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In the mid-1930s, reports of an emerging nurse shortage began surfacing throughout the United States.
This mid-twentieth-century shortage, which lasted into the World War II years and beyond to the 1960s, was one of the first in a series of nurse shortages that plagued the U.S. Health care and nursing leaders used a trio of strategies to deal with this mid-twentieth century shortage of nurses. As periodic nurse shortages persisted into the century’s later decades, health care policies continued to promote these methods. During the 1930s, increased hospital use, changes in hospital construction, more technologically complex patient care requirements, and a reduction in the working hours for nurses all necessitated an increased number of nurses to deliver bedside care. In the early years of the war, the federal government provided a small amount of money to subsidize some nurse education activities. A second tactic employed during the war years was to increase the use of licensed practical nurses and nurse aides as nursing assistive personnel in civilian hospitals.
Once the war was over, health care and nursing leaders, expected that nurses released from the military would resume their prewar jobs and that the nurse shortage would cease. At the same time, as nurses seemed to be shunning hospital work, postwar nurse demand skyrocketed. Complicating the situation was a slowdown in the number of new entrants into the profession. Efforts to deal with the post-war shortage followed familiar patterns set in the early 1940s. The idea that nursing was a difficult job with few financial rewards was hardly breaking news. Today, the American health care system confronts once more a nurse shortage, one predicted to increase in severity over the next twenty years, raising the question, “Why does the United States never have enough nurses?” Well in fact, the U.S. Contemporary efforts aimed at alleviating the contemporary nurse shortage center as they did in the past on adding new recruits to the profession by enlarging the student body. Health experts suggest and they'll tell you not to wear the same shoes every day, but to alternate between several pairs of well-fitted footwear throughout the week.
Whether you're new to the travel nursing world or in need of more trusty footwear, here are our top picks for the most comfortable shoes for nurses approved by the American Podiatric Medical Association. Fastaff Travel Nursing is certified by The Joint Commission and has earned it's Gold Seal of Approval. December 3, 2013 by Susan O'BrienHave you ever found yourself extremely nervous right before a big test? If you don’t know the answer, use critical thinking skills to make your best educated guess. MicroMD PM makes scheduling easy and gives physicians, nurses and staff the flexibility they need to manage patient visits smoothly.
Use template-based displays to view appointment ?schedules by week, day, location and provider. Maintain intelligent patient waiting lists that match the ?correct duration, physician, time and location.
Store new patients’ contact information and other details temporarily and convert the patient’s data into a permanent ?file, eliminating double data entry. Track the duration of every visit and use MicroMD PM reporting features to monitor referrals, pre-certifications, appointment histories and more. Villanova Nurses work together with care providers and people with intellectual disabilities to promote health in this vulnerable population.
Concerns regarding the increase in this population include the lack of health care data available for those with ID which is critical for future health planning. Social determinants of health further impact the health care needs of the intellectually disabled which include the circumstances in which people are born, live, work, and age as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness.
Lack of education of health care providers is another major barrier to the delivery of services for the intellectually disabled. An affiliation began with Philadelphia Coordinated Health Care (PCHC), whose mission is to enhance access to community health care through education, public health outreach, advocacy and empowerment for those with ID.
Clinical opportunities continued to expand in 2012 with an affiliation with BARC Developmental Services in Warminster, Pa. Future plans for spring 2013 are to continue collaboration with BARC Services to develop a series of lectures that address common secondary health conditions in those with ID. Research and policy efforts are beginning to focus attention on healthcare disparities between the population with intellectual disability and the population without disability. The three strategies in and of themselves continued to be very successful at what they intended to do. Most nurse shortages occurring in the twentieth century were demand-driven shortages related to increased utilization of registered nurses.
Adopting practices used in the past to deal with shortages, hospitals directed their efforts at expanding the nurse educational system as the primary means of maintaining adequate nurse services. The traditional population of nursing students: young, white females with a secondary school education, was exactly the same group heavily recruited by war-related industries.
When the programs supported by these funds proved ineffective at increasing the number of student nurses, Congress enacted a more extensive federal nurse education program. Licensed practical nurses, or LPNs, were nurses educated in short programs—generally about a year in length—who carried out basic nursing care under the supervision of a registered nurse. The use of some type of nurse assistive personnel, such as ward maids, nurse aides, and orderlies, was common practice in early-twentieth century hospitals. During the war, admissions to schools of nursing climbed, the result of the Cadet Nurse Corps program. Student recruitment programs flourished and widespread use of assistive personnel increased.
Studies completed on nursing in 1923, 1928, and 1936 had repeatedly documented the poor working conditions and inadequate compensatory schemes under which most nurses were employed. Instead, relying on familiar tactics, hospitals continued to put their efforts into recruiting new students into nurse education programs. And it is doubtful that the other strategies that hospitals have traditionally relied upon will offer much help. Whelan, “Too Many, Too Few: The Supply, Demand, and Distribution of Private Duty Nurses, 1910-1965” (PhD. Whelan is Adjunct Assistant Professor of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and Assistant Director of the Barbara Bates Center for the Study of the History of Nursing.
Rotating your footwear ensures your feet and spine don't become misaligned from wearing over time. DanskoConsidered one of the top brands for nurses, Dansko offers firm support and a long lasting arch--two essentials for travel nurses that spend time on their feet all day. Nurse MatesHow could you not want to slip your foot into a shoe that offers a "pillowtop footbed"? CrocsCrocs are one of the most odor resistant, light weight footwear choices out there for nurses.
Whether you’re just getting out of school or working on continuing education, there are always more tests to take.


Take the time to go back and study any areas you may need to review before taking the test. Read all the answer options before selecting your final answer, and focus on the main idea.
Sometimes two answers will be correct, but one will be a better answer for some reason. Certain phrases in the question may help you distinguish between the two.
Registered nurses routinely use critical thinking skills to assess situations, weigh choices and potential outcomes, and come up with the best possible plan for optimal outcomes.
Before, during and after each appointment, MicroMD PM’s robust scheduling features boost staff productivity and patient satisfaction. A major cause of this problem is once these individuals leave the school systems they disappear from national data sets. These situations are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies and politics.
BARC provides services such as vocational assessment, training, job placement, and retirement activities for nearly 250 adults with intellectual disabilities and autism, age 21 and older.
Suzanne Zameroski and senior nursing students during 2012's Undergraduate Scholars Day where they presented a poster on their health promotion work targeting nutrition in people with intellectual disabilities. After all, the country was still suffering from the financial devastation of the Great Depression. The story of this shortage illustrates the characteristic ways in which nurse shortages have developed and the classic solutions that have been used to address them. The second was to increase the use of less educated and trained personnel either to substitute for or to extend the work of professional nurses. This is exactly what happened in the mid-1930s, when several technological, economic, and health care-related events combined to increase the demand for registered nurses and to lay the groundwork for a shortage. Contemporary inventories of registered nurse supply indicated that a sufficient number of active and eligible nurses were present in the workforce to meet military needs. The nurse educational system in place in the United States in the 1940s was the traditional apprenticeship type of training in which hospital-based schools of nursing took in students, teaching them the rudiments of the profession while at the same time using them to deliver the majority of patient care. For those eager to help the war effort immediately, the three years required before a young woman graduated from nursing school was a disincentive. The licensed practical nurse movement began in the late 1930s and became more formalized during the 1940s. During the war the use of nurses aides—both those who worked in a voluntary capacity and those who were regular hospital employees—increased dramatically. But once, federal monies for nurse education ran out, less incentive and support existed for both hospitals and the profession to attract large numbers into the profession. Indeed, a redefinition of the primary role of the registered nurse in patient care evolved. This 1947 investigation, entitled the “Economic Status of the Registered Professional Nurse,” confirmed a rising demand for nurses at the same time the profession was experiencing a loss of practicing nurses and declining student enrollments.
To deal with the immediate problem of care delivery, they continued wide-scale use of assistive personnel. At that point the federal government again took action, passing the 1964 Nurse Training Act intended to increase the supply of nurses by providing significant funding for nurse education.
Since 1900, the number of registered nurses has increased from a mere 12,000 nurses to around 3 million today, of which almost 2.6 million are actively working. Another benefit is the lack of pressure you'll feel on your toes after standing because the toe box is nice and wide. The outsole of this shoe is engineered to reduce heel and central metatarsal pressure while the bottom is flat, to increase your overall stability. Timberland designed their "anti-fatigue" nursing footwear with a 12 hour swing in mind to keep you energized.
In addition to offering a clog-style shoe, Nurse Mates features a myriad of styles with straps, heels and even a "boating" style nursing shoe. The classic Croc original is much lighter than the others we've mentioned and dons air filtration in the sides to help vent your feet throughout the day. If you’re taking on online test at home, check your internet connectivity before beginning the test.
If even one alternative does not apply totally, then “all of the above” is not the correct answer.
With increased longevity, deinstitutionalization and rising incidence of autism spectrum disorder, the number of people with intellectual disabilities is expected to grow to several million by 2030 (World Health Organization, 2011). Unfortunately, they must accomplish this task with little or no education about the needs of this population. Zamerowski and Director Graves are continuing to collaborate regarding the development of health data surveys to document the incidence of secondary health conditions in this population.
Satcher called for a national surveillance system that targets the health status and needs of people intellectual disabilities. The role of nurses in meeting the health care needs of older people with intellectural disabilities: A review of the published literature. To this day, Villanovaa€™s Augustinian Catholic intellectual tradition is the cornerstone of an academic community in which students learn to think critically, act compassionately and succeed while serving others. Unemployment rates for registered nurses had climbed dramatically during the early years of the depression, and hospitals found it relatively easy to secure nurses, who were always in plentiful supply. Each nurse shortage is unique, a function of the particular social, economic, technological, and cultural context in which it occurs. The third was to shorten the educational period for nurses to produce not just more nurses, but nurses in a faster manner. Some blamed nurses themselves for creating the shortage by failing to live up to the ideals of their profession and refusing to work. A vast number of hospitals in the country, approximately 1,300, operated schools of nursing and depended heavily on students for bedside nursing care.
Further, discrepancies between working conditions for nurses, such as low salaries, long hours, and requirements that nurses live within hospital grounds, and working conditions for other occupations made nursing a less attractive field for young people to consider.
The act provided $160 million for nurse education funding and financial support for nursing students, a much larger amount of federal money for both students and hospitals than had previously been allocated. Many in the health-care field, believed that the availability of a group of less highly educated nursing personnel would solve many problems, and they greeted the entry of LPNs into hospital care with enthusiasm. Hospital administrators found nurse aides particularly appealing to employ because of their low costs and flexibility.
The 1946 Hill-Burton Act, a federal act that funded hospital construction, increased and expanded hospital facilities considerably. Enrollments in schools of nursing fell from a high of 129,000 in 1946 to a low of 99,000 in 1949. Registered nurses, formerly seen as the main providers of patient care, were instead viewed as a scarce resource better utilized as supervisors of other lesser trained personnel who actually carried out the majority of bedside care. Findings of the study indicated that there were insufficient economic incentives either to attract a large number of new recruits or to keep experienced nurses in the profession. Nurses have made dramatic gains in improving their working conditions in the last few decades; yet, the current nurse shortage indicates that we may have reached the position where compensation and opportunity are not high enough to maintain a stable and sufficient workforce.


Whether you want your shoes to follow suit with your scrubs or stand out, Dansko footwear is available in a color to suit every nurse's taste.
Being on your feet all day can make you feel hot, but the Alegria shoe never feels tight or constricted allowing for an "airy fit." If you have narrow or medium width feet, try these for cozy, all day wear.
Nurses love the antimicrobial Antiogon treatment the shoes receive as well to help combat odor after wearing for extended hours. Some nurses prefer the lace up feeling similar to an athletic shoe that this brand offers as well. Have a calculator, any notes you are allowed to use, and a pencil and paper available so you don’t have to take a break to find them. It has been reported that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities face health care disparities and inequities in four areas: access, knowledge, communication and quality. Nurses must understand the distinctive health care needs of this population and know how to advocate for the individuals, participate in research efforts, address barriers to health care, provide education to caregivers and collaborate with interdisciplinary providers. Students also attended professional meetings of the Regional Network of Nurses in Developmental Disabilities, helping to raise awareness among students of their future professional role. Though challenging, the Villanova nursing students were creative and flexible in integrating teaching strategies appropriate to the clientsa€™ cognitive levels. Presently there are plans for the development of standardized tools to provide data to define the health status of adults with ID, identify their major health outcomes risks, and explore the relationship of access to health care and outcome. There are more than 10,000 undergraduate, graduate and law students in the Universitya€™s six colleges. But removing what was then about 25 percent of the nurse population for the war effort severely compromised the nursing needs of the civilian population. Students enrolled in the program received a free education as well as a monthly stipend and uniforms. The short training programs for LPNs, appealed to hospital administrators who wanted more nurses fast.
Nurse aides received training enabling them to be moved around the hospital as needed and assigned to a variety of functions. Nurses identified the lack of retirement pensions, a low rate of pay, and limited opportunities for promotion as sources of major dissatisfaction with their jobs.
While it is tempting to connect larger numbres of nurses in the workforce to the effects of the Nurse Training Act, it is also presumptuous. Perhaps the demand for nurses required to maintain the highly technological, complex American health care system has grown beyond the nursing workforce’s ability to meet that demand. Graduates of short education programs, such as two-year community college programs, account for slightly over 50 percent of the U.S. History is good for providing us with a sense of what has worked and not worked in the past. If you like a little style to your step, you can also check out their buckle strap and print selections. Whether you like a covered heel or a comfort safety strap, the slip on is available in two versions.
These disparities place those with ID at high risk for a variety of health issues including lack of routine screenings, limited access to quality care and poor management of chronic illness.
Most importantly, students left with the appreciation of the imperative for nursing advocacy of this population. Zamerowski continues to serve on the Bucks County Board of Mental Health and Intellectual Disability as a nursing advocate for this deserving population. Closing the gap: A national blueprint to improve the health of individuals with mental retardation. This suggests we question strategies that prove successful in their goals but disappoint in the long-term. Exploring alternative tactics that received less attention in the past might provide better solutions to nurse shortages. The intent of the Cadet Nurse Corps was specifically to maintain nursing services to hospitalized patients by increasing the number of students within nursing education programs. One nurse who took part in the study forcefully described the economic situation facing nurses: “As it stands today nursing offers only enough to cover the bare essentials of living with no chance to save for the future or for emergencies. Several analysts have attributed the increase in working nurses not to an increase in the number of nurses, but rather to rising wage rates for nurses. Framing the issue from the demand point of view is enticing, but it fails to help us the current shortage. This would address several barriers associated with access to care and provide opportunities for health maintenance, restoration and promotion on a consistent basis.
Rockville, Maryland: Report of the Surgeon Generals Conference on Health Disparities in the Mentally Retarded. Since educational requirements for admission to LPN schools was less stringent than that of registered nurse programs, some believed LPN programs would attract a wider population of students and add substantial numbers to the nurse workforce. In the late 1960s, hospitals, reaping the financial benefits of the passage of the Medicare and Medicaid legislation, began offering nurses better salaries.
Given the historical record and future projections about the health care needs of the twenty first century population, it is unlikely that demand for nurses will lessen. And, in the last twenty years, the percentage of nurses whose highest degree is a two-year associate degree has increased. We need to attend to the economic issues facing the profession, issues that both historically and currently trouble us. Uncovering health care inequalities among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilties.
Including a requirement that participating schools reduce the length of the educational period raised expectations for meeting the goals of the program, which was to produce more nurses, quickly. The first was at the entry level, discouraging young women from choosing nursing as a career.
Yet, recent research demonstrating that in hospitals that have a higher percentage of nurses educated in longer, four-year baccalaureate programs have better patient outcomes raises serious questions regarding the wisdom of emphasizing shorter training courses. Over 160,000 students took part in the Cadet Nurse Corps that was considered contemporarily a huge success.
The second was within the workplace where the employment conditions deterred many from continuing to work once they married. By insuring that nurses’ wage rates respond to normal labor market principles, we may begin to put a dent into the nurse shortage problem.
After the war, estimates were that in hospitals associated with a school of nursing, students provided about 80 percent of the in-hospital patient care delivered during the war years. Nursing has always been a satisfying ennobling career that provides numerous intangible benefits. Remembering that nurses need to receive equally satisfying concrete rewards may provide us with a more lasting solution to our nurse shortage dilemmas.



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