10.07.2015
Napalm is a mixture of gasoline and a thickening agent for use in flame throwers or incendiary bombs. During WWII and the Korean War, napalm was used on gatherings of enemy troops in the open air, land vehicles, artillery and rocket launchers, service facilities, command centers, road blocks, fortifications, radar, airplanes, airstrips, bridges, and tunnels. Napalm has been used primarily in the form of incendiary bombs, firebombs, land mines, and flamethrowers.
After World War II, the United States conducted an intensive effort to enhance the properties and effectiveness of napalm as an incendiary agent.
In this June 8, 1972 file photo, crying children, including 9-year-old Kim Phuc, center, run down Route 1 near Trang Bang, Vietnam after an aerial napalm attack on suspected Viet Cong hiding places as South Vietnamese forces from the 25th Division walk behind them. She will always be naked after blobs of sticky napalm melted through her clothes and layers of skin like jellied lava.
The first use of napalm occurred on July 23, 1944, during pre-invasion air strikes on the island of Tinian, part of the Marianas island chain in the Pacific.
The US used napalm during the Vietnam War [although technically speaking, it was not "napalm" per se because it included neither naphthalene nor palmitate, but instead was the Napalm-B mixture of polystyrene, gasoline and benzene].
Dow Chemical was responsible for the manufacture of napalm for the US military between 1965 and 1969.
In Angola, the Portuguese military used defoliants and napalm, mined trails, and poisoned water holes as tactics to counter their adversaries. In the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, Moshe Dayan was nearly injured when an Egyptian helicopter dropped a napalm barrel near him at Adan's command post on the east bank. Used extensively in 3 wars, napalm has proven itself as an effective tool in the military arsenal. Napalm was a popular weapon because of its broad uses and its ability to be forgiving with accuracy.


Napalm is extremely stable, tolerating temperatures well above 150°F (effective in the tropics) and as low as -40°F (bomb shelters, cold weather environments). During World War II, firebombs, in the form of 165-gallon containers, were the primary method for the disbursement of napalm.
This effort resulted in the development of napalm B (super napalm, NP2), which substituted polystyrene and benzene for naphthalene and palmitate.
A South Vietnamese plane accidentally dropped its flaming napalm on South Vietnamese troops and civilians. Napalm was a big hit with the allied forces, who used it extensively in World War II in flamethrowers and fire bombs. Napalm, dropped from low altitude, was recognized as the most effective air weapon against tanks, troops in trenches, and inflammable targets.
The resulting substance continued to bear the name napalm, although it lacked the 2 components of its namesake. The napalm was mixed in varying concentrations of 6% (for flame throwers) and 12-15% for bombs mixed on site (for use in perimeter defense). The use of napalm and cluster bombs against civilians in Northern Iraq was part of Turkey's military efforts against the Kurds. During the Korean War, the United States dropped approximately 250,000 pounds of napalm per day.
From 11 to 12 July 1952, 400 United States planes dropped more than 6,000 napalm bombs and time-bombs, killing 8,000 civilians, including women and children. Napalm’s increased viscosity resulted in the enhanced effectiveness of flamethrowers, which were frequently used in World War II. Napalm B provided the United States with an incendiary substance with enhanced stability and controllability and, as such, became the weapon of choice during the Vietnam War.


This was accomplished through the use of napalm, strafing, cluster munitions, and other antipersonnel weapons. Under attack of falling napalm, the VC troops had to either flee their current position, or risk being burned to death. Gelation also enhances its stability, with napalm requiring much higher temperatures to ignite than gasoline. According to the DPRK report, Napalm and other bombs dropped by United States war planes totaled more than 600,000 tons, which was 3.7 times the 161,425 tons dropped over Japan during the Pacific War. Within days Iraqi forces recovered and launched a ruthless counteroffensive including napalm and chemical attacks from helicopters. Napalm, through its unique properties, extended the effective range of flamethrowers to 150 yards. In fact, ignition requires the use of trinitrotoluene (TNT) to explode and ignite white phosphorus, the ignited temperature of which is high enough to result in the combustion of napalm.
On March 9 and 10, 1945, US forces dropped more than 1,500 tons of napalm bombs, all produced at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, on Tokyo. Naturally, this method of dropping napalm was only used on specific targets where tactical air could not be effectively used.
In the battle of Iwo Jima, aircraft from small escort aircraft carriers delivered napalm bombs and rockets to the island and supported US troops.



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