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A Carer is someone who looks after a partner, child, relative or friend with an illness or disability or addiction who otherwise couldn't manage without their help. A Young Carer is a child or young person affected by the illness, disability or addiction problems of a family member. There is also a referral form you can complete if you dont have time to pop in to our drop in. Alternatively, we have Outreach Carers Support Workers who cover the whole of the Dumfries & Galloway area. NHS staff can also access more service information and information on a range of Carer Aware issues through the Carers intranet page (HIPPO) which comes under 'Services'. Ulcerative colitis is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon.
When the inflammation occurs in the rectum and lower part of the colon it is called ulcerative proctitis.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the small intestine and colon.
Ulcerative colitis can occur in people of any age, but it usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30, and less frequently between 50 and 70 years of age. Ulcerative colitis is not caused by emotional distress or sensitivity to certain foods or food products, but these factors may trigger symptoms in some people.
A stool sample can also reveal white blood cells, whose presence indicates ulcerative colitis or inflammatory disease.
A colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy are the most accurate methods for making a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and ruling-out other possible conditions, such as Crohn’s disease, diverticular disease, or cancer.
Sometimes x rays such as a barium enema or CT scans are also used to diagnose ulcerative colitis or its complications.
The goal of drug therapy is to induce and maintain remission, and to improve the quality of life for people with ulcerative colitis. Aminosalicylates, drugs that contain 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA), help control inflammation. Corticosteroids such as prednisone, methylprednisone, and hydrocortisone also reduce inflammation.
Immunomodulators such as azathioprine and 6-mercapto-purine (6-MP) reduce inflammation by affecting the immune system.
Some people have remissions — periods when the symptoms go away — that last for months or even years.
About 25 to 40 percent of ulcerative colitis patients must eventually have their colons removed because of massive bleeding, severe illness, rupture of the colon, or risk of cancer. Ileostomy, in which the surgeon creates a small opening in the abdomen, called a stoma, and attaches the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, to it.
Ileoanal anastomosis, or pull-through operation, which allows the patient to have normal bowel movements because it preserves part of the anus. According to the 2002 updated guidelines for colon cancer screening, people who have had IBD throughout their colon for at least 8 years and those who have had IBD in only the left colon for 12 to 15 years should have a colonoscopy with biopsies every 1 to 2 years to check for dysplasia.
The following information comes from The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S.
Children’s bones are less brittle and more liable to plastic deformation – hence torus and greenstick fractures only occur in children. Cellular activity is also increased in the children – hence children’s fractures heal much more rapidly than those of adults. Angled buckle fractures are easily missed: special attention has to be paid to the contour of the bone particularly at the metaphysis ( Fig. The presence of an elevated anterior fat pad may be the only indication of a fracture about the elbow. 2 clicks for more privacy: On the first click the button will be activated and you can then share the poster with a second click.


Newsbeat’s Tina Daheley and Chris Smith are live in Leeds tonight for an election debate special. The programme will be broadcast live on Radio 1, BBC Radio Leeds and the BBC News Channel featuring questions from people aged 18-24 years old. Taking part in the audience debate will be: Sam Gyimah (Conservative), Sadiq Khan (Labour), Sal Brinton (Liberal Democrats), Mhairi Black (SNP) and Rhun ap Iorwerth (Plaid Cymru).
Register Subscribe to our emails to stay informed about the latest radio news and products delivered straight to your inbox. Young Carers are often responsible for a great deal of their own care as well as the tasks of caring for their family member. Caring for someone is an important and valuable role in our community which can be a 24 hour job, 7 days a week.
Ulcers form where inflammation has killed the cells that usually line the colon, then bleed and produce pus. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to other intestinal disorders and to another type of IBD called Crohn’s disease.
It affects men and women equally and appears to run in families, with reports of up to 20 percent of people with ulcerative colitis having a family member or relative with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. People with ulcerative colitis have abnormalities of the immune system, but doctors do not know whether these abnormalities are a cause or a result of the disease. The stress of living with ulcerative colitis may also contribute to a worsening of symptoms.
In addition, a stool sample allows the doctor to detect bleeding or infection in the colon or rectum caused by bacteria, a virus, or parasites.
For both tests, the doctor inserts an endoscope — a long, flexible, lighted tube connected to a computer and TV monitor — into the anus to see the inside of the colon and rectum. Each person experiences ulcerative colitis differently, so treatment is adjusted for each individual.
They may be used by people who have moderate to severe ulcerative colitis or who do not respond to 5-ASA drugs. These drugs are used for patients who have not responded to 5-ASAs or corticosteroids or who are dependent on corticosteroids. Sometimes the doctor will recommend removing the colon if medical treatment fails or if the side effects of corticosteroids or other drugs threaten the patient’s health.
In this operation, the surgeon removes the colon and the inside of the rectum, leaving the outer muscles of the rectum. Which surgery to have depends on the severity of the disease and the patient’s needs, expectations, and lifestyle. The risk of cancer increases with the duration of the disease and how much the colon has been damaged. Such screening has not been proven to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but it may help identify cancer early. 1: The so-called greenstick fracture derives its name from the semblance this fracture in children has to the break that occurs in a green stick with one side bending and the outer convexity breaking (a). 2: Greenstick fracture of the fibula in an 11 year old boy who fell whilst playing football (frontal - a, lateral - b).
4: A classic buckle (torus) fracture is the cortical bulging that occurs secondary to axial loading on the bone (a). Many people do not recognise themselves as Carers and consequently miss out on information, services, support and financial assistance that they are entitled to. Crohn’s disease differs because it causes inflammation deeper within the intestinal wall and can occur in other parts of the digestive system including the small intestine, mouth, esophagus, and stomach. Ulcerative colitis may also cause problems such as arthritis, inflammation of the eye, liver disease, and osteoporosis. The body’s immune system is believed to react abnormally to the bacteria in the digestive tract.


Blood tests may be done to check for anemia, which could indicate bleeding in the colon or rectum, or they may uncover a high white blood cell count, which is a sign of inflammation somewhere in the body. Corticosteroids, also known as steroids, can be given orally, intravenously, through an enema, or in a suppository, depending on the location of the inflammation.
Immunomodulators are administered orally, however, they are slow-acting and it may take up to 6 months before the full benefit. In such cases the doctor will try to stop diarrhea and loss of blood, fluids, and mineral salts. The stoma is about the size of a quarter and is usually located in the lower right part of the abdomen near the beltline. The surgeon then attaches the ileum to the inside of the rectum and the anus, creating a pouch.
People faced with this decision should get as much information as possible by talking to their doctors, to nurses who work with colon surgery patients (enterostomal therapists), and to other colon surgery patients.
For example, if only the lower colon and rectum are involved, the risk of cancer is no higher than normal. Doctors look for signs of dysplasia when doing a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy and when examining tissue removed during these tests. To ensure that you’re viewing the most up-to-date information, we recommend visiting the ulcerative colitis entry at the NIDDK website.
3: Greenstick fracture of the distal radius in a 6 year old boy after a fall on the outstretched hand.
7: Angled buckle fractures of the proximal 3rd, 4th and 5th metacarpals in a child with tenderness post trauma at this site. During the exam, the doctor may do a biopsy, which involves taking a sample of tissue from the lining of the colon to view with a microscope.
However, sulfapyridine may lead to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, heartburn, diarrhea, and headache.
These drugs can cause side effects such as weight gain, acne, facial hair, hypertension, diabetes, mood swings, bone mass loss, and an increased risk of infection.
Patients taking these drugs are monitored for complications including pancreatitis, hepatitis, a reduced white blood cell count, and an increased risk of infection. The patient may need a special diet, feeding through a vein, medications, or sometimes surgery.
A pouch is worn over the opening to collect waste, and the patient empties the pouch as needed.
Patient advocacy organizations can direct people to support groups and other information resources. However, if the entire colon is involved, the risk of cancer may be as much as 32 times the normal rate. Scientists think these complications may be the result of inflammation triggered by the immune system. Other 5-ASA agents, such as olsalazine, mesalamine, and balsalazide, have a different carrier, fewer side effects, and may be used by people who cannot take sulfasalazine. For this reason, they are not recommended for long-term use, although they are considered very effective when prescribed for short-term use. Cyclosporine A may be used with 6-MP or azathioprine to treat active, severe ulcerative colitis in people who do not respond to intravenous corticosteroids. 5-ASAs are given orally, through an enema, or in a suppository, depending on the location of the inflammation in the colon. Most people with mild or moderate ulcerative colitis are treated with this group of drugs first.



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