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An eddy current flaw detection system is suitable for detecting discontinuities in tube and pipe during the production process. Figure 1:Eddy-current flow follows a closed-loop pattern unless interrupted by a crack, pin-hole, or similar discontinuity.
Eddy currents are alternating electrical currents that can be induced to flow in any electrically conducting material, which covers all metals. Depth of penetration of eddy currents on tubular products is a complex matter influenced by test frequency, coupling factors, inside diameter (ID) to outside diameter (OD) relationships, and the electromagnetic characteristics of the material (see Figure 2).
The formula for finding the depth of penetration uses the test frequency (fo, relative permeability (µo), and the material’s conductivity C. When testing ferromagnetic material with optimized magnetic saturation of the material, the maximum wall that eddy currents penetrate is about 0.322 inch, but this may be augmented by magnetic effects from flaws on the ID. Figure 4:Depending on their shape and construction, eddy-current transducers check just a few degrees of the tubular shape or the entire circumference or some amount in between. Eddy current inspection can be made fully automatic with accurate tracking, marking, and rejection of defective sections.
The FABRICATOR® is North America's leading magazine for the metal forming and fabricating industry.
High torque motors of the BLDC type are required to deliver high power, and are usually characterized by low operating speed and synchronous frequency, high number of poles and teeth, etc. In this example, using MotorSolve BLDC, Infolytica’s template based motor design software, iron loss trends in a high-torque BLDC motor with respect to electrical loading, drive types (sinewave and six-step drive) and rotor back iron depth are computed. A BLDC motor, surface mounted with radial magnets with two magnets per pole and an exterior rotor is chosen for this example. Consider the flux density of this motor at two different electric loadings; 5 A-turns (motor on left of figure) and at 500 A-turns (motor on right of figure).
Comparison chart between iron losses for sinewave (prototype design 1) and six-step (Prototype design 2) drive. Some of these features have been applied to analyze the rotor iron loss properties of this motor. In this section, the rotor hysteresis and eddy current losses as a function electric loadings, drive type and back iron depth are presented. The rotor iron loss variations with respect to the rotor outer diameter, which also varies the back iron depth, keeping the rest of the parameters constant. A direct utility of the data is that the designer may compute the expected efficiency levels of the motor accurately as a function of electrical and geometrical parameters. When you have confirmed your password, you will be able to log in through Facebook on both sites.
Understanding about eddy current system principles and this technology's capabilities and limitations can help tube and pipe producers learn how to use such a system.
The lower the test frequency, the greater the penetration but the poorer the sensitivity to defects.

Flare and flattening tests are essential tests on any mill, but 100 percent inspection of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) indicates anomalies or deviation in the process as early as possible.
However, the main focus must be on motivating the mill operator to respond and correct early trend signals, since this can significantly improve efficiency.Installation ConsiderationsThe first consideration before installing eddy current technology is where to place the inspection head on the mill. The magazine delivers the news, technical articles, and case histories that enable fabricators to do their jobs more efficiently. Given the power requirement, loss minimization is usually an important design criterion for such machines. The need for FEA based analysis is demonstrated here, as well as a simple application of the results that helps the engineer set electrical loadings for this machine. It is clear from the flux density field values (and the B-H characteristics of M 19- 29 Ga) that parts of the machine have been driven well into saturation.
In this section, some of MotorSolve's iron loss computation and analysis capabilities are presented. Using Epstein frame data, MotorSolve uses curve fitting to determine loss coefficients for the Steinmetz equation. First, the rotor eddy current loss data versus electric loading for sinewave and six-step drive types are shown.
The results are computed at 900 A-turns electric loading (corresponding to a saturated machine) and for a sinewave drive. These results allow the machine designer to select an appropriate electric loading parameter range so that the machine operates under conditions that steadies eddy current losses with respect to variations in the electric loading (which would be expected under realistic driver such as PWM drives). The couple were married in 1981 and had one son — Wolfgang, the current bassist in Van Halen. Often, signals are totally drowned out by noise at their source, and this must be corrected by various physical, mechanical, and electrical means to optimize the end result. This allows the operator to correct the process and contribute to better overall quality and reduced potential scrap. Four likely locations are shown in Figure 3.From a quality aspect, the location should be as late as possible to catch defects that occur or propagate because of heat treatment, cooling, or sizing.
Depending on the operating conditions, iron losses may be a significant fraction of the total loss and qualitative and quantitative knowledge of their variation with respect to design parameters (electrical and geometrical) could be quite useful to the machine designer. Consequently, FEA based analysis is absolutely essential for determining machine parameters and characteristics over such reasonable ranges for the electric loading (or for many other sets of parameters ranges).
Transient FEA solution, flux density variations in all parts of the model, and harmonic decomposition are used to compute and separate the hysteresis and eddy current losses. Consider the derivative of the loss curves as a function of the electric loadings (in the rotor). Considering the eddy current loss derivative data, a good range of electric loading parameters for this machine would be from approx. The couple filed for divorce in 2005 and Eddie re-married in 2009, so it’s quite possible this ink is changed or gone now.

From a production aspect, the location should be early, giving the operator the quickest response.
Even fractional improvements in minimizing losses can be useful, and energy savings at this level can only be predicted by accurate FEA based analysis.
An example of the time-averaged hysteresis losses for the machine considered here is shown on the left. It is relatively simple to install and operate and can detect a range of defects and discontinuities at varying mill speeds. A top view of this motor along with phase A (balanced) winding configuration generated using the automatic winding generator is shown in the figure to the left. Generally, this must be located close to the welding platform since a weld twist of only a few degrees can be accommodated. The number of coils needed to cover a specified size range depends on the degree of seam wander at the proposed site.3. This test is usually done after sizing and stretch reduction (if applicable) but before the turkshead, since vibration and pass-line variations can create problems.
Individual coils and bushings are usually needed for each tube or pipe diameter.Full body inspection may be mandated by specifications.
However, it may sometimes be impractical because of the presence of loose ID scarf within the tube or because of space limitations.Generally, the in-line use of encircling coils is limited to tubes with less than 2 in.
For larger sizes, the area of search may be extended too much to reliably detect the 0.031-in. If the defect is continuous and does not modulate along its length, it could be missed.Absolute sensing, with which the section under review is compared with a pattern stored in memory.
The sensitivity of this method can be limited because of continuously changing signals caused by unrelieved stress and roll marks in the material. Information may be collected by a datalogger or through a personal computer.A typical record of in-line eddy current testing shows relative positions and categorizes flaws with respect to the start of each coil and includes a summary of overall quality and potential yield.
Software may be customized to meet individual requirements.Digitally controlled eddy current equipment is now emerging with total interaction and control through an industrial PC.
Control settings and test parameters are automatically downloaded upon entry of the material designation codes.ConclusionEddy-current inspection has become the most widely used nondestructive test tool after pure visual inspection by the mill operator. It is estimated that more than 50 percent of tube and pipe mills are equipped with some form of eddy current tester.Its primary role has become more than that of a production tool to give early warning to the operator of changes in weld condition that can hopefully be corrected before any significant scrap occurs. Payback can be dramatic through these efficiencies, as long as the operator is motivated to respond correctly.Unfortunately, the system can only warn that something is changing or has changed.

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