03.04.2015
Doctors haven’t been able to pin down a specific trigger, as many seizures simply just happen – which is why there are such strict driving rules that apply to epileptics.
A seizure occurs when the brain functions abnormally, resulting in a change in movement, attention, or level of awareness. Different types of seizures may occur in different parts of the brain and may be localized (affect only a part of the body) or widespread (affect the whole body).
Around 3% of all children have a seizure when younger than 15 years, half of which are febrile seizures (seizure brought on by a  fever). A febrile seizure occurs when a child contracts an illness such as an ear infection, cold, or chickenpox accompanied by fever.
Children with relatives, especially brothers and sisters, who have had febrile seizures are more likely to have a similar episode.
Children who have had a febrile seizure in the past are also more likely to have a second episode. Simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures have a motor (movement) component that is located in one portion of the body.
Complex partial seizures are similar, except that the child is not aware of what is going on. Convulsive seizures are noted by uncontrollable muscle jerking lasting for a few minutes-usually less than 5-followed by a  period of drowsiness that is called the postictal period.
Absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, are short episodes during which the child stares or eye blinks, with no  apparent awareness of their surroundings. Although seizures have many known causes, for 3 out of 4 children, the cause remains unknown. About one fourth of the children who are thought to have seizures are actually found to have some other disorder after a complete evaluation.
Children with absence seizures (petit mal) develop a loss of awareness with staring or blinking, which starts and stops quickly. Partial seizures usually affect only one group of muscles, which spasm and move convulsively. All children who seize for the first time and many with a known seizure disorder should be evaluated by a doctor. Most children with first seizures should be evaluated in a hospital's emergency department.


After the seizure has stopped and the child has returned to normal, contact your child's doctor for further advice. Any child with repeated or prolonged seizures, trouble breathing, or who has been significantly injured should go to the hospital by  ambulance.
If the child has had his or her first febrile seizure, then the doctor may want to perform a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to test for  possible meningitis.
Most children do not get a CT scan of the head, unless there was something unusual about the febrile seizures, such as the  child not returning to his or her normal self shortly afterward. Movement seizures, which include partial seizures and generalized (grand mal) seizures, can be very dramatic. Seizures of this type occur in young children and are often associated with other problems such as mental retardation.
After the seizure ends, place the child on one side and stay with the child until he or she is fully awake.
Do not try to give food, liquid, or medications by mouth to a child who has just had a seizure. During the first visit, many doctors cannot be sure if the event was a seizure or something else. Many seizure medications have side effects including damage to your child's liver or teeth. Children who are known to have febrile seizures should have their fevers well controlled when sick. The biggest impact caretakers can have is to prevent further injury if a seizure does occur.
A seizure in general is not harmful unless an injury occurs or status epilepticus develops.
Children with febrile seizures "outgrow" them, but they often have repeated seizures when they develop fevers while they are young. In a true epileptic seizure or fit the victim quickly falls to the ground and loses consciousness. Frequently, children with this type of  seizure repeat an activity, such as clapping, throughout the seizure. It is most common in children younger than 2 years, and most of these children have generalized tonic-clonic seizures.


A thorough description of the type of movements witnessed, as well as the child's level of alertness, can help the doctor determine what type of seizure your child has had. Children  suspected of having these seizures may have multiple lab tests done in the emergency department. Unless a specific cause is found, most children with first-time seizures will not be placed on medications.
If several years pass without any seizures, doctors often stop the child's  medications and see if the child has outgrown the seizures.
Children who develop status epilepticus  have a 3-5% risk of dying from the prolonged seizure. Seizures in newborns may be very different than seizures in toddlers, school-aged children, and adolescents.
Two to five percent of children have a febrile seizure at some point  during their childhood. Additionally, the doctor asks for a description of the event, specifically to include where it occurred, how long any abnormal movements lasted, and the period of sleepiness afterward. If he or she is not breathing within 1 minute after the seizure stops, then start mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing (CPR). The exceptions occur with children who have other developmental disorders such as cerebral palsy and in children with neonatal seizures and infantile spasms.
Seizures, especially in a child who has never had one, can be frightening to the parent or caregiver.
Why some children have seizures with fevers is not known, but several risk factors have been identified. Children with this type of seizure may also behave strangely during the episode and may or  may not remember the seizure itself after it ends. Do  not try to do rescue breathing for the child during a convulsive seizure, because you may injure the child or yourself.
In the hospital, these children undergo several days of testing to look  for the many possible causes of the seizures.



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