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Dog Skin ProblemsThe sound of a dog constantly scratching or licking can be as irritating as nails on a chalkboard.
Fordyce spots are small yellow-pink bumps that may appear on the lips, gums, vulva, and penis that are caused by overgrowth of the normal oil glands. Fordyce spots can appear at any point in life, but they usually become noticeable after the teenage years and are most commonly found in elderly people. The most common location for Fordyce spots is at the border of the lips, especially near the corners of the mouth. Fordyce spots are normal and noncancerous (benign), but seek medical evaluation if they become itchy or irritated.If you are worried about any abnormal bumps, it is important to show them to your doctor so you can be reassured and perhaps treated. If irritation is noted, a mild topical steroid may be prescribed for relief, but it should be used with caution. This Site and third parties who place advertisements on this Site may collect and use information about your visits to this Site and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. If you would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral advertising, please click here. The prevalence varies with location, but children and teenagers are most commonly affected. Permethrin 5% cream (Elimite) is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated scabies in adults, including pregnant women, and in children as young as 1 month. Although it is not yet approved as a treatment for scabies, ivermectin has proved to be very effective.
Crusted scabies, also known as Norwegian scabies, is a hyperinfestation with thousands of mites that results from the host’s inability to mount an immune response to control the infestation.
Crusted scabies, with its hyperkeratotic plaques or nodules, has a predilection for the hands and feet, often resembling psoriasis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and demonstration of the mite or eggs (or both) microscopically. Permethrin 5% cream is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated scabies, coupled with treatment of close contacts, bed linen, and clothing.
Crusted scabies is a hyperinfestation in compromised persons unable to mount an appropriate immune response. Lice produce three main infestations in humans, depending on the affected body site: pediculosis capitis (head), corporis (body), and pubis (perineum).
Head lice infestation occurs worldwide, with a reported incidence of 12 million cases per year in the United States. Body lice occurs in people living in crowded, often unsanitary conditions, such as homeless persons and refugees.
Pubic lice primarily affects sexually active persons, particularly teenagers and young adults. For head lice, current recommendations include permethrin 1% cream, lindane 1%, or pyrethrins, each applied to a dry scalp for 5 to 10 minutes, followed by rinsing. For body lice, laundering of clothes and linens coupled with enhanced hygiene is also essential.
For pediculosis pubis, treatment options include permethrin 1% cream applied for 10 minutes or lindane 1% applied for 4-5 minutes or a pyrethrin with piperonyl butoxide applied for 10 minutes, followed by rinsing. Lindane is not recommended as treatment of infestations in children younger than 2 years and in pregnant women.
Bedbugs typically feed on sleeping persons, attracted by their body temperature and carbon dioxide production. Bedbug bites vary from itchy erythematous macules to itchy indurated papules, wheals, vesicles, or bullae, usually on exposed areas of the face, neck, and extremities. Treatment of patients with bedbug bites is symptomatic, usually nothing more than topical coritocosteroids.
Fire ants include the red fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the black fire ant (Solenopsis richteri). Local reactions deserve symptomatic treatment with compresses, elevation of the affected extremity, and topical corticosteroids.
Fire ants (Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri) are endemic in the southeastern United States.
Sterile pustules are the characteristic clinical finding, usually with a burning or stinging sensation. Cutaneous myiasis, an infestation by larvae of the order Diptera, has three main clinical patterns: furuncular myiasis, wound myiasis, and migratory myiasis.
Furuncular myiasis exhibits solitary or multiple boil-like nodules on exposed skin, occasionally with drainage (serosanguineous or seropurulent) and surrounding erythema. Patients with creeping or migratory myiasis have pruritic, linear, reddened, serpentine plaques, which differ from cutaneous larva migrans in that it extends more slowly. In wound myiasis, larvae are readily visualized with varying degrees of tissue destruction.
Diagnosis of cutaneous myiasis is based on the clinical presentation and presence of the larvae.
Treatment requires removal of the larva by occlusion, by manual or mechanical means, or with larvicides. Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is an infestation by a nematode, most often the animal hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum or Ancylostoma braziliense), less often the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). CLM occurs most commonly in areas with warm climates such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the southeastern United States. CLM is a self-limited disease, invariably acquired when the skin has contact with sand or soil contaminated with animal feces.
Affected patients have itchy erythematous, serpiginous tracks, usually on the feet, buttocks, or thighs (Fig. The history and pattern of skin disease (serpiginous tracks) and its location should suggest the diagnosis.
Seabather’s eruption, or sea lice, is an acute dermatitis that begins after exposure to seawater containing the thimble jellyfish Linuche unguiculata. Seabather’s eruption occurs in the spring and summer, most commonly along the coasts of Florida and in the Caribbean.
Within 24 hours after exposure to infested seawater, erythematous macules, papules, or wheals appear on areas of the body that were covered by the bathing suit) (Fig. Seabather’s eruption is a dermatitis caused by stings of the larval form of the jellyfish Linuche unguiculata. Swimmer’s itch, or cercarial dermatitis, is a pruritic skin disease caused by penetration of cercariae (trematode larvae of the genera Schistosoma and Trichobilharzia).
Cercarial dermatitis is common in children during the summer months after exposure to fresh water, particularly in shallow waters. A few hours after cercarial contact, a pruritic monomorphic dermatitis appears, characterized by erythematous macules and papules on uncovered skin. Swimmer’s itch (cercarial dermatitis) is caused by invasion of the skin by larvae of trematodes, usually acquired in fresh water.
Heukelbach J, Feldmeier H: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. Lebwohl M, Clark L, Levitt J: Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. Mumcuoglu KY, Barker SC, Burgess IE, et al: International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations. Verbrugge LM, Rainey JJ, Reimink RL, Blankespoor HD: Prospective study of swimmer's itch incidence and severity.
Humans are natural hosts for many bacterial species that colonize the skin as normal flora. For most patients with impetigo, topical treatment is adequate, either with bacitracin (Polysporin) or mupirocin (Bactroban), applied twice daily for 7 to 10 days. Folliculitis is a superficial infection of the hair follicles characterized by erythematous, follicular-based papules and pustules. Topical treatment with clindamycin 1% or erythromycin 2%, applied two or three times a day to affected areas, coupled with an antibacterial wash or soap, is adequate for most patients with folliculitis. Infection begins with vesicles and bullae that progress to punched-out ulcerations with an adherent crust, which heals with scarring. Erysipelas is a superficial cutaneous infection of the skin involving dermal lymphatic vessels. Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common pathogen responsible for erysipelas, and S. Classically, erysipelas is a tender, well-defined, erythematous, indurated plaque on the face or legs (Fig. Diagnosis is by clinical presentation and confirmation by culture (if clinically indicated, ie., bullae or abscess formation).
Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia that eventually leads to necrosis. Infection begins with warm, tender, reddened skin and inflammation that rapidly extends horizontally and vertically.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency requiring prompt surgical debridement, fasciotomy, and, occasionally, amputation of the affected extremity to prevent progression to myonecrosis.
Dermatophytosis implies infection with fungi, organisms with high affinity for keratinized tissue, such as the skin, nails, and hair.
Tinea cruris (jock itch) occurs in the groin and on the upper, inner thighs and buttocks as scaling annular plaques (Fig. Tinea corporis (body), faciei (face), and manuum (hands) represent infections of different sites, each invariably with annular scaly plaques.
For most patients, topical treatment with terbinafine (Lamisil), clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex), or econazole (Spectazole) cream is adequate when applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks.
Candidiasis refers to a diverse group of infections caused by Candida albicans or by other members of the genus Candida.
Infection is common in immunocompromised patients, diabetics, the elderly, and patients receiving antibiotics.
Candidal intertrigo is a specific infection of the skin folds (axillae, groin), characterized by reddened plaques, often with satellite pustules (Fig.
For candidal intertrigo and balanitis, topical antifungal agents such as clotrimazole, terbinafine, or econazole cream, applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks, is usually curative when coupled with aeration and compresses.
Tinea versicolor is a common opportunistic superficial infection of the skin caused by the ubiquitous yeast Malassezia furfur. Infection produces discrete and confluent, fine scaly, well-demarcated, hypopigmented or hyperpigmented plaques on the chest, back, arms, and neck (Fig. Selenium sulfide shampoo (2.5%) or ketoconazole shampoo is the mainstay of treatment, applied to the affected areas and the scalp daily for 3 to 5 days, then once a month thereafter. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a painful, self-limited, often recurrent dermatitis, characterized by small grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. Disease follows implantation of the virus via direct contact at mucosal surfaces or on sites of abraded skin.
Primary infection occurs most often in children, exhibiting vesicles and erosions on reddened buccal mucosa, the palate, tongue, or lips (acute herpetic gingivostomatitis). Viral culture helps to confirm the diagnosis; direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) is a helpful but less-specific test. Acyclovir remains the treatment of choice for HSV infection; newer antivirals, such as famciclovir and valacyclovir, are also effective. Herpes zoster (shingles) is an acute, painful dermatomal dermatitis that affects approximately 10% to 20% of adults, often in the presence of immunosuppression. During the course of varicella, the virus travels from the skin and mucosal surfaces to the sensory ganglia, where it lies dormant for a patient's lifetime.
Herpes zoster is primarily a disease of adults and typically begins with pain and paresthesia in a dermatomal or bandlike pattern followed by grouped vesicles within the dermatome several days later (Fig. Zoster deserves treatment, with rest, analgesics, compresses applied to affected areas, and antiviral therapy, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours of disease onset.
HPV infection follows inoculation of the virus into the epidermis through direct contact, usually facilitated by a break in the skin. The common wart is the most common type: It is a hyperkeratotic, flesh-colored papule or plaque studded with small black dots (thrombosed capillaries) (Fig. The disease follows direct contact with the virus, which replicates in the cytoplasm of cells and induces hyperplasia.


Molluscum are smooth pink, or flesh-colored, dome-shaped, umbilicated papules with a central keratotic plug (Fig.
Treatment might not be necessary because the disease often resolves spontaneously in children. Impetigo is a superficial skin infection usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally by Streptococcus pyogenes.
Tinea versicolor is a common superficial infection of the skin caused by the ubiquitous yeast Malassezia furfur. Herpes simplex virus infection is a painful, self-limited, often recurrent dermatitis, characterized by small grouped vesicles on an erythematous base.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a cluster of genetic disorders caused bymutations of genes which affect the connective tissues of a person.
There are about seven types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome,and all kinds of EDS mostly affect the skin and the joints. Fibrous extra growth on parts of body pressure areas,likeelbows and knees; and fatty type of extra growth on forearms and on the shins. The general facial features include thin lips and nose, small chin, recessed cheeks, and protruding eyes. As Ehlers-Danlos syndrome does not affect the brain, the patients will have normal intelligence. Patients with vascular typeEhlers-Danlos syndrome will have to face serious and fatal risks of fragile body organs and blood vessels with complications such as intestinal or uterus ruptures and rupture of blood vessels, dissected artery, and aneurysm. EDS during pregnancy can increase the vulnerability to postpartum hemorrhage, premature delivery, and poor healing after delivery. The fragile organs and blood vessels in pregnant women with vascular type EDS are most likely to feel the effects of the rise in blood volume and cardiac output. Women with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome should consult a doctor before trying to become pregnant.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a hereditary disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, which means that only a single copy of the mutated gene is needed to develop the syndrome. Physical therapy and specific braces: It can stabilize joints, strengthen muscles and reduce muscle fatigue and pain. Surgery: It is advised only for repeated joint dislocations and in rare casesinvolving fragile skin problems. Genetic counseling, preventing injuries, use of protective gear, use of assistive devices, use of mild soaps and sunscreens, and educating oneself about Ehlers-Danlos syndrome will help to prevent problems. Eating healthy is the most essential part of pregnancy for the mother as well as the child. Tinea versicolor is a type of fungal skin infection caused by a yeast species that naturally occurs on the human skin. Hiccups are a natural function of the human body and everyone experiences it time to time but these are most common in babies, especially among the ones under a year old. Medically referred to as dysgeusia, a taste of metal in mouth is an indication of an acidic, metallic, or sour flavor in the mouth. But don’t blame your pooch for these bad habits -- a skin condition is probably the culprit. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Other locations include the back portions of the inner cheeks and inside the mouth, including the tonsils. While there is no certain treatment for Fordyce sports, in some cases, treatment with a laser can make them less noticeable.
Risk factors include low socioeconomic status, crowded living conditions, and limited access to water. Reddened nodules can develop on the elbows, anterior axillary folds, penis, and scrotum; these represent a hypersensitivity reaction that can persist for weeks. The cream is applied to the trunk and extremities, washed off after 8 to 14 hours, then followed by a second application 7 days later.
Bed linen and clothing should be washed in hot water and dried on high heat, or it may simply be placed in closed plastic bags for 5 to 7 days. Despite the dramatic skin disease and the number of mites, pruritus is usually mild, but lymphadenopathy and eosinophilia can occur. Affected patients deserve treatment with permethrin and ivermectin, coupled with vigorous cleaning of clothing and bedding. Head lice are transmitted by head-to-head contact; it is transmitted less often by fomites. Pesticides with dichlorvos, malathion, and pyrethrins are effective in eliminating bedbugs. They are well established in the southeastern United States after their importation from South America in the early 20th century. The initial bite or sting has a burning sensation followed by an erythematous wheal-and-flare reaction. For anaphylactic reactions, immunotherapy with imported fire ant whole body extract has been effective in selected cases. Dermatobia hominis (the human bot fly) is the most common agent of cutaneous and furuncular myiasis in North America, usually occurring in travelers from Central and South America, where the fly is common.
Risk factors include advanced age, poor social and hygiene conditions, open wounds, psychiatric illness, alcoholism, diabetes, and vascular occlusive disease. The adult female bot fly lays eggs on foliage or insects (mosquitoes, flies, ticks), which are then transferred to human skin by direct contact with foliage or biting insects.
Patients often have pruritus and local tenderness, and sometimes the larva can be seen protruding from a central pore (Fig. It is the most common travel-related skin disease, often occurring in travelers who have visited these areas. Migratory myiasis extends more slowly; the fly larvae are usually larger and survive longer. The eruption is a dermatitis caused by the sting of the jellyfish larvae trapped within a bathing suit. The larvae die within few hours, and the dermatitis spontaneously resolves in 1 to 2 weeks, even without treatment.
Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes are infrequent resident flora, but they account for a wide variety of bacterial pyodermas. The nonbullous type is more common and typically occurs on the face and extremities, initially with vesicles or pustules on reddened skin. Furuncles are deeper infections of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory nodules with pustular drainage, which can coalesce to form larger draining nodules (carbuncles).
Systemic antistaphylococcal antibiotics are usually necessary for furuncles and carbuncles, especially when cellulitis or constitutional symptoms are present.2 Small furuncles can be treated with warm compresses three or four times a day for 15 to 20 minutes, but larger furuncles and carbuncles often warrant incision and drainage. Ecthyma is usually a consequence of neglected impetigo and often follows impetigo occluded by footwear or clothing. An oral antistaphylococcal antibiotic is the treatment of choice for cellulitis; parenteral therapy is warranted for patients with extensive disease or with systemic symptoms as well as for immunocompromised patients. Necrotizing fasciitis commonly occurs on the extremities, abdomen, or perineum or at operative wounds (Fig. Tinea unguium (onychomycosis) is fungal nail disease, characterized by thickened yellow nails and subungual debris (Fig. These organisms typically infect the skin, nails, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause systemic disease. The counterpart in men is balanitis, characterized by shiny reddish plaques on the glans penis, which can affect the scrotum.
For thrush, the treatment is nystatin suspension or clotrimazole troches four to six times daily until symptoms resolve. Purported risk factors include oral contraceptive use, heredity, systemic corticosteroid use, Cushing's disease, immunosuppression, hyperhidrosis, and malnutrition. Potassium hydroxide preparation exhibits short hyphae and spores with a spaghetti-and-meatballs appearance. Alternatively, a variety of topical antifungal agents, including terbinafine, clotrimazole, or econazole cream, applied twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks, constitute adequate treatment, especially for limited disease.11 Systemic therapy may be necessary for patients with extensive disease or frequent recurrences, or for whom topical agents have failed. HSV type 2 infection is responsible for 20% to 50% of genital ulcerations in sexually active persons. After primary infection, the virus travels to the adjacent dorsal ganglia, where it remains dormant unless it is reactivated by psychological or physical stress, illness, trauma, menses, or sunlight.
For recurrent infection (more than six episodes per year), suppressive treatment is warranted.
Reactivation often follows immunosuppression, emotional stress, trauma, and irradiation or surgical manipulation of the spine, producing a dermatomal dermatitis.
Anogenital warts are a sexually transmitted infection, and partners can transfer the virus with high efficiency.
Maceration of the skin is an important predisposing factor, as suggested by the increased incidence of plantar warts in swimmers. Most modalities are destructive: cryosurgery, electrodesiccation, curettage, and application of various topical products such as trichloroacetic acid, salicylic acid, topical 5-fluorouracil, podophyllin, and canthacur.
Infection is common in children, especially those with atopic dermatitis, sexually active adults, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Treatment is comparable to the modalities outlined for warts; cryosurgery and curettage are perhaps the easiest and most definitive approaches. Classical type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (formerly known as type I and II): The classical type,normally affects 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 people.
Hypermobility type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (formerly known as type III): This type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, affects 1 in 10,000 to 15,000 persons.
Vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (formerly known as type IV): This vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare disorder that affects 1 in 100,000 to 200,000 persons. Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are the rare syndromes found in very few families and they have no standard description.
About 1 out of 4 patients of vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience a severe medical complication of the condition by the age of 20 years. It will exert additional pressure on them causing the fatal risk of aortic or uterine rupture. Especially because of the morning sickness one has to be more conscious while choosing what to eat.
The skin disease, identified by an abnormal rash on skin, is caused due to uncontrolled growth of the yeast.
They experience the same in the womb, as young as 6 months or 6 weeks after the conception. Ebola is undoubtedly the most deadly of all diseases, causing deaths of almost 25 to 90 percent of the patients with an average of more than 50 percent. It is not a substitute for professional veterinary advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your pet’s health. Norwegian scabies is a more severe infestation found in immunocompromised patients with decreased sensory function and in institutionalized persons. Its safety has not been proved in pregnancy or in children who weigh less than 15 kg. Pubic lice is transmitted by sexual, contact with an infested partner, or less so by contact with the infested person’s bed linens, towels, or clothes. Prevention of infestation can be achieved with repellents or permethrin-impregnated bed nets. Though rare, the most common cause of US-acquired furuncular myiasis is the rodent or rabbit bot fly of the genus Cuterebra.
Travel to tropical and subtropical areas is the main risk factor for furuncular and migratory myiasis. The dermatitis results from the firing of the nematocyst after a change in osmotic pressure.
Predisposing factors to infection include minor trauma, preexisting skin disease, poor hygiene, and, rarely, impaired host immunity. Impetigo commonly occurs on the face (especially around the nares) or extremities after trauma.
The vesicles or pustules eventually rupture to leave the characteristic honey-colored (yellow-brown) crust (Fig.


Cellulitis is a warm, tender, erythematous, and edematous plaque with ill-defined borders that expands rapidly.
Good hygiene, warm compresses three or four times a day for 15 to 20 minutes, and elevation of the affected limb help to expedite healing. Thrush is oropharyngeal candidiasis, characterized by white nonadherent plaques on the tongue and buccal mucosa. HSV type 1 is usually associated with orofacial disease, and HSV type 2 is usually associated with genital infection.
The Tzanck smear can be helpful in the rapid diagnosis of herpesviruses infections, but it is less sensitive than culture and DFA. Other types of warts include flat warts (verruca plana), plantar warts, and condyloma acuminatum (venereal warts). A quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil) has been available since 2006, and this represents the newest approach to preventing genital HPV infection and ultimately cervical cancer in women. Most patients have many papules, often in intertriginous sites, such as the axillae, popliteal fossae, and groin. In children, canthacur, applied topically then washed off 2 to 6 hours later, is well tolerated, and is very effective. The production of collagen, which is the prime component of connective tissues, is affected by the genetic mutation that causes Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Eight percent of them develop the health disorders by the age of 40 years.A majority of patients tend to die at the average of 48 years. Although exercise constitutes the most important part of losing weight, one makes considerate amount of changes in the eating habits and lifestyle as a whole. Women who hear the heart beats of their baby for the first time will find the experience to be exhilarating and fascinating. Never ignore professional veterinary advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. Typical skin disease is erythematous papules and vesicles in the interdigital spaces, flexural surface of the wrists and elbows, axillae, areolae, and genitals (Figs. Identification of the scabies mite, eggs, or fecal pellets from skin scrapings confirms the diagnosis. The crab louse, Phtirus pubis, infests the pubic hair and occasionally the eyelashes, beard, and axillae. Body lice are transmitted by contact with infested persons, who usually live in close, crowded conditions and cannot bathe or change clothes regularly. The pustules are commonly arranged in a rosette or ring pattern, because the ants bite, then pivot and sting in a circular fashion. Occasionally, systemic symptoms (fever, chills, nausea, headache) occur, particularly in children and adolescents.
Occasionally, a pustule enlarges to form a tender, red nodule (furuncle) that becomes painful and fluctuant after several days. Often a continuum of folliculitis, furunculosis (furuncles), arises in hair-bearing areas as tender, erythematous, fluctuant nodules that rupture with purulent discharge (Fig. Untreated staphylococcal or streptococcal impetigo can extend more deeply, penetrating the dermis, producing a shallow crusted ulcer.
Cellulitis is often accompanied by constitutional symptoms, regional lymphadenopathy, and occasionally bacteremia (Fig. Within 48 to 72 hours, affected skin becomes dusky, and bullae form, followed by necrosis and gangrene, often with crepitus.
Kerion celsi is an inflammatory form of tinea capitis, characterized by boggy nodules, usually with hair loss and regional lymphadenopathy. Alterations in the host environment can lead to its proliferation and subsequent skin disease.
Paronychia is an acute or chronic infection of the nail characterized by tender, edematous, and erythematous nail folds, often with purulent discharge (Fig. For paronychia, treatment consists of aeration and a topical antifungal agent such as terbinafine, clotrimazole, or econazole for 2 to 3 months; occasionally, oral antistaphylococcal antibiotics are needed, coupled with incision and drainage for secondary bacterial infection. Herpes labialis (fever blisters or cold sores) appears as grouped vesicles on red denuded skin, usually the vermilion border of the lip; infection represents reactivated HSV. The rough surface of a wart can disrupt adjacent skin and enable inoculation of virus into adjacent sites, leading to the development and spread of new warts. The immunomodulator imiquimod cream (Aldara) is a novel topical agent recently approved for treating condyloma acuminatum, and it might help with common warts as well, usually as adjunctive therapy. The vaccine is safe and 100% effective and is recommended for girls and women ages 9 to 26 years. Allergic DermatitisDogs can have allergic reactions to grooming products, food, and environmental irritants, such as pollen or insect bites. Although Fordyce spots can be found on the genitals, they are not considered a sexually transmitted disease. Antimicrobial therapy should be continued until inflammation has regressed or altered depending on culture results. Ecthyma can evolve from a primary pyoderma, in a pre-existing dermatosis, or at the site of trauma.
Left untreated, cellulitic skin can become bullous and necrotic, and an abscess or fasciitis, or both, can occur. Without prompt treatment, fever, systemic toxicity, organ failure, and shock can occur, often followed by death.
Cheilitis resolves with aeration, application of a topical antifungal agent, and discontinuation of any aggravating factors. Primary genital infection is an erosive dermatitis on the external genitalia that occurs about 7 to 10 days after exposure; intact vesicles are rare. When zoster involves the tip and side of the nose (cranial nerve V) nasociliary nerve involvement can occur (30%-40%).
Sexual partners of patients with condyloma warrant examination, and women require gynecologic examination. A dog with allergies may scratch relentlessly, and a peek at the skin often reveals an ugly rash.
The diagnosis is based on the clinical appearance of the dermatitis on covered skin after seawater exposure. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can help to delineate the extent of infection. Angular cheilitis is the presence of fissures and reddened scaly skin at the corner of the mouth, which often occurs in diabetics and in those who drool or chronically lick their lips (Fig. A single 150-mg dose of fluconazole, coupled with aeration, is usually effective for vulvovaginitis.10 Treatment is summarized in Box 1.
Most patients with zoster do well with only symptomatic treatment, but postherpetic neuralgia (continued dysthesias and pain after resolution of skin disease) is common in the elderly. Corticosteroids can help with itchy rashes, but the most effective treatment is to identify and avoid exposure to the allergens. Secondary changes, such as excoriations, eczema, and secondary infection, often follow, especially if disease is persistent. Pubic lice often produce bluish macules (maculae ceruleae) on the buttocks, upper thighs, and lower abdomen; these macules are thought to be hemosiderin deposition at the site of bites.
Prodromal symptoms of pain, burning, or itching can precede herpes labialis and genital herpes infections. Yeast InfectionIf your dog can't seem to stop scratching an ear or licking and chewing her toes, ask your veterinarian to check for a yeast infection.
FolliculitisSuperficial bacterial folliculitis is an infection that causes sores, bumps, and scabs on the skin. In longhaired dogs, the most obvious symptoms may be a dull coat and shedding with scaly skin underneath.
Folliculitis often occurs in conjunction with other skin problems, such as mange, allergies, or injury. In some cases, it's a genetic disease that begins when a dog is young and lasts a lifetime.
But most dogs with seborrhea develop the scaling as a complication of another medical problem, such as allergies or hormonal abnormalities. The term "ring" comes from the circular patches that can form anywhere, but are often found on a dog's head, paws, ears, and forelegs. Puppies less than a year old are the most susceptible, and the infection can spread quickly between dogs in a kennel or to pet owners at home. Shedding and Hair Loss (Alopecia)Anyone who shares their home with dogs knows that they shed.
But sometimes stress, poor nutrition, or illness can cause a dog to lose more hair than usual. If abnormal or excessive shedding persists for more than a week, or you notice patches of missing fur, check with your veterinarian. Sarcoptic mange, also known as canine scabies, spreads easily among dogs and can also be transmitted to people, but the parasites don't survive on humans. Demodectic mange can cause bald spots, scabbing, and sores, but it is not contagious between animals or people. You may not see the tiny insects themselves, but flea droppings or eggs are usually visible in a dog's coat.
Severe flea infestations can cause blood loss and anemia, and even expose your dog to other parasites, such as tapeworms. To properly remove a tick, grasp the tick with tweezers close to the dog’s skin, and gently pull it straight out. Twisting or pulling too hard may cause the head to remain lodged in your dog’s skin, which can lead to infection.
Place the tick in a jar with some alcohol for a couple of days and dispose of it once it is dead. In addition to causing blood loss and anemia, ticks can transmit Lyme disease and other potentially serious bacterial infections. If you live in an area where ticks are common, talk to your veterinarian about tick control products. Color or Texture ChangesChanges in a dog's skin color or coat texture can be a warning sign of several common metabolic or hormone problems. Acral Lick GranulomaAlso called acral lick dermatitis, this is a frustrating skin condition caused by compulsive, relentless licking of a single area -- most often on the front of the lower leg. The area is unable to heal, and the resulting pain and itching can lead the dog to keep licking the same spot. Treatment includes discouraging the dog from licking, either by using a bad-tasting topical solution or an Elizabethan collar. Skin TumorsIf you notice a hard lump on your dog's skin, point it out to your vet as soon as possible.
Hot SpotsHot spots, also called acute moist dermatitis, are small areas that appear red, irritated, and inflamed.
They are most commonly found on a dog's head, hips, or chest, and often feel hot to the touch. Hot spots can result from a wide range of conditions, including infections, allergies, insect bites, or excessive licking and chewing.
Immune DisordersIn rare cases, skin lesions or infections that won’t heal can indicate an immune disorder in your dog. Anal Sac DiseaseAs if dog poop weren't smelly enough, dogs release a foul-smelling substance when they do their business. The substance comes from small anal sacs, which can become impacted if they don't empty properly.
A vet can manually express full anal sacs, but in severe cases, the sacs may be surgically removed. When to See the VetAlthough most skin problems are not emergencies, it is important to get an accurate diagnosis so the condition can be treated. See your veterinarian if your dog is scratching or licking excessively, or if you notice any changes in your pet's coat or skin, including scaling, redness, discoloration, or bald patches.



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