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Treatment of swelling in retina ventajas,what is education week devotional,treatment for edema in eye 312 - Plans Download

The macula is the part of the retina responsible for acute central vision, the vision used for reading, watching television, and recognizing faces. Vitrectomy surgery, the only treatment for a macular hole, removes the vitreous gel and scar tissue pulling on the macula and keeping the hole open. With treatment, most macular holes shrink and some of the lost central vision slowly returns.
Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), commonly known as background retinopathy, is an early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Macular edema is swelling, or thickening, of the macula, a small area in the center of the retina that allows us to see fine details clearly.
If you have diabetes, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is the best protection against loss of vision. A diabetic can significantly reduct eh risk of developing diabetic retinopathy by using common sense and taking good care of himself or herself.
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Reading may be difficult after dilating the pupil and one may be intolerant to bright light for a few hours – you may have to take time off from your office and it would be good idea to avoid driving immediately after retina examination. While the basic eye examination can be completed rather quickly, it takes some time for the pupils to dilate adequately – hence allow about an hour for a complete retinal consultation. Fundus angiography is used extensively across the world with few significant complications. This is a painless test that makes use of sound waves to image the inside of the eye if the inside of the eye cannot be seen using routine clinical methods. The images obtained from this test give an idea about the structural integrity of the eye and will help your eye specialist in diagnosing the problem and also suggest treatment. There are usually no side effects of this test except for mild pain of the eyeball if it is inflamed. This test will help your doctor decide about appropriate treatment for your retinal condition and also help assess response to treatment. Diabetes affects the tiny blood vessels called capillaries of many organs, notably the retina, kidneys and nerve tissue. The damaged capillaries in the retina leak blood, fluid, and proteins in to the retina resulting in retinal edema.
Further damage to retinal capillaries results in capillary closure and large part of the retina loses its blood supply and becomes ischemic. When bleeding occurs, you will notice black spots swimming across your vision and if bleeding is large, you may lose vision.
Diabetes can also cause cataract, weakness of the optic nerve or eye muscles or increase in eye pressure. A diabetic is also more likely to develop sudden loss of vision due to occlusion of the retinal vessels (branch or central retinal vein occlusion), bleeding in the vitreous cavity, detachment of the retina, or infections. When the disease reaches the stage of new blood vessel growth, 3 to 4 sessions of LASER therapy spread out over a week or so may be necessary. Severe bleeding or retinal detachment will require microsurgery (vitreous surgery) to restore some vision. Your pupils will be dilated first and then the eye will be anesthetized by applying anesthetic eye drops. Alternately your doctor may deliver the LASER after making you sleep on a couch; in this technique no lens will be placed on your eye. You will be requested to move your eye in different directions to enable the doctor to treat all the areas of the retina. Rarely, if you are particularly light sensitive, your doctor may suggest an anesthetic injection so that you are more comfortable during the treatment. You may be advised to sleep with head elevated and not to bend or lift heavy weights – these are not precautions after LASER. LASER therapy for macular edema, mainly prevents additional vision loss but may also improve vision to some extent. Pre and post LASER therapy for macular edema – the protein deposits have absorbed after LASER. LASER for new blood vessel growth helps prevent complications such as bleeding inside the eye and retinal detachment. An assiduous person may notice decreased side-vision and also that it takes longer to see things when he or she enters a dark room.
The retina is supplied blood through the retinal arteries and the blood is drained through the retinal veins. Blockage of retinal blood vessels is often due to systemic diseases affecting the eye and may result in severe vision loss that may be temporary or permanent. If one of the smaller branches is blocked (Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion) the area of the retina supplied by that branch loses its function and patients have better visual function.
Most important fact about retinal artery occlusions is that these patients are at a risk for heart attack, other eye retinal artery occlusion and stroke. If you have attacks of vision loss for a brief period of time (called amaurosis fugax) you need to have yourself checked immediately. Retinal vein occlusions may occur in patients with blood pressure, diabetes, glaucoma and atherosclerosis. Retinal vein occlusion results in blood and fluid leaking in to the retina and causing vision loss.
However, one third of patients with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion may have complications such as persistent swelling of the central retina (macular edema) or growth of abnormal new blood vessels inside the eye. A special test called fluorescein angiography (FFA) may be necessary in some patients 3-4 months after the vein occlusion occurred. In patients with macular edema (swelling of the central retina) or growth of abnormal blood vessels, LASER therapy may be necessary to stabilize the vision and prevent further complications like retinal detachment and bleeding within the eye.
If the main vein draining blood from the retina is blocked, it is called Central retinal Vein Occlusion.
You may be asked to come frequently for follow-up depending on the type of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion. LASER therapy or cryotherapy may be initiated if growth of new blood vessels is noted in the front part of the eye or if eye pressure is elevated. In patients with inflammation as the cause for vein occlusion, steroid therapy may also be recommended.
While it is essential that babies born with a birth weight less than 1700 gm or earlier than 35 weeks of pregnancy are examined for ROP, it is better that all premature babies born before 37-38 weeks irrespective of weight are checked for ROP.
During ROP examination, the retinal specialist will look at the entire retina of both eyes of your baby after dilating the pupils. This may look disconcerting to parents, particularly because the child cries lustily during the examination. Most often ROP does not need treatment, but you may have to visit the retinal specialist at periodic intervals to ensure that the retinal growth is satisfactory and ROP is regressing. Most babies have reasonably good to normal vision, depending on the severity of the disease. All premature babies need regular eye examinations till they start going to school as they have a slightly increased tendency to need glasses or develop cross-eyes. Approximately 6 out of 1000 people older than 50 years may develop epiretinal membranes; 10-20% of them having both eyes affected. Most patients with epiretinal macula membranes have only mild symptoms and treatment is rarely needed. Complications such as retinal tears and retinal detachment are rare following the surgery (1-3 %). The macula is the most important part of the retina responsible for fine vision; a hole may develop spontaneously in this sensitive area resulting in loss of central vision. You may have to maintain face down head positioning for 16-18 hours a day for a couple of weeks so that the gas we inject in to the eye is able to do its bit for closing the hole.
Cataract may occur after macular hole surgery; in addition, retinal detachment may rarely occur, in which case, vision may be worse than pre surgical vision. In central serous chorio-retinopathy(CSCR), some fluid collects under the central retina (macula). CSCR may recur in half to one-third of patients and 10% patients may have 3 or more recurrences.


Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a disease affecting the central sensitive part of the retina, called as the macula. Dry AMD is characterized by the presence of yellow deposits (accumulated debris from the aging retina), called drusen. A biological molecule, called Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, see treatment), plays a major role in the growth and sustenance of this neo-vascular membrane.
Dry AMD causes a gradual loss in central vision and in advanced cases, severe vision loss may also occur. The best way of detecting AMD is getting a regular retinal examination done, especially, after the age of 50. The retinal specialist will perform a complete eye examination and may order tests such as FFA, ICG angiograms and OCT. The treatment of wet AMD has evolved in the last 5-6 years from limiting degree of vision loss to maintaining and improving existing vision.
Anti-VEGF therapy works by blocking the action of VEGF, the molecule that promotes the growth of the abnormal blood vessel under the retina (CNVM). Pegaptanib (Macugen) and Ranibizumab (Lucentis) are drugs that are FDA (US drug regulatory authority) approved for treatment. Bevacizumab is however not approved by the FDA for eye use – National Eye Institute, a premier eye research organization in USA is funding a study evaluating the use of Bevacizumab in wet AMD patients.
Some discomfort, rarely pain, redness of the eye may be present on the day of the injection and a day or two later. These injections have to be repeated at monthly or 6 weekly intervals for a year or two and this means that the patient has to make repeated visits to the clinic and also undergo regular consultations and investigations. These injections are injected in to the eye – this may very rarely be associated with a serious infection of the eye called endophthalmitis. These medicines are new developments and long-term side effects are not known at the moment. The injections are given after applying anesthetic eye drops or anesthetic injection – there may be slight discomfort and soreness on the day of injection, but not pain. You will have to continue using the antibiotic eye drops after the injection and avoid washing your hair for 3 days. If you or a family member has diabetes, there is something you should know about your eyes. Diabetic retinopathy can happen to anyone who has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and according to the National Eye Institute, up to 45 percent of adults diagnosed with diabetes in the United States have some degree of diabetic retinopathy.
During the first three stages of diabetic retinopathy, no treatment is needed, unless you have macular edema. Focal laser treatment, a laser treatment, also referred to as photocoagulation, can stop the leakage of blood and fluid in the eye.
Scatter laser treatment, also known as panretinal photocoagulation, is a laser treatment that can shrink the abnormal blood vessels and this is also done in your doctor's office or eye clinic. Vitrectomy, is a procedure that can be used to remove blood from the vitreous (the center of the eye) and scar tissue that's tugging on the retina. Although there is no cure for diabetic retinopathy, surgery often slows or stops the progression. The material contained on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.
Diabetic retinopathy is a serious condition that can cause vision loss, including blindness.
In the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, blood vessels in the retina start leaking blood and fluid. If you wear glasses, the opticians at The Sight Shop can help you find the best lenses and frames, even if diabetic eye disease affects your vision.
When the vitreous (the gel-like substance inside the eye) ages and shrinks, it can pull on the thin tissue of the macula, causing a tear that can eventually form a small hole. The eye is then filled with a special air bubble to push against the macula and close the hole. The amount of visual improvement typically depends on the length of time the hole was present. If we are able enjoy reading, recognize people we love, marvel at the intricate designs on a carving, it is because of the macula.
Of course your stay at the clinic may be longer if you have to undergo any additional investigations. Much like the brain tissue, retina cannot regenerate –diseases of the vitreous and retina can cause permanent blindness.
This is a special test to evaluate the structure and health of the blood vessels within the retina by injecting a special dye in to a vein. In this test a different kind of dye, Indocyanine green dye is used for performing the test. You will be made to sit in front of the Fundus Camera and a series of photographs of the retina are taken after injecting a dye in to a vein in the arm.
This test however cannot give information about the functional capability of the structures.
Swelling of the retina, collection of fluid beneath the retina, anomalous blood vessels can be seen well with this test. When the edema involves the central retina (Macula), vision may be affected because of Macular Edema. You will be made to sit in front of the LASER machine and your eye specialist will place a small lens on your eye and direct the LASER light in to the eye. However, reading and performing near work may be difficult for a few hours because the pupils are dilated. Diabetic retinopathy may progress even after LASER or even if the blood sugar level is well controlled. Temporary vision loss lasting for a few minutes usually occurs immediately after the treatment. These side-effects cannot be prevented and are a small price to pay for avoiding blindness due to diabetic retinopathy. This surgery is used to treat complications of diabetic retinopathy such removal of  bleeding inside the eye and repair of retinal detachment. The arteries or veins may get blocked – when this happens, the retina loses its blood supply, thereby its function.
If the main arteriole supplying blood to the retina is blocked, there is sudden, severe vision loss that may hardly improve over time. These blood vessels can rupture easily resulting in bleeding inside the eye and vision loss.
This is to detect ominous changes early enough and initiate prompt treatment to prevent total blindness in the eye. In a few premature babies, retinal blood vessels may develop abnormally causing bleeding and retinal detachment in the eye.
This is particularly important if the baby has had other problems such as lack of oxygen, infection, blood transfusion or breathing trouble, etc after birth.
In babies with very low birth weight (<1200 gm birth weight), the examination should preferably be done earlier (at 2-3 weeks of birth).
In such children complicated surgery may be necessary to retain some vision or to give some vision.
In children who did develop ROP, there may be vision threatening problems that develop later in life.
Epiretinal membranes most often occur spontaneously with out any cause or may occur after previous retinal detachment, cryotherapy, retinal tears, eye injury, laser photocoagulation, inflammation or any previous surgical procedure.
Self monitoring of for progression of the distortion with Amsler Grid and periodic retinal examination is usually sufficient. Surgery would involve vitrectomy with mechanical peeling of the membrane using fine forceps. Patients who undergo vitrectomy may develop cataract earlier in the operated eye and may need cataract surgery in the future. If you have been having the hole for 2 years or lesser, there is 70-80% chance of hole closure after surgery.
Because of the fluid, you will see a relatively black patch wherever you wish to see and also distortion of images. With the passage of time these deposits enlarge and merge; the retina becomes atrophic (geographic atrophy) causing loss of central vision.


Treatment does have a role in reducing the risk of progression of the intermediate stages to the advanced stages (of dry or wet AMD). Anti-VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) therapy and Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), or a combination of the two, form the basis of modern day treatment of wet AMD.
This will help the eye specialist decide on the area of treatment, best treatment option and help in assessing the response to treatment. These drugs are injected directly inside the eye, to provide maximum concentration where it is needed –that is near the CNVM. However another molecule, Bevacizumab that is essentially a drug approved for use in colorectal cancer patients is being used widely across the world by ophthalmologists to treat wet AMD.
The results of this study, if favoring Bevacizumab, may give official recognition to this drug. If such a complication were to occur, the patient will need injection of antibiotics in to the eye or a surgery (vitrectomy) for controlling the infection.
There is a possibility that these medicines may have some systemic side effects like increasing risk of stroke in people who are predisposed.
To decrease the risk of serious infection after injection, you may have to use antibiotic eye drops for 2-3 days prior to and after the injection and the procedure will be performed under sterile precautions (like preparing for an operation).
Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that results from damage to the blood vessels of the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye.
Many more blood vessels are blocked, depriving several areas of the retina with their blood supply.
At this advanced stage, the signals sent by the retina for nourishment trigger the growth of new blood vessels.
To prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy, people with diabetes should control their levels of blood sugar, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol. During the procedure, the areas of the retina away from the macula are treated with scattered laser burns and these burns cause the new blood vessels to shrink and disappear.
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The air bubble will gradually dissolve, but the patient must maintain a face down position for one to two weeks to keep the gas bubble in contact with the macula. Some people with normal vision in the other eye may not want surgery, since vitrectomy surgery cannot completely restore vision.
This valuable test helps your doctor make the correct diagnosis and plan the best course of treatment.
Repeated camera flash during the procedure may be disconcerting and a few people may have mild nausea or vomiting.
Damage to the small vessels of the optic nerve can affect vision, and weakness of the eye muscles may cause double vision.
Hence, patients with diabetic retinopathy need life-long regular follow-up after treatment. Most patients get better with a single surgery while a few may need more than one surgery for visual improvement. Rarely the central vision may be preserved due to the presence of alternate blood supply from the layer underlying the retina, but most often patients have severe irreversible vision loss.
The eye surgeon will start emergency treatment to the affected eye such as withdrawing some fluid from the front of the eye, performing eye massage, giving intravenous and topical medication in an effort to dislodge the embolus or clot form the central retinal artery and restoring blood flow. More than ½ the patients with branch retinal vein occlusion will have nearly normal vision without any treatment 1 year after the vein occlusion occurred. However, the baby will not co-operate by keeping its eyes open or see where the doctor wants it to see. Each treatment session will take around ½ hour and the child is not subjected to general anesthesia.
The membrane when it lies over the central retina (macula), it can block the light; the membrane can also contract and distort the retina.
Vision may not be normal after surgery but improvement much as three lines of letters seen on the visual acuity testing chart can be expected. An anxious, emotionally stressed personality (Type A), use of steroids for various ailments (arthritis, asthma, skin allergies or organ transplant), pregnancy are risk factors for CSCR to occur. In people needing early restoration of vision for professional or personal needs, CSCR can be treated earlier. The vessels in this membrane are fragile and leak blood and fluid under the macula and in to the retina. Reading small print will be difficult and one may notice that letters or words in a sentence go missing. The Age Related Eye Diseases Study (AREDS) has recommended 500 milligrams of vitamin C, 400 International Units of vitamin E, 15 milligrams of beta-carotene (equivalent to 25,000 International Units of vitamin A), 80 milligrams of zinc as zinc oxide, and 2 milligrams of copper as cupric oxide as dietary supplement in AMD. In the beginning stages, diabetic retinopathy may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems. These areas of the retina send signals to the body to grow new blood vessels for nourishment. Your vision will be blurry for about a day after the procedure and it is possible to have some loss of peripheral vision or night vision after the procedure. If it has been a year since your last eye appointment, schedule your yearly eye exam with Morristown Ophthalmology Associates, P.A. November is Diabetic Eye Disease month, a good time to get the facts on diabetic retinopathy. For example, the leaks can cause swelling in the center of the retina, an area called the macula.
Plus, their growth can damage the retina, making it pucker or pull away from the back of the eye (a condition called retinal detachment). If you have diabetes, you need a comprehensive eye exam every year, or more often if your doctor recommends it. However, you might still have some vision loss after treatment, especially if the damage was severe. If you have diabetes, the best thing you can do for your eyes is to find an eye doctor you trust and get regular exams. Other medical questions can be submitted through our Patient Portal or contact the office during normal office hours.
If you are diagnosed to have diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration or retinal blood vessel occlusion, you may be advised the test.
Hence the doctor will anesthetize the baby’s eyes with eye drops, place a small instrument on the eye to keep its eyes open and also use another instrument to move the eye.
This distortion will be of the retina causes visual disturbances – what one sees will appear distorted or slanted.
However a return to normal vision is unlikely and it is rare to completely eliminate visual distorsion. Once bleeding occurs this is seen by the patient as a dark spot, which constantly obstructs central vision. This formulation that is available in capsule form is neither a cure for AMD nor will it restore lost vision.
Blood-filled tissue and scar tissue are removed with delicate instruments and replaced with a salt solution, and this helps maintain your eye's normal shape.
However expensive the camera may be, if the film is defective, one doesn’t get good photos. Double vision can also occur; things can appear small or large when compared with the other eye. Without treatment central vision may continue to worsen over time and patients may need assistance to carry out their daily routine activities. They grow along the retina and along the surface of the clear, vitreous gel that fills the inside of the eye.
However, if you had blurred vision from swelling of the central macula before surgery, you may not recover completely normal vision. In some cases, a gas bubble must be placed in the cavity of the eye to help reattach the retina and this can cause a longer stay in the hospital because you may need to remain in a facedown position until the gas bubble disappears which can take several days. Your eye surgeon will instruct you on how to use an eye patch and use medicated eyedrops for a few days or weeks.



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