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admin | What Is Jet Lag | 13.04.2014
Pulmonary function tests: comparison of 95th percentile-based and conventional criteria of normality. However, interpreting spirometry results can be challenging because the quality of the test is largely dependent on patient effort and cooperation, and the interpreter's knowledge of appropriate reference values. These variables can be 7 to 8 percent greater in patients who are sitting during the test compared with patients who are supine.
In some patients, additional tests such as static lung volumes, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and bronchodilator challenge testing are needed. These tests can further define lung processes but require more sophisticated equipment and expertise available only in a pulmonary function laboratory.

In each test, patients should exhale for at least six seconds and stop when there is no volume change for one second.
The test session is finished when the difference between the two largest FVC measurements and between the two largest FEV1 measurements is within 0.2 L.
Repeat testing should continue until the criteria are met or until eight tests have been performed.26Figure 425 shows normal flow-volume and time-volume curves. The volume-time curve extends longer than six seconds, and there are no signs of early termination or cutoff.If the test is valid, the second step is to determine whether an obstructive or restrictive ventilatory pattern is present.
The test is positive if the FEV1 increases by at least 12 percent and the FVC increases by at least 200 mL.

It should be used with caution in patients with advanced COPD because of its inability to detect very low volumes or flows. The American Thoracic Society has developed a scale to rate the severity of disease based on predicted FEV1 and TLC.29The final step in interpreting spirometry is to determine if additional testing is needed to further define the abnormality detected by spirometry.

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