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Us army wilderness survival manual ffxiv,ford edge limited vs sport zona,backyard food garden design 2014 - Downloads 2016

From trekking across the desert, or bushwalking through a jungle to conserve body heat in the Artic and rappelling down a mountain cliff, The US Army Survival Manual presents the field tested techniques that have proven effective in times of imminent danger and extreme distress. Erecting shelter - gather edible plants - fishing, hunting and trapping game - locating and collecting fresh water, starting fires and cooking food, navigating and orientating, this book covers it all. Units operating in mountainous regions are exposed to varied types of injuries and illnesses not associated with other areas.
In harsh mountain weather, the most important course of action is to provide injured soldiers with medical aid as soon as possible.
C—Clothing should be clean since prolonged wear reduces its air-trapping abilities and clogs air spaces with dirt and body oils. Shivering, which may progress to an uncontrollable point making it hard for an individual to care for himself.
Body temperature drop from 95 degrees Fahrenheit to 90 degrees Fahrenheit, which can cause sluggish thinking, irrational thought, apathy, and a false sense of warmth.
Body temperature drop from 90 degrees Fahrenheit to 85 degrees Fahrenheit, which causes irrationality, incoherence, loss of contact with the environment, muscular rigidity, disorientation, and exhaustion.
Body temperature drop from 85 degrees Fahrenheit and below, which causes muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, comatose state, and faint vital signs. Severe cases: If the victim is unconscious or appears dead without any obvious injury, prevent further heat loss. Treat early signs of frostbite by rewarming with skin-to-skin contact or by sheltering the body part under the clothing next to the body.
If frostbite is not recognized before it thaws, do not let the area refreeze since this causes more damage.
If reheating is inevitable, do not overheat the affected body parts near flame; the warming temperature should not be greater than normal body temperature. Heat injuries, although associated with hot weather, can occur in cold-weather environments. Acute mountain sickness is a temporary illness that may affect both the beginner and experienced climber. Movement to lower altitudes (at least 1,000 feet) to alleviate symptoms, which provides for a more gradual acclimatization.
Although not commonly seen in mountaineers, chronic mountain sickness (CMS) (or Monge’s disease) can been seen in people who live at sufficiently high altitudes (usually at or above 10,000 feet) over a period of several years. While the body has an overall systemic vasodilatation, the lungs initially experience pulmonary vasoconstriction. Progressive dry coughing with frothy white or pink sputum (this is usually a later sign) and then coughing up of blood.
An increased ill feeling, labored breathing, dizziness, fainting, repeated clearing of the throat, and development of a cough. Respiratory difficulty, which may be sudden, accompanied by choking and rapid deterioration. Progressive shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat (pulse 120 to 160), and coughing (out of contrast to others who arrived at the same time to that altitude). Crackling, cellophane-like noises (rales) in the lungs caused by fluid buildup (a stethoscope is usually needed to hear them).
Immediate descent (2,000 to 3,000 feet minimum) if possible; if not, then treatment in a monoplace hyperbaric chamber. The use of mannitol should not be considered due to the fact that it crystallizes at low temperatures. Nifidipine (Procardia), which inhibits calcium ion flux across cardiac and smooth muscle cells, decreasing contractility and oxygen demand.
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), which can help alleviate the histamine response that increases mucosal secretions. HACE is the accumulation of fluid in the brain, which results in swelling and a depression of brain function that may result in death. HAPE and HACE cause increased proteins in the plasma, or the fluid portion of the blood, which in turn increases blood viscosity.
This 15 inch survival knife with drop point blade features a thick quality stainless steel blade with serrated top edge.
Here are a few notes if you are new to the world of camo face paint pulled from personal experience, the Army Study Guide, and the FM 21-76: US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL.
If not to be found year-round, you can always count on stores carrying outdoors and hunting equipment to have a stock during hunting season; it is especially popular among bow hunters and a variety of fowl hunters like seeking animals like duck and turkey. Figure 21-1 gives a general idea of how to apply camouflage for various areas and climates. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Perfect for Army grunts and weekend outdoorsmen alike, this book teaches the survival skills every camper, hiker and hunter should master before heading into the wild. Medical considerations are like those for other environments; however, there are some unique aspects of mountain operations to be considered if effective support is to be provided. These types of injuries can be just as incapacitating as most other injuries but usually are not fatal. The SPF means that you can stay exposed to the suns UV rays that many times longer than without it. Proper sunglasses should provide 100 percent UVA and UVB protection and have hoods on the sides to prevent reflected light from entering the eye. If a soldier has had a cold injury before, he is at higher risk for subsequent cold injuries.
Personnel from warmer climates are more susceptible to cold injury than those from colder climates. Combat action requiring prolonged immobility and long hours of exposure to low temperatures, or not having an opportunity to warm up increases the possibility of cold injuries.
The uniform should be worn completely and correctly to avoid injury to exposed body surfaces. Injuries resulting in shock or blood loss reduce blood flow to extremities and may cause the injured individual to be susceptible to cold injury, which in turn can accelerate shock. Good nutrition is essential for providing the body with fuel to produce heat in cold weather. Excess activity (overheating) results in loss of large amounts of body heat by perspiration. Weather conditions in mountainous terrain are known to change considerably throughout the day. Soldiers should not move out at a force march pace and then be stationary after they have perspired heavily. The direct heat loss from the body to its surrounding atmosphere is called radiation heat loss. Conduction is the direct transfer of heat from one object in contact with another (being rained on or sitting in snow).
Shock is the depressed state of vital organs due to the cardiovascular (heart) system not providing enough blood. Initial symptoms of shock include apprehension, shortness of breath, sweating, cold skin, rapid and faint pulse, and excessive thirst. To treat shock, restore breathing and heart rate through artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Dehydration is the loss of body fluids to the point that normal body functions are prevented or slowed. Symptoms of dehydration include darkening urine, decreased amounts of urine being produced, dry mouth, tiredness, mental sluggishness, lack of appetite, headache, fainting, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, higher temperature, upset stomach, and unconsciousness.
Prevent dehydration by consuming three to six quarts of fluids each day (forced drinking in the absence of thirst is mandatory) and avoid caffeine and alcohol, which may chemically contribute to dehydration.
Hypothermia is the lowering of the body core temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat.
The soldier might stop shivering after his core temperature drops below 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hypothermia can be avoided by dressing in layers, which permits easy additions or deletions to prevent overheating, becoming too cold, or getting wet or windblown. If breathing steam is not possible, place tubing under the rescuer’s shirt so the victim will still breathe warm, moist air.
This is used to heat the body core first so the vital organs are warmed and not the extremities. This is damage to the circulatory and nervous systems of the feet that occurs from prolonged exposure to cold and wet at above freezing temperatures. Symptoms of immersion or trench foot include the sensation of tingling, numbness, and then pain. Frostbite is the freezing or crystallization of living tissues due to heat being lost faster than it can be replaced by blood circulation, or from direct exposure to extreme cold or high winds. Symptoms of frostbite vary and may include a cold feeling, pain, burning, numbness, and, in the final stages, a false sense of warmth.
If the victim has frostbite with frozen extremities, protect the frozen parts and evacuate as a litter patient. The most often-affected body parts are the hands, fingers, toes, feet, ears, chin, and nose. Factors that contribute to constipation are a lack of fluids, improper nutrition, and not defecating when needed.


Symptoms include headache, cramping, lack of bowel movement, painful bowel movement, and loss of appetite.
Constipation is prevented by consuming adequate amounts and varieties of food, drinking from four to six liters of liquid each day, and defecating regularly.
A contributing factor is inhaling fumes from burning fuel, such as fires, stoves, heaters, and running engines, without proper ventilation. Symptoms are similar to other common illnesses and include headaches, fatigue, excessive yawning, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, and unconsciousness.
Most heat injuries can be avoided by planning, periodic inspections of personnel clothing (ventilation) and equipment, a balance of water and food intake, and rest.
Have the victim rest in a cool, shady area, breath deeply, and stretch the cramped muscle as soon as possible to obtain relief. Factors that contribute to heat exhaustion are strenuous activity in hot areas, unacclimatized troops, inappropriate diet, and not enough water or rest. Factors that contribute to heat stroke are prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, overexertion, dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. Personnel arriving at moderate elevations (5,000 to 8,000 feet) usually feel well for the first few hours; a feeling of exhilaration or well-being is not unusual. AMS is nonfatal, although if left untreated or further ascent is attempted, development of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and or high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) can be seen.
CMS is a right-sided heart failure characterized by chronic pulmonary edema that is caused by years of strain on the right ventricle.
This constricting of the vessels in the lungs causes increased workload on the right ventricle, the chamber of the heart that receives de-oxygenated blood from the right atrium and pushes it to the lungs to be re-oxygenated. HAPE occurs under conditions of low oxygen pressure, is encountered at high elevations (over 8,000 feet), and can occur in healthy soldiers. HAPE is prevented by good nutrition, hydration, and gradual ascent to altitude (no more than 1,000 to 2,000 feet per day to an area of sleep). This should be carefully considered due to the respiratory depressive properties of the drug. Contributing factors include rapid ascent to heights over 8,000 feet and aggravation by overexertion. Symptoms of HACE include mild personality changes, paralysis, stupor, convulsions, coma, inability to concentrate, headaches, vomiting, decrease in urination, and lack of coordination. Preventive measures include good eating habits, maintaining hydration, and using a gradual ascent to altitude. This knife must be as functional, because ideally it is necessary not for cool to look, but for surviving! Camo Cream because it is soft and easy to apply but compacts will typically offer a wider variety of colors and a mirror for field application. After acclimatization, personnel can still become injured (sprains, strains, fractures, frostbite, hypothermia, and trench foot).
Due to rough terrain, medical units can seldom reach unit aid stations by vehicle to evacuate casualties. Snowblindness is sunburn of the cornea of the eye caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. For example, the body uses more heat to maintain the temperature of the skin when the temperature of the surrounding air is 37 degrees Fahrenheit than when it is 50 degrees Fahrenheit. When the forecast gives a figure that falls within the increased danger zone or beyond, caution must be taken to minimize cold injury. Appropriate measures should be taken when a change in weather or activity alters the amount of clothing needed to prevent overheating and, therefore, accumulation of perspiration.
When the skin or clothing becomes damp or wet, the risk of cold injury is greatly increased.
This loss of body heat combined with the loss of insulation value provided by the clothing (due to perspiration dampening the clothing) can subject a soldier to cold injuries. Weather can quickly change to extremely cold and wet conditions, especially in higher elevations.
Although shock is not a cold-weather injury, it is a symptom or a result of other injuries. If the victim is not given adequate first aid immediately, his condition may digress into incoherence, slower heart beat, unconsciousness, and possibly death. Hypothermia may be caused by exposure or by sudden wetting of the body such as falling into a lake or being sprayed with fuel or other liquid. This is followed by clumsiness (stumbling or falling), slow reactions, mental confusion, and difficulty in speaking. If the soldier is in a situation that precludes staying warm and dry, he should seek shelter. Severe complications may arise as the body temperature rises, which may result in cardiac arrest even though the victim seems to be doing well. Change socks often, drying the insides of boots, massaging the feet, and using foot powder. The layer immediately below usually appears white to grayish with the surface feeling hard, but the underlying tissue is soft. Buddies must watch each other for symptoms of frostbite and provide mutual aid if frostbite occurs.
If evacuation of the victim as a litter case is not possible and the body part has not yet thawed, have the victim walk out on his own. Heat cramps are caused by an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles and a loss of salt through perspiration. Heat exhaustion may occur when a soldier exerts himself in any environment and he overheats.
Incidence and severity increases with altitude, and when quickly transported to high altitudes.
There may be an initial awareness of breathlessness upon exertion and a need for frequent pauses to rest. Even when a headache is not present, some loss of appetite and a decrease in tolerance for food occurs. A severe persistence of symptoms may identify soldiers who acclimatize poorly and, thus, are more prone to other types of mountain sickness. Whether at sea level or 20,000 feet the surrounding atmosphere has the same percentage of oxygen.
As the right ventricle works harder to force blood to the lungs, its overall output is decreased thus decreasing the overall pulmonary perfusion. HAPE may be considered a form of, or manifestation of, AMS since it occurs during the period of susceptibility to this disorder.
A rest day, with no gain in altitude or heavy physical exertion, is planned for every 3,000 feet of altitude gained. Vascular leakage caused by stretching of the vessel walls is made worse because of this increased vascular pressure.
The first thing to remember is the best survival knife and beautiful knife are two different knives! Litter bearers are required to move casualties to the rear where they can be evacuated by ground or air to clearing stations.
Due to the long wavelengths of ultraviolet light, cloudy days can be more dangerous than sunny days. A solution of vinegar (acetic) and water can be lightly applied with sterile gauze to alleviate burning.
Army does not have these types of "glacier" sunglasses in their inventory and they must be acquired from nonmilitary sources.) In an emergency, improvise slit glasses from materials such as cardboard or birch bark.
Simple tasks take longer to perform, and they take more effort than in a temperate climate. The equivalent wind chill temperature is especially important when the ambient temperature is 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) or less.
In cold weather the human body needs special care, and the consumption of water is important to retain proper hydration. Clothing that ventilates, insulates, and protects must control the layer of warm air next to the skin. Any illness or injury can produce shock, which increases the instance and severity of a cold-weather injury.
Dehydration precedes all cold-weather injuries and is a major symptom in acute mountain sickness. Hypothermia can occur even on moderate days with temperatures of 40 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit with little precipitation if heat loss exceeds heat gain and the condition of the soldier is allowed to deteriorate. At all times, the victim should be handled gently so as not to cause the cold blood from the extremities to rush to the heart. In addition to breathing moist, warm air the victim must be gradually rewarmed using external heat sources. The skin is wet and soggy with the color turning from red to bright red, progressing to pale and mottled, and then grayish blue. Deep (severe) frostbite extends beyond the first layer of skin and may include the bone (Figure 2-3).
Frostbite should be identified early with prompt first-aid care applied to prevent further damage. The blood vessels in the skin become so dilated that the blood flow to the brain and other organs is reduced.


If possible, submerge the victim in water to reduce his temperature, treat for shock, and prepare for immediate evacuation.
Disability and ineffectiveness can occur in 50 to 80 percent of the troops who are rapidly brought to altitudes above 10,000 feet.
As pressure decreases the body has a much more difficult time passing oxygen from the lungs to the red blood cells and thus to the tissues of the body. Decreased pulmonary perfusion causes decreased cellular respiration—the transfer of oxygen from the alveoli to the red blood cells. If a soldier develops symptoms despite precautions, immediate descent is mandatory where he receives prompt treatment, rest, warmth, and oxygen. HAPE and HACE may occur in experienced, well-acclimated mountaineers without warning or obvious predisposing conditions. A headache combined with any other physical or psychological disturbances should be assumed to be manifestations of HACE. Survival kit includes a hollow grip with a compass top to store items within the knife itself, as well as additional pouches on the sheath to hold the rest. As with any other injuries, the most life threatening are treated first with the emphasis on airway control, breathing management, and circulatory support. Cold injuries result from impaired circulation and the action of ice formation and cold upon the tissues of the body. Tissue can freeze if exposed for a prolonged period and if frequent warming is not practiced. It contributes to poor performance in all physical activities—even more so than lack of food.
If the stomach is cold, the victim is probably hypothermic; if it is warm, he is probably dehydrated. Hypothermia is classified as mild (core temperature above 90 degrees Fahrenheit or 32 degrees Celsius) or severe (core temperature below 90 degrees Fahrenheit or 32 degrees Celsius). Above all else, keep the victim conscious until his vital signs are normal, and seek medical assistance. Damp hands and feet may freeze quickly since moisture conducts heat away from the body and destroys the insulating value of clothing. Discoloration continues from gray to black, and the texture becomes hard as the tissue freezes deeper. The skin may feel hard, may not be movable over the joints and bony prominences, or may be frozen. At lower altitudes, or where ascent to altitudes is gradual, most personnel can complete assignments with moderate effectiveness and little discomfort. Severe symptoms may begin 4 to 12 hours after arrival at higher altitudes with symptoms of nausea, sluggishness, fatigue, headache, dizziness, insomnia, depression, uncaring attitude, rapid and labored breathing, weakness, and loss of appetite.
This lower pressure means lower oxygen levels in the blood and increased carbon dioxide levels.
The body is now experiencing increased carbon dioxide levels due to the decreased oxygen levels, which now causes pulmonary vasodilatation. Headaches may be accompanied by a loss of coordination, confusion, hallucinations, and unconsciousness. Skills in basic first aid are essential to the mountain leader and should be reinforced with regular sustainment training.
However, this test is not conclusive since cold-weather dehydrating can also lead to total body cooling.
An individual is considered to be "clinically hypothermic" when the core temperature is less than or equal to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Identification of deep versus superficial frostbite is difficult to determine and often requires three to seven days after rewarming for medical personnel to diagnose. Increased carbon dioxide levels in the blood cause a systemic vasodilatation, or expansion of blood vessels. Just as in HACE, this expanding of the vascular structure causes leakage into interstitial space resulting in pulmonary edema or HAPE. Training must be accomplished with all litter bearers on evacuation techniques and first aid.
The effects of extreme cold and the probability of injury are magnified due to the lack of proper diet and sleep.
They may, in fact, exceed desert requirements because of the increased difficulty in moving with extra clothing and through the snow. The cold environment may act as a diuretic and impair the body’s ability to conserve fluid (cold-induced diuresis and increased rate of urination).
If he fails to improve within one hour or is unconscious, evacuate him to a medical facility immediately. Because the early stages of trench foot are not painful, soldiers must be constantly aware to prevent it.
They should be cleaned with soap and water, dried, elevated, and exposed to room temperature.
With proper clothing and equipment, properly maintained and used, frostbite can be prevented. This increased vascular size stretches the vessel walls causing leakage of the fluid portions of the blood into the interstitial spaces, which leads to cerebral edema or HACE.
As the edema or fluid in the lungs increases, the capability to pass oxygen to the red blood cells decreases thus creating a vicious cycle, which can quickly become fatal if left untreated. The victim is often mistakenly left alone since others may think he is only irritable or temperamental; no one should ever be ignored. The most important measure in the prevention of cold-weather injuries is the education of personnel and their leaders. Using a stove, warm water until it is hot to the touch (but not hot enough to burn the patient) and completely dampen any absorbable materials (such as T-shirt, towel, BDU top, and so on).
They gradually subside over the next several days so that the total course of AMS may extend from five to seven days.
Unless treated, HACE will continue to progress due to the decreased atmospheric pressure of oxygen.
Cases that are recognized early and treated promptly may expect to recover with no aftereffects. Combined with a rapid rate of breathing, as much as two liters of liquid may be lost each day through respiration.
If no pulse is detectable, be aware that in hypothermia there is often effective circulation for the victim’s hypothermic state.
Place the warm, wet items inside a plastic bag or directly in the armpits and chest of the patient. Frostbite is one of the major nonfatal cold-weather injuries encountered in military operations, but does not occur above an ambient temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit. In some instances, the headache may become incapacitating and the soldier should be evacuated to a lower elevation.
Frostbite Wind chill may cause faster cooling due to increased convection, but not below the ambient temperature. A soldier needs about three to six quarts of water each day to prevent dehydration when living and performing physical labor in a cold or mountainous environment. Dark amber colored urine instead of light yellow or the absence of a need to urinate upon awakening from a night’s sleep are indicators of dehydration.
The best wilderness first aid kits are ones where the contents, your experience and the likely risks are in sync. There are some general skills that everyone should learn such as basic life support (even if you are travelling no further than the office) but you shouldn’t neglect to undertake a risk-assessment for where you are going and use this information to improve your preparation. I hope this article will give you the basis to think about what’s already in your personal first aid kit as well as what else you might like to include.
These military dressings are very absorbent and much better than cheap pharmacy-bought dressings. Small bandage: I find these cheap, small bandages useful for cutting to size to dress a cut or burn, particularly on fingers. Alongside are other items - large bandanna, water bottle, and malleable splint - useful for outdoor first aid.
The Israeli bandage and the Oles dressing are both pressure dressings and yes once applied can be left on within reason.
I would recommend anyone wishing to use specialist medical equipment to seek out professional training before use. Regards AdrianReply robinAdrian, 30 years ago, when I was is the military we removed and replied tourniquets. Now as a member of the ambulance service we are taught and teach that it is to be left in place as we look at life over limb.Reply robinAdrian, public forum is probably not best place for this discussion and will only confuse readers. There is some risk that some people may use the knowledge imparted as a replacement for proper training. Also, if folk can recognise Plantain it is good at treating them too (I’ve used it on my youngest).



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