In all referencing systems or styles, every reference in the text of the document gives a link or a guide to the full list of references at the end.
Here you can see an example of the Harvard System (from the same source as the graphic on the previous page) - on the left hand page is the body of the text, with the references. Bei dem beschriebenen Verfahren handlet es sich um eine mikrochirurgische Modifikation des konventionellen retroperitonealen Zugangs zur ventralen Lendenwirbelsaule. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
NOTE: Journal titles which begin with BMC are online-only and like other online-only journals, they do not use issue numbers, and do not have page numbers. Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc.
IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item. Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.
Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation).
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog. For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation.
Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text. For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date. Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Usually with a name, there is also a date, to indicate when the item that was cited was written. On the right is the reference section at the end of the document, to which those citations or references refer. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers.
If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.


Government executive document, authored by agency, with report number.Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog.
It may be secondary to constant rhinorrhea, nose-picking, or viral infections such as herpes simplex and herpes zoster.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of ischial bursitis with an emphasis on ultrasonography (US). Our study included 31 patients with a painful mass or tenderness in their buttock who underwent US (n=27), CT (n=1), or MR imaging (n=4). Ischial bursitis, superficial to the ischial tuberosity, can be clearly demonstrated on sonography and appears as a thin-walled cystic lesion, with or without internal septa and mural nodules. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. Characteristics of selected multilingual education programs from around the world: A review of the literature (Unpublished master's thesis). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer assisted learning versus traditional learning (Master's thesis). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada). Historic health reform bill passes but at a price: Women's groups have mixed reaction [Web log post]. A needle aspiration (n=6) or a bursal excision (n=5) was performed in those patients who had no clinical improvement in spite of the conservative treatment. The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land [EBSCO Reader version].
Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas (CCRC Working Paper No. Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University). Program effectiveness of job readiness training: An analysis and evaluation of selected programs in St.
Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master’s of social work students (Doctoral dissertation).
Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada). Pictured rocks national lakeshore: Final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement.
Gender, generation, and toxicity: The implications for academic libraries of gender and generational attitudes toward competition and workplace behavior. Rural stroke caregivers: A qualitative study of the positive and negative response to the caregiver role.
The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: Findings from a population-based study.


Evaluation included lesion location, size, wall of the bursae, and intrinsic characteristics on US, CT and MR imaging.
Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC (pp.
As is the case for the second example below, when the publisher is the authoring agency, write: Author in the publisher's field. Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences.
Paper presented at the annual conference of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians, Wisconsin Dells, WI.
Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence.
Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.
Recently, we reported that there is significant low field relaxation dispersion in myocardial and fibrotic scar tissue during in vivo T1rho MRI, contributing to contrast enhancement compared to spin echo (T2) MRI.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. However, we also observed that differences in magnetic field susceptibility between the heart and lung organs and poor RF penetration and field homogeneity in large patients and at 3 T contribute to T1rho quantification errors. Sonography showed that fluid within the bursa was hypoechoic (59%), hyperechoic (26%), or of mixed echogenicity (15%). Our goal was to determine the influence of static (B0) and RF (B1) heterogeneity on in vivo myocardial T1rho quantification.MethodsWe performed simulations and experiments to explore how B0 and B1 field heterogeneity influences T1rho MRI. Since the veins draining this area are valveless and directly join the cavernous sinus, there is a potential risk of spreading infection to the cavernous sinus via these facial veins. Tilted rotating frame (TRF) Bloch simulations were performed for a rotary-echo spin lock, varying field heterogeneity and spin lock duration (TSL = 2-50 ms, B1 = 60-140% nominal spin lock, and I”B0 = -2-2 ppm at 1.5 T) with random Gaussian noise (I? = 1-20% of initial magnetization).
All lesions imaged with contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging had an enhancing thin wall and mural nodule.
In persistent vestibulitis neoplastic disease such as basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma should be kept in mind.
Simulated phantom and in vivo images were derived from B0 and B1 maps using the TRF Bloch simulations and were correlated with experimental images at the same spin lock duration.ResultsWe investigated the effect of field heterogeneity on measured T1rho relaxation times in simulations, phantom experiments and in vivo.
T1rho artifacts were characterized by banding artifacts resulting from incomplete longitudinal restoration of the T1rho-prepared magnetization, leading to RF field heterogeneity and rotation about the effective field during the spin lock pulse. These artifacts were most prominent at the LV posterolateral wall where significant static field heterogeneity (A± 200 Hz) could result in nutation about an effective field oriented away from the idealized spin lock axis.
The B0 field in vivo is much less homogeneous than that for the phantom; therefore the T1rho images show much more complex patterns (Figure 1C). For the continuous wave 'rotary echo' spin lock pulse, measurement error was less than 1% for spin lock amplitudes greater than 400 Hz with minimal B0 field heterogeneity.




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