06.11.2014
The sleep and dream cycle varies between individuals, but the majority of health people show a consistent pattern illustrated by the graphs above. A person will experience a higher degree of dream recall when they are healthy, go to sleep at the same time each night, and wake up naturally after a full night of sleep. SubscribeTo get started, subscribe below and receive the 7 things you need to know to have lucid dreams. We spend around one third of our lives asleep, still none of us have any idea why do we sleep. Our internal body clock which alarms us on when to sleep and when to wake up is governed by circadian rhythm. Although the discovery of REM sleep ultimately had a huge impact on sleep research, the initial report of a connection between REM sleep and dreaming was met with "an outburst of apathy" in the scientific community (Lubin, 1974). Only after REM sleep was demonstrated in animals, years later, did psychologists awaken to its significance.
Biological measurements from the animals in paradoxical (REM) sleep resembled those of awake animals, yet the cats were difficult to awaken from REM sleep. Jouvet found a brain area near a structure called the locus coeruleus that was necessary for muscle relaxation during REM sleep. By contrast, when a cat enters REM sleep, it loses all muscle tension below the neck and relaxes completely, as shown in the second picture. After Jouvet's research, other scientists looked for evidence of paradoxical or REM sleep in animals of other species. For you to be able to function properly either at work or in school, you need to make it a habit to get a good dose of Zzzs. I found your blog extremely interesting because it is contrary to what I usually experience with dreams.
This cycle is most apparent while we sleep because each cycle includes a period of deep sleep, and a period of REM sleep.
The person must also have an interest and curiosity for their dream experiences each morning upon awakening.
Even the question has puzzled scientists for centuries and the answer is; we are not perfectly sure. It is also known as the “Paradoxical Sleep” because at this time brain activities are similar to the awakened state. Studies have shown that quality and quantity of sleep matters a lot when it comes to learning and memorizing things. Many psychologists were skeptical about any report involving a pop psychology topic like dreaming (pop psychology being a negative label for topics discussed in unscientific ways in popular magazines).


When Dement published a report of REM sleep in cats, Jouvet realized he had seen the same thing. When this area was surgically destroyed, the animals went to sleep normally, but during paradoxical or REM sleep they hissed and scratched violently, sometimes running around the cage with their eyes closed for a minute or two as if attacking another animal. It also suggested that muscle relaxation below the neck during REM sleep prevented animals from acting out their dreams.
When a cat or other animal is limp like this, the EEG shows rapid, erratic activity characteristic of REM sleep. If a student goes to sleep during a lecture, the posture muscles retain their tension at first, so the student remains upright. If he started dropping off to sleep, the pencil slipped from between his fingers, which woke him up.
With plenty of work to do or dinner meetings to attend, some people just inadvertently push themselves to the limit, completely overlooking the utterly undesirable effects of sleep deprivation: tired eyes and clouded thinking, among many others.
At the end of each Ultradian Rhythm, there is a short period of wakefulness when the person can adjust their sleep position before falling back into sleep.
Some say we have to sleep to maintain normal rhythm of life while other say, sleep plays an important role in brain development. Presence of melatonin and gradual decrees in body temperature causes sleepiness in our body. The NON REM SLEEP cycle repeats itself again and again till the end of the sleep without retouching stage 1. The amount of sleep requires to a person depends upon their age and the physical activity they perform in a day. William Dement's 1958 discovery of REM sleep in cats, plus similar work by French physiologist Michael Jouvet (zhu-VAY), really started the Golden Age of sleep research.
When they went into this phase of sleep; they went completely limp, as if major muscles of the body were paralyzed.
In dogs, cats, and rabbits (among other animals) one can observe external signs of dream activity such as paws and whiskers twitching during REM sleep. In fact, periods of REM or paradoxical sleep occur in all mammals except the spiny ant-eater, which is not a very typical mammal because it lays eggs. According to Helpguide, a non-profit organization managed by psychotherapists, a very small percentage of the population (about 3%) has a genetic trait that makes the individual require only 6 hours of sleep and still be able to function optimally. I'm not sure why it is that way, perhaps it's because I don't sleep as deeply when I'm stressed, so I remember my dreams more vividly, or maybe my mind is trying to tell me to calm down. Each subsequent ultradian rhythm requires less deep sleep, and so the REM period becomes longer.


Breathing rate and blood pressure rises at this time, visual intense dreaming also occurs at REM sleep. A new born generally require about 16 hours, while for a teenagers it is more than enough to take a good 9 hours sleep. Jouvet chose the term "paradoxical" (which means strange or contradictory) because during this phase of sleep animals showed biological signs very similar to those of an awake animal.
In non-REM sleep, a cat's muscles are active, so it can sleep upright or in a sitting position as in the sketch below.
Basal sleep refers to how much sleep an individual requires on a regular basis; while sleep debt refers to the amount of sleep an individual did not obtain or fell short of. In his interview with Time Magazine, he asserted that long sleepers are at risk of suffering from depression, obesity, and consequently heart disease.Long sleep is considered bad, but short sleep is worse.
In this article I have tried a little bit to shed some light on the sleep cycles and brain activities at that time. A normal adult spend about 80% of their sleep time in NON REM SLEEP and rest 20% in REM SLEEP.
For most adults, 7 or 8 hours appears like an ideal sleep, although some may need 10 hours or as even as few as 5 hours. An EEG taken while a cat slept in this position might show the typical large, slow waves of non-REM sleep. Allison and Cicchetti (1976) suggested that prey animals have less REM sleep because they need to wake up quickly if a predator finds them. According to the National Institute of Health, lack of sleep can lead to a shortened attention span, dull memory, and higher BMI. After each REM sleep the sleep cycle begins aging with and with each succeeding cycle NERM gets shorter and REM grows, giving us around 40 minutes dreaming time just before waking. 12 to 14 hours are recommended for toddlers aged 1 to 3 years old, while infants need 14 to 15 hours of slumber time. But since too much and too little sleep have been seen to cause a variety of conditions, it is highly recommended for an individual to get just the right amount of it every day. There was also a reduction of activity in the amygdala (which is the area responsible for processing emotions).This certainly DOES apply to me.
Sometimes when I have stressful days, whether it is from academic, social, or athletic life, in the morning when I wake up from a night sleep, the stress does not seem to exist or bother me anymore.



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