quality of life of disabled people through the mobilisation of community resources, the provision of services and the creation of educational, vocational and social opportunities. Although knowledgeable about the impairments, the peripatetic teachers lacked adequate skills to effectively support both teachers and pupils in inclusive schools. This may be because there are relatively few special schools in the countries represented and therefore their role in inclusion is minimal. Children become actively involved in researching an issue, such as disability, and in planning, implementing and evaluating the subsequent activities.
Toilets have been adapted and simple ramps built at the entrance to classrooms to allow wheelchair access. The school was originally built exclusively for disabled children, but gradually the numbers of non-disabled children have increased. It is based on the principles that children learn better by doing (active learning), they learn better from each other, and they can influence adults.
Children were encouraged to take responsibility for including all children in classroom settings and in their communities. However since this approach has been criticised by disabled people for arousing pity, the pilot project developed a new activity sheet which focuses on the issues of inclusion and exclusion, rather than disability. Learning life skills through apprenticeship in vocational skills in the broader community context can and should be part of IE. Inclusive education has been very successful, however, in pre-schools and in primary schools in many different countries despite the shortage of material resources. SHEPACC is supported by Handicap International through Action Nord-Sud, which is working in partnership with Friends of the Lumads, a university-based NGO created in 1990 to promote the culture of the indigenous communities in the Philippines. Based on community learning as an empowerment process, the Manobo have become 'the actors of their own development'.
It is vital that practitioners have opportunities to share and reflect on their experience of implementing IE in order to draw lessons for policy making and programme development. Decades of planned development for education prior to this had marginalised disabled children.
Also this method of teacher training was not very cost-effective, there were some valuable spin-offs for the education system as a whole, such as improved attendance rates. The philosophy behind the development of the Pack helped to address some of the issues arising from the PIED experience.
Experience in Ghana has shown that mainstream teachers are much more open to learning to sign than the specialist teachers of the deaf who tend to be unwilling to change from an oralist approach. In the early stages it may be necessary to raise funds from NGO sources to cover the cost of developing a teacher training curriculum and setting up a pilot project, but long-term costs should be kept to a minimum.
As international NGOs, we had a responsibility to ensure that our time and resources would be used to directly benefit the lives of children, particularly marginalised groups such as disabled children. This combination of aims, beliefs and experience required us to find an appropriate methodology which would result in effective learning and outcomes, while respecting the fundamental aims of the seminar.
The methodology is an all-embracing philosophy and approach from initial planning to follow-up, and is much more than a collection of 'methods'. Even with the participant criteria, we were not sure who would actually arrive at the seminar and what their knowledge, skills and experiences would be. Our main task was to provide the means for participants to do their own learning, and to keep transferring the ownership of the seminar to the participants themselves. Facilitators had compiled the groups to ensure a balance of experience and geographical region. This is not something that can be achieved by a one-off statement at the beginning of a workshop.
Sit with them and write down on a piece of paper one 'problem' or 'complaint' you have in the seminar.
Daily evaluation ensures that participants' complaints and concerns can be dealt with each day. For the facilitators it can provoke discomfort and anxiety because criticism comes from an anonymous source which means it can be difficult to address it directly. But we also felt that in order to get discussions going, it would be useful to have presentations which would give participants an overview of other programmes, and the issues which were being addressed. However, one main problem was the high level of skill and experience needed for a presentation to be stimulating and succinct in such a short time, often not in the mother-tongue, or through an interpreter, and often with no common background knowledge of the country, culture, geography, political situation etc.
Preparing hand-outs on basic geographical, socio-economic, political and education backgrounds of participants' countries could also save time. Working groups on key themes chosen by participants took place most days, and in addition, 'level' groups were formed. However, the difference was that this was short term, had clearly defined aims, and opportunities for other types of interaction. However maybe there was insufficient background material disseminated prior to the seminar, which would have enabled people to translate in advance and get some idea of the issues. As part of helping people promote an inclusive society, maybe some sort of input on this would have been good, and would have encouraged more people to be pro-active in speaking to the deaf representative, or participants from China or Vietnam. This meant that it was a bigger challenge than envisaged to enable participants to find common ground to be able to really help each other to reflect critically on their work.
Although most participants have worked with disabled people, behaviour and awareness varied. We felt that a team which combined people of different gender, culture, disability and experience was not only enriching but essential to the success of the seminar. At the next seminar we want to see children, ex-pupils, people with other types of disability, and people representing other issues of difference.
Strong links with community based development organisations are essential to the success of IE. In South Africa the term special needs education has been replaced by 'barrier-free learning'. The need to publicise and disseminate already existing useful documentation such as the Salamanca Framework for Action, Education For All and legislation on the rights of the child. The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) has no headquarters, staff or budget of its own. This was not a seminar for those who wanted to further their careers, it was to help practitioners improve their practice.
The world's disabled children, who are often hidden away in back rooms or sometimes separated from other children by being placed in special schools, form one of these excluded groups.
Yet practitioners from the South have very few opportunities to attend the many so-called 'international' conferences which tend to be held in the North and to be dominated by Northern agendas. Each section includes a summary of the constraints, key questions and existing strengths of the IE programmes represented at the seminar. Isolation from relevant information, and from opportunities to share and reflect on experience, is another aspect of that poverty.
The following diagrams were used as a basic introduction to the definition of inclusion and to distinguish between integration and inclusion.
Strong negative attitudes towards disabled people held by parents, professionals and society in general are perhaps the greatest barrier to inclusion.
The target group is young children with learning difficulties under the age of eight years. Parents have been trained in the development and evaluation of care programmes for their own children and in the management of toy libraries. More structured links have been developed between parents and professionals in the institutions involved in the programme and this has led to a better understanding between the two and to the children making greater progress. The United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and UNESCO's Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action (1994) are crucial documents for all IE practitioners wishing to influence policy development.
The document will form the basis of a new national policy on special needs education, which is directly in line with general education transformation initiatives. It is therefore possible for an educational initiative taken by one agency to be recognised, owned and adopted by the larger system. Yet it should have been an automatic right that the children had a place in mainstream school. An inclusive pre-school was established on the campus which would feed into the demonstration primary school.
Mass media stereotypes of disabled people serve to encourage and reinforce negative attitudes. It is important to use positive language and to avoid labelling, especially where non exists. The campaign should focus on teachers, parents, community workers, children, architects, policy makers and all personnel involved in education. Continuous exposure to IE issues could be provided by inviting the policy makers and service providers to exhibitions and seminars.
Responsibility for children identified as having 'special educational needs' rests with the department of special education in the ministry of education. Responding to diversity will become a strategy for overall school improvement and teacher development.
Early intervention with disabled children and their families should take place through a process of consultation, encouragement, demonstration, perseverance and information. Information should be made available to both groups on how to access services and resources and about children's rights. They also realised that relationships between the children in the class were not adversely affected by the inclusion of a disabled child.
SCF (UK) was invited to help with pre- and in-service teacher training programmes in the pre-school and primary school sectors. Also some schools had given in to the very real pressure of admitting too many disabled children, causing overload. All children have a right to be included, so the question should perhaps be re-phrased in line with the social model of disability: What is the school's potential for inclusion? It was decided to focus initially on the integration of children with mild learning difficulties, since they constitute the majority of school-aged children who require some form of special provision.
Small group teaching and imaginative and exploratory play have contributed to an improvement in linguistic and cognitive development. However most schools have mixed ability classes, containing children with a variety of learning speeds and needs.
Many community workers came to the seminar assuming that they had a lot to learn about how to implement IE and realised that they had been 'doing it all along', since attitude change and community mobilisation for social inclusion is all part of IE. An analysis of factors which are potentially supportive of IE, such as the country's development goals and community aspirations, the national vision, current concerns of education policy makers and senior management. If possible, IE should be started at pre-school level and there should be strong parental and community involvement. Many children are identified by CBR programmes when they are too old to start school, but they are able to follow a programme of home learning with the support of CBR workers.
The UN agencies of UNESCO, WHO (World Health Organisation) and International Labour Organisation (ILO) through United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) are jointly collaborating on this project. The key issues in basic education include poor teaching outcomes, gender bias, weak management and inadequate and inefficient use of resources. It may also be because the discussions deliberately avoided consideration of any one category of impairment, with the exception of deaf issues. Teachers in the main school are likely to send children with behaviour and other problems to the resource room rather than attempting to solve the problem themselves. The principles behind the Child-to Child approach are that children learn best by doing, they learn better from each other and they can have an influence on the attitudes and practices of adults. There has not been any commitment as yet from the Ministry of Education to address the issue of inclusive education.
There are now 27 disabled children from the immediate neighbourhood attending the primary school, which has a total enrolment of 185 children.

This was based on the principles that all children are special and have individual differences and needs, they all need friends, they should all be equal partners in education, and that they may have creative ideas to help overcome the barriers to inclusion. A training manual for teachers, parents and professionals on the promotion of IE was also produced.
One of the problems with secondary schools, as with the very academic and competitive schools, is that they are exam orientated.
The Manobo are a minority mountain community of 300,000 people, struggling for their survival. Community Learning Centres are run by para-teachers, who are identified by the community and receive community-based and culturally appropriate training. At level two, 10% of participating teachers attended a six week training course in more specific skills such as the reading and writing of braille, daily living skills, orientation and mobility, and speech and language training. A multi-site action research project was established in many different parts of India to study the effectiveness of the strategies in the UNESCO Pack in changing teachers' and pupils' attitudes to teaching and learning and to pupil achievement. The spiral capacity building model advocates recurrent short-term training and aims to build capacity over time, with ample opportunity for practice and feedback at the district level.
Where signing has been introduced into pre-schools in PNG, children have shown great competence and enthusiasm. Within the broad framework of 'inclusive education', there are also some clear underlying principles and values which would underpin the seminar. This section describes and reflects upon the approach and activities used during the six days of the seminar. In beginning to get to know each other, it soon became apparent that between us, we had around 100 years of experience in development, education, work with disabled people, training and facilitation. Participants were asked to list the key questions which they wanted answered during the seminar, after briefly introducing each other. These themes became working groups which met each day to try to answer some of the questions. They created a picture of a large mountain with 'inclusive education' as the goal at the top. People in groups will often naturally expect and allow others to lead and to make decisions on their behalf - and then often complain when the decisions do not meet their needs. This could be an unanswered question, a difficulty with the venue, a problem with the activities. Feedback at the end of seminars may be useful for facilitators, but it is unlikely to benefit the participants.
Then they are asked to 'write down one thing you were not happy with today' and to give this piece of paper to the facilitators.
It also means that by being anonymous, participants are not taking full responsibility for their own opinions and complaints. Some participants obviously had more experience than others, and these people were asked to make presentations early in the week, keeping them short (around 15-20 minutes) and highlighting issues relevant to the themes of the working groups.
A key frustration for facilitators, was knowing that a particular presenter had a lot of extremely useful experience and lessons to share, and yet this sometimes did not come through in a presentation. Later in the week, due to the larger number of participants who wanted to present, parallel groups were formed which also gave more opportunity for small group discussion.
These arose from the expressed need by participants to meet with others who had a similar level of experience as themselves. Not surprisingly, members of groups (b), (c), and (d) decided that they wanted to learn from the vast expertise of group (a), and demanded an opportunity to do so. Although panel members had a wealth of experience, they rarely answered the questions in detail or accurately, they naturally spoke from their own experience which was very grounded in their own culture and context. Initially, there was some reticence and shyness because of being away from home, culture and context, so people tended to stay with those they knew, or with whom it was easiest to communicate. Diversity of background, culture, language, age, disability and gender was welcomed, celebrated and catered for. The organisation of the seminar was guided by IDDC's current chairperson and Save the Children Fund (SCF {UK})'s Disability Adviser, Ms Sue Stubbs; but responsibility for the various tasks was shared out between the organisations.
IDDC had an obligation to ensure that the time and resources used would directly benefit the lives of marginalised groups, such as disabled children. Token representation of people from the South at international conferences rarely leads to a genuine exchange of ideas and experience taking place. Examples of good practice are given in the form of short case studies, or vignettes, and are based upon the presentations and background papers prepared by the participants. A tradition of segregated provision for disabled children and a single-category approach to impairment often restricts the possibility for change. The vast majority of disabled children, particularly those living in rural areas, are excluded from all services and have no means of accessing education. The main focus of the work has been to empower and support parents to form organisationsand to encourage them to challenge public attitudes and current policy.
SCF has opened three toy libraries for disabled children and their parents which represents a community based alternative to the current institutional provision.
Finally, there has been greater press coverage of disability issues since the programme started. The principles underpinning this educational transformation include: human rights and justice for all learners, equal access to a single, inclusive education system, removing past inequalities, the development of strong links between the community and the centres of learning, and cost-effectiveness. Also in the 1980s they became aware of the lack of educational opportunities for deaf children. The marginalisation of parents by professionals and the desire of some disabled adults for a more luxurious specialist system further complicate the issues. Educational literature should be reviewed and negative language and stereotyping should be removed. By providing basic information about disability and about the abilities of disabled people, and by encouraging disabled people to act as role models, self-advocates and information providers, there will be a gradual shift towards more positive attitudes.
Attractive and informative publicity material could be produced which highlight the issues, such as videos and calendars.
This department is under-resourced, and, like most traditional education systems, is pre-occupied with supporting those children who attend the special schools. Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) workers and teachers should build a strong relationship with the whole family based on trust. They have contributed to the development of in-service teacher training materials and are often asked to give talks during teachers' seminars. There had been some resistance from the teachers at the beginning of the project, but once they had gained confidence in working with disabled children they were able to initiate similar workshops for parents. By building upon the strengths of even the most impoverished schools, it is possible to introduce fundamental changes in educational practice. Some of the key questions which were asked were: 'Why do so many children fail?' And 'How can we teach in ways that limit failure and enhance learning with our limited resources?' The need for more child-centred and active teaching approaches in the classroom, planning and recording, and the recognition of individual differences among children provided some of the answers to these questions.
Lao educationalists have had access to relevant international research and experience through documents and study visits and the presence of an SCF adviser. One of the unexpected outcomes has been the reduction in the exam failure and repetition rates in many primary schools.
However for the minority of severely and multiply disabled children the most appropriate educational context for the child may be the family or community setting.
Greater attention to individual learning rates and styles, introduced for the benefit of the 6%, has resulted in an improved educational environment for all children.
It is the task of the IE practitioner to alert teachers to this fact and to guide them in their responses to diversity in the classroom. The length of teacher training will differ from country to country, depending on the content of curriculum developed. A video-based training package for use in pre-and in-service teacher training courses has been produced.
The pack has been introduced into 60 countries and translated into fifteen different languages. Continuous assessment through a wide variety of methods, such as drama, group work and multiple choice will reflect the child's strengths more accurately than standard tests. IE support groups should be formed, composed of disabled adults and youth, parents of disabled and non-disabled children, teachers and community workers. Age is not a barrier, neither is the degree of their disability, since home learning can be adapted to the need of the individual.
Additional financial support has been provided by the Norwegian Association of the Disabled (NAD) and the Swedish Organisation of Disabled International Aid Association (SHIA). Following the training a national resource team was set up and a pilot action research project was set up in the ten teacher training colleges. It was generally agreed that a multi-category approach to disability was more helpful than the single category approach adopted by most special schools.
In this way children's own ideas for overcoming barriers to inclusion are respected and acted upon.
However the introduction of the Child-to-Child methodology as part of the integration of disabled children has had a major impact on the schools involved. The role of rehabilitation and education professionals as resource and support personnel for IE could easily be explored because of their close proximity to the mainstream school.
An evaluation of the project by the children, teachers and disabled people concluded that the activity sheet successfully raised awareness of the issues and made the teachers question their teaching practices. IE programmes operating with minimal resources have opted to prioritise primary schools and primary teacher training colleges. They have been gradually pushed off their ancestral lands and have found themselves living in extreme poverty in harsher and more ecologically impoverished environments. Teacher training was therefore a key strand to the Project Integrated Education (PIED) which was introduced in the late 1980s by the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT), with financial support from the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and UNICEF. Finally at level three a one year course was undertaken by about ten teachers who in turn provided support to a cluster of local primary schools.
An example was quoted from Mozambique of deaf adults becoming heavily involved in the teaching of small classes of deaf children as part of a CBR programme.
Therefore we could not justify organising an event which would seek to develop the careers of academics, or attract participants who did not have a clear commitment and responsibility to improving practice.
We brought a wide range of different perspectives according to culture, gender, and personal experience of disability.
The task was to then find the person whose name-badge they had and to go and introduce themselves.
Several groups organised extra meetings out of seminar hours in order to pursue their very useful discussions.
Boulders were drawn to represent the blocks to achieving this goal as experienced by participants. The facilitators made a point of giving all participants an opportunity at the beginning and end of each day to evaluate the seminar and to make changes which would meet their needs. Then write down a possible solution to this problem, or let people know about your complaint. This came mainly from those with most experience, who were frustrated at going over old ground with 'beginners'. Although facilitators felt that no-one was an 'expert' and each had different, but equally valid, contributions, we felt that we had to respond to participants' requests to avoid frustration and resentment. This changed very quickly and lively interactions took place between people from very different backgrounds (This is demonstrated well by the video of the seminar). Some gave generously of their time and others were able to provide the necessary capital to enable the seminar to take place. A variety of active teaching and learning methods were used in order to demonstrate the changes which need to take place in most educational settings and to experience them at first hand. Participants from Laos and Mozambique were unfortunately unable to attend, but examples of their work have been quoted, where appropriate. The dominant medical model of disability, the philosophy of defectology, and resistance to change from professionals are just some of the barriers to the development of policy on IE.
Some ad hoc integration is taking place, mostly in the capital city, but those children who attend special units have a segregated educational experience, with no parental involvement.
Educational provision and support for all learners must be appropriate, effective, affordable, implementable and sustainable. A National Plan for Special Education was developed and approved by cabinet in early 1993 and funding for the first phase of the plan was released in 1994. Promoting positive attitudes and respect for difference is a pre-requisite for policy development and the implementation of IE at school and community level.
The media should be monitored for any negative portrayal of disabled people and should be encouraged to portray positive images.
Finally, information on the cost-effectiveness of inclusion in transport, buildings and staffing terms should be provided.
If necessary, support groups, or self-help organisations, for people with similar disabilities could be set up which will provide role models for attitude change among disabled people themselves and in the community. Several of the districts represented were so interested in the ideas that they established contact with SCF without waiting for a directive from the Education Department.
This educational transformation has taken place with a relatively small budget in a culturally appropriate way. To date 68 kindergartens have become involved, with approximately 350 children with mild learning difficulties being educated. A problem-solving approach to IE should be encouraged which empowers all members of the support group.
Nine out of the ten colleges are now using the Pack and 200 schools and 1060 teachers are involved in the programme in 20 of Ghana's 110 districts. Resource rooms have been very successful for visually impaired children in urban areas, but it is an expensive option which is unlikely to work in rural areas. All children take responsibility for including all children in classroom settings and in the community. The training manual helped the teachers to implement the activities with the children independently.
In Papua New Guinea, for example, the policy on IE has not been applied to secondary education and the secondary teacher training college has made it clear that they have other priorities. They are reluctant to integrate with the more technologically advanced settler communities who control the schools, shops and government offices. Approximately 10% of the children enrolled in the programme have so far been successfully included in mainstream schools.
Within 15-18 months this model of training enables teachers to become self-sufficient in a given geographical area. Signposts were drawn to represent ideas, events or issues which pointed the way to inclusion, and areas of green grass were drawn to represent existing strengths or achievements. However, facilitators noted that not everyone seemed comfortable, or aware, of how to relate to disabled people.
The description and analysis of this methodology takes up almost as much space in the report as the content of the seminar. Isolation from examples of good practice, the difficulty in finding appropriate and committed human resources, and funding agencies pursuing their own agenda further exacerbate an already difficult situation. Starting from the basis of respecting the human rights of all individuals, this radical new policy paves the way for an education system, which welcomes and responds to diversity.
Currently 7 pre-service teachers' colleges and 1 in-service teachers' college have a lectureship in special education which is supported by a Special Education Resource Centre, each with a core staff of 4 teachers salaried by government. Parents should be given the opportunity of being involved in their children's activities so that they can observe the methods used and participate as much as possible. As a result of this close collaboration, parents have become both more aware of their children's needs and more confident in dealing with professionals. Regulations prohibited mainstream schools from accepting disabled children, yet it was discovered that one of the kindergartens had accepted some disabled children. The ministry now has its own team of advisers who are responsible for planning and implementing educational change and managing the inclusion of disabled children.
Some of these children have been successfully integrated into primary schools, but the project has not yet expanded into the primary school sector. The advantage of this model is that teachers are not away from their schools for long periods, so the training does not disrupt the regular functioning of schools in the DPEP areas.
This exercise was very successful resulting in very animated participation and some interesting posters. Information about IE is spread all over the country by the parents, far beyond the ten pilot schools where it was initially introduced. By the year 2000 it is intended that there will be 100 kindergartens involved, and that children with other disabilities will be involved in the project and that it will expand into the primary school sector.
Parents haven't yet been involved in school activities although they are well informed about what is happening.
Participants were encouraged to make note of the way in which the seminar helped to remove some of the boulders as the week progressed.
Where there is no IE programme the parents have taken the initiative to introduce the concept.
In turn, the teachers involved in implementing IE are promoting the parents' message about the rights of disabled children to attend school.

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