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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. During my career there has been many an occasion where I participated in the cardiac arrest and resuscitation of a patient, often having to apply the “paddles” as part of a team effort to shock a fibrillating (quivering) heart back to a more normal rhythm. Sudden cardiac death is a very different event than the cardiac arrests I just described, and treatment of SCD survivors often very successful. Sudden cardiac death can be treated and reversed, but emergency action must take place almost immediately. Once emergency personnel arrive, more traditional defibrillation and initiation of medications can be provided. AEDs are defibrillators with computers that are able to recognize ventricular fibrillation (VF), advise the operator that a shock is needed, and deliver the shock. A study published in 2009 found that women with heart failure did not seem to benefit from an ICD implant, as opposed to men who had a 22% lower risk of dying if they had an ICD. For those who are at high risk of the deadliest forms of arrhythmias – ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation – an internal “shocking” device may provide the best defense against sudden cardiac arrest. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are small devices, about the size of a pager, that are placed below the collarbone.
Cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death (SCD), happens when a heart rhythm disturbance prevents the heart from operating properly and delivering blood to the brain and other vital organs.
Anyone who has had or is at a high risk of having ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation or sudden cardiac arrest is a candidate for an ICD. Anyone who has ever had the misfortune of being stung by a bee in the Bay Area knows it is a painful ordeal. The quickest way to tell if a person is experiencing an allergic reaction to a bee sting is to examine that person’s reaction or symptoms after having been stung. Someone who has an allergic reaction to a sting might experience swelling, hives or other skin reactions manifesting in other parts of the body. If you are stung by a bee, you should remove the stinger and the attached venom sack from your skin as quickly as possible, lessening the amount of venom introduced to your bloodstream. When you experience a large local reaction to a bee sting, you need to take the same first steps. As a surgeon I have been involved with the treatment of SCD from the early surgical ablations, to placing paddles on the outside of the heart, connected to a large and bulky generator that was implanted under the skin of the abdomen, complicated and often risky procedures as part of a team that included an EP specialized cardiologist.
Survival can be as high as 90 percent if treatment is initiated within the first minutes after SCD.
If performed properly, CPR can help save a life, as the procedure keeps blood and oxygen circulating through the body until emergency medical help arrives. If a public access defibrillator -- also called an AED (Ambulatory External Defibrillator) -- is available, defibrillate. This type of defibrillation is done through an electric shock given to the heart through paddles placed on the chest.
After successful defibrillation, most patients require hospital care to treat and prevent future cardiac problems. AEDs are designed to be used by a wide range of personnel such as fire department personnel, police officers, lifeguards, flight attendants, security guards, teachers, and even family members of high-risk persons.
Women need to discuss their individual benefits and risks with their physicians to determine the most appropriate treatment.


Known as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), it is considered effective in fighting cardiac arrest over 90 percent of the time, an astounding success for a condition that few survived as recently as 15 years ago. With this information, the electro physiologist, a cardiologist who specializes in arrhythmias, can study the heart's activity and check for abnormalities that may have occurred.
A heart attack occurs when a partial or complete vessel blockage interferes with the ability of blood to flow to the heart, and heart muscle dies. Many people have both coronary artery disease (the primary cause of heart attacks) and an arrhythmia (a heart rhythm disorder). An ejection fraction (EF) is the proportion, or fraction, of blood pumped by the heart with each beat. T” was listed as one of the Top 10 Heart Disease Blogs of 2012 by Healthline Networks. When a bee stings a person venom with harmful proteins are introduced into the person’s blood stream, damaging skin cells and the immune system.
Signs that a person is reacting normally to a bee sting include a red welt that forms around the wound, light swelling of the skin around the sting and a white spot at the exact point where the bee’s stinger punctured the skin. Other symptoms of an allergic reaction to a bee sting include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, trouble breathing, a slow or fast heart rate, dizziness and even a loss of consciousness.
If you were stung by a bee and swelled up, even when you were a child, you are more likely to experience an allergic reaction if you are stung again.
Since the stinger is barbed, you might need to pull it out with tweezers or the edge of a credit card. In addition, apply calamine lotion or hydrocortisone cream to the wound site to help with the itching and swelling.
In some rare cases a person might disturb a beehive unwittingly and subsequently be stung multiple times.
ICDs use electrical pulses or shocks to treat life-threatening arrhythmias that occur in the ventricles (the heart's lower chambers). Nowadays this has evolved to the final ever smaller devices implanted under de skin on your chest, and capable of far more than just applying a shock. It is a technique designed to temporarily circulate oxygenated blood through the body of a person whose heart has stopped.
If the heart beats too quickly, the ventricles will not have enough time to fill with blood and will not effectively pump blood to the rest of the body. Sometimes the ICD can be programmed to “pace” the heart to restore its natural rhythm and avoid the need for a shock from the ICD. Cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death (SCD), is NOT a heart attack, but a prior heart attack can put someone at risk for SCD. They are at particular risk for sudden cardiac death and may be candidates for ICDs, even though they have no noticeable symptoms of an abnormal heart rhythm. It can turn into ventricular fibrillation or VF, which is characterized by irregular and chaotic rapid heartbeats. Avoiding bees altogether is not realistic, meaning you should know how to treat a bee sting, either on yourself or on someone else. Most people have a mild reaction to bee stings, including pain and swelling at the site of the sting.
Some people experience slightly more severe symptoms that are not a sign of an allergic reaction. If you know you have an allergy to bee stings, you should carry an EpiPen and use it as directed by your physician. If you take a beta blocker or certain other medications you are more likely to experience severe symptoms from a bee sting.


After you have removed the stinger, you should wash the area around the wound using soap and water.
If the itching continues, you can take an antihistamine pill or liquid, such as Benadryl. Of course, the best way to deal with bee stings is to avoid being stung.
The victim might experience some of the same symptoms as someone who is allergic to bee stings.
Quick defibrillation (delivery of an electrical shock) is necessary to return the heart rhythm to a normal heartbeat. Pacing signals from the ICD are not felt by the patient; shock signals are, and have been described as a kick in the chest. Because the fibrillating heart muscle cannot contract and pump blood to the brain and vital organs, VF is the number one cause of sudden cardiac death. Other people are allergic to bee stings and experience a violent immune system reaction after being stung, which presents a serious health issue that must be treated.
These symptoms, which are termed a large local reaction, include the skin turning a deep red around the site of the sting and the skin swelling around the wound for up to two days after the sting. The American Heart Association teaches CPR & first-aid courses in the Bay Area where you learn how to use the EPI-Pen.
Consult with your Bay Area pharmacist or physician if you do not know the side effects of any medication you are taking. Avoid scratching the wound since any germs on your fingernails could be introduced into the open wound and lead to an infection. People who have heart or respiratory problems, children and the elderly can potentially die from multiple bee stings and should be immediately treated by a trained Bay Area physician. The shorter the time until defibrillation, the greater the chance the patient will survive. To intervene, the ICD issues a lifesaving jolt of electricity to restore the heart’s normal rhythm and prevent sudden cardiac death.
Without immediate emergency treatment of an electric shock to restore normal rhythm, an individual loses consciousness within seconds and dies within minutes. Only use cups or bottles that are clear or have a wide enough of an opening that you can see if a bee is sitting inside. If you live in the Bay Area, the American Heart Association recommends you take a first-aid certification course where you will learn how to deal with bee stings. To prevent death, the arrhythmia must be treated right away with an electric shock to the heart.
ICDs also can act as pacemakers when a heart beat that is too slow (bradycardia) is detected. When working on your yard, wear long pants, shoes and a long-sleeve shirt to protect against bee stings. If you do see a bee flying around you, do not try to swat or otherwise attack the bee, since it might react by stinging you.



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