15.11.2014
Clock genes have been found in organisms ranging from people to mice, fish, flies, plants, molds, and even single-celled bacteria.
Circadian rhythms with their associated hormonal cycles can explain how some of our daily activities are often at their most optimal at particular times of the day, as shown in the diagram below. Sunlight and the temperature are the external cues, on which the biological clock partly depends. Sleep-wake cycle, the temperature regulation system, and the endocrine system are the body systems with the most prominent circadian variations.
This clock, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is actually a pair of pinhead-sized brain structures that together contain about 20,000 neurons.


Travelers suffer from disrupted biological clock, when they pass from one time zone to another time zone, which is known as jet lag. Clock proteins in the colon peak in abundance at dramatically different times during a 24-hour cycle, depending on whether eating is continuous through the day or restricted to daytime. Some doctors try to manipulate the biological clock with a procedure called light therapy to reduce the effects of jet lag. If eating is mistimed, it can create an imbalance between the clock proteins regulating e.g.
People who fall out of sync with their circadian cycles are more likely to suffer from diabetes, obesity, and heart disease.


Melatonin is a critical circadian-controlled hormone secreted by the pineal gland, closely associated with sleep and wakefulness. She found that insulin treatment caused a phase adjustment of the circadian clock of the mice.



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