Database download, installer and DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) have been restricted to focus more on fundamental database. Database download, installer and DBCA (Database Configuration Assistant) have been modified to focus more on fundamental database – with full management outside.
Oracle Streams and Oracle Database Advanced Replication have both been deprecated, while Oracle Change Data Capture has been removed entirely – and all have been replaced by Golden Gate. Oracle 12c for both database files and Clusterware files has desupported Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) on Windows and block file storage on raw devices.
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control is desupported and is no longer available. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) is not installed as part of the software for Oracle Database. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle XML DB is a mandatory component of Oracle Database. Oracle Streams is deprecated in Oracle Database 12c and may be desupported and unavailable in a later Oracle Database release.
Oracle Change Data Capture is not included in Oracle Database 12c and has been replaced with Oracle GoldenGate. Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS) is desupported on Windows. Databases currently using OCFS on Windows to host either the Oracle cluster files (Oracle Cluster Registry and voting files) or database files or both need to have these files migrated off OCFS before upgrading to Oracle Database 12c. Write for OTN Earn money and promote your technical skills by writing a technical article for Oracle Technology Network. Enterprise Manager provides extensive monitoring and management capabilities for various Oracle and non-Oracle products.
To help you maintain your Enterprise Manager installation, a variety of enhanced self-monitoring and diagnostic functionality is available from the Enterprise Manager console. Although Enterprise Manager functions as a single entity to manage your IT infrastructure, in reality it is composed of multiple components working in concert to provide a complete management framework from a functional standpoint.
Topology view that allows you to see all major components of Enterprise Manager and their current status.
The Health Overview provides a comprehensive overview of OMS and Repository operation and performance, and therefore allows you to view the overall health of your Enteprise Manager environment.
Overview: Provides key information for active Management Services such as the Management Agents, the WebLogic Administration Server, total number of monitored targets, number of administrators, and server load balancer (SLB) upload and console URLs, provided SLB is configured.
Repository Details: Provides physical information about the Management Repository and the host on which the database is located.
Job System Status: Displays key operational parameters of the Enterprise Manager Job service.
Console Activity: Displays the overall load on the Enterprise Manager console through the average number of requests per minute and the average time required to process those requests. Performance Charts: Upload Backlog and Upload Rate, Backoff Requests, Notification backlog. From this page, you can carry out all monitoring and management operations using the OMS and Repository menu. The Diagnostic Metrics page is intended for use by Oracle Support when diagnosing issues with the OMS. The Enterprise Manager Topology page provides a graphical representation of the Enterprise Manager infrastructure components and their association. In order for the Enterprise Manager repository database to appear in the Topology page, you must first manually discover the database.
Click on the OMS and Repository menu to display available operations that can be performed from this page. The Enterprise Manager Charts page displays eight charts representing key areas that together indicate the overall health of Enterprise Manager. Page Performance Monitoring and diagnosis feature provides you with the ability to identify and diagnose performance issues with Enterprise Manager pages without having to contact Oracle support. See the Oracle® Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Upgrade Guide for more information on upgrading Agents.
The charts display the Page Accesses and Sessions, Current Page Accesses and Sessions Distribution across OMSs and the Overall Statistics of page performance in the last 24 hours. The Overall Statistics table provides the breakdown of times spent in the Repository, the OMS and network and the number of page accesses, the maximum time taken by page in the last 24 hours. The page also displays the breakdown of time spent in the Repository and the OMS and network in a line graph format for each page.
The performance correlation tab displays graphs for page performance that allow you to correlate performance trends. Symptom diagnosis can be performed for both overall page processing time and individual page times. For individual pages, the symptom diagnosis icon is displayed in the table in the Current Severity column if the page performance metric threshold is exceeded. When the icon is displayed in the Overall Statistics section, it indicates that the overall performance of the Enterprise Manager pages has exceeded the threshold in the last 10 minutes. On clicking the icon, the user is navigated to another tab where the details of the diagnosis are presented.
Each check is analyzed and the checks that are identified as the top causes are reported as findings.
If communication between the OMS and Agent cannot be established, then the diagnosis will report findings based on the data available in Management Repository, which may not be the real cause for the issue. The symptom diagnosis feature is also available in the All Targets page for targets in unreachable or pending status by clicking on the status icon. The Repository page provides you with an overview of the status and performance of the Repository DBMS Jobs that handle part of Enterprise Manager's maintenance and monitoring functionality. Three tabs are displayed providing a comprehensive view of repository attributes, performance, as well as access to requisite operational parameters. As shown in Figure 14-10, the Repository tab provides a comprehensive snapshot of repository-specific monitoring.
The Repository Details region provides high-level database information for the Enterprise Manager repository. The Incidents and Problems region displays all incidents an problems associated with the repository database. This region displays the currents initialization parameter settings, recommended standards, and whether the current parameter values comply with those standard values. If you are running the repository in a RAC environment, this region also lets you select individual database instances in order to view initialization parameter compliance for that specific instance. The Repository Scheduler Jobs Status region provides details of the DBMS Jobs regarding their status, duration, and the next scheduled run time. For high-cost jobs requiring greater resources that, when run, can reduce repository performance, an edit icon (pencil) appears in the Edit column. The Repository Collection Performance region provides information on the performance of repository collections. Clicking on an item in the legend allows you to drill down into Problem Analysis, Metric Details, or the Target Home. This region displays the rollup performance by graphically displaying the quantity of data being rolled up (Number of Records Rolled Up) and speed (Throughput per Minute) over time.
The graphs for Number of Records Rolled Up and Throughput per Minute may increase over time as more targets are added, but on a daily basis should remain about the fairly level.
Clicking Configure allows you to change the number of rollup worker threads that will be started. If you wish to view only metrics for a specific target type, click on a specific metric target type area within the graph.
The Metric Alerts Per Day In Last 30 Days graphically displays the number of open, closed, and backlogged metric alerts over time. The Schema tab provides physical attribute and performance data pertaining to the repository database schema. Beginning with Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c, controlling Management Agents can be performed directly from the Enterprise Manager console.
A misconfigured Agent is an Agent that is not able to perform a heartbeat or upload data to the Oracle Management Service (OMS) due to invalid configuration or invalid data. If the Agent heartbeat or upload requests are failing consistently, and the problem cannot be resolved in a timely manner, you can manually block the Agent to prevent excessive load on the OMS.
Before unblocking the Agent, ensure that all issues related to Agent misconfiguration have been resolved. The Summary region provides primary details of the Agent such as its status and availability.
The Status region provides further details on the Agent status such as the number of restarts, the action that the Agent is performing currently.
The Performance, Usage and Resource Consumption charts provide further details on the Agent in graphical format. The Monitoring region provides details on the targets that are being monitored by the Agent.
Control operations for a single Agent can be performed on the Agent home page for that Agent. Upon choosing any of the above control menu options, a pop-up dialog requesting the credentials of the user displays.
Once you are authenticated, the chosen control operation begins and continues even if the pop-up dialog is closed. You must have at least Configure privileges in order to perform Agent configuration operations.


The properties on this page can be filtered to show All Properties, Basic Properties, or Advanced Properties. In order to perform control operations on multiple Management Agents, Enterprise Manager makes use of the Job system to automate repetitive tasks.
When you click on any of the control operations, you are taken to the Job creation wizard where you schedule a new job to perform the action on the selected Agents. In the Jobs page, you can view the chosen Management Agents in Target section in the General tab.
The Access tab displays the Administrator details and the access levels they have to the job.
Administrators with insufficient privileges can also schedule jobs for these control operations, but in this situation, the jobs will not complete successfully.
As with multi-Agent control operations, you can also perform Agent configuration on multiple Agents in the same way. In the Jobs page, you can view the chosen Management Agents in the Target section of the General tab. The Access tab displays the administrator details and the access levels they have to the job.
When you upgrade to the current Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c release, you upgrade your Oracle Management Services (OMS) to the current release, but not your target Oracle Management Agents (Management Agents). Alternatively, to access the Upgrade Agents page, from the Setup menu, select Manage Cloud Control, then select Upgrade Agent. A Management Server is a composite target consisting of multiple Enterprise Manager Management Services. The Management Servers page displays the list of Management Services, their status, incidents, the loader throughput, CPU usage, and the JVM memory usage metrics. Summary: Displays the high-level information about WebLogic administration server and Load balancer.
Job System: Displays information about the status of jobs over past time periods (such as the last 30 minutes, 1 hour, or 2 hours). Servers: Displays information about individual Management Services of the Management Server. Loader: Displays information that provides insight into the Loader subsystem performance as a whole. Throughtput (Rows processed per second): Indicates the rate (rows processed per second) at which the Loader is processing files. Files Processed vs Backoff: Indicates the number of files processed versus backed off (rejected) by the Loader.
To view detailed IP reports of Loader statistics, click the Loader Statistics link located below the graphs. Incidents: This displays the incidents and problems that have occurred against individual targets hosting Management Services.
Scripting on this page enhances content navigation, but does not change the content in any way. They no longer contain nor offer options for installing a local OEM Database Control and repository, registering with remote, centralized Grid Control, or installing Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB).
They now contain and offer options for installing Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Express and connecting to existing Cloud Control, but XML DB is no longer optional. You’ll need to migrate to Oracle ASM, a cluster file system, or Network File System (NFS). Oracle introduces Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (Oracle EM Express) as a replacement. You cannot uninstall Oracle XML DB, and there is no option to exclude it when you create an Oracle database. Use Oracle GoldenGate to replace all features of Advanced Replication, including multimaster replication, updatable materialized views, hierarchical materialized views, and deployment templates.
Support and distribution of OCFS on Linux (OCFS and OCFS2) remains unaffected by this desupport notice.
You must first perform an interim upgrade to Oracle Database release 11.2 and migrate the Oracle Clusterware files to Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM). You must migrate any data files stored on raw devices to Oracle ASM, a cluster file system, or Network File System (NFS). In our previous blog post on this topic, we looked at Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) in Database 12c, and we will now see how Enterprise Manager helps with that. Used to manage your heterogeneous IT infrastructure, Enterprise Manager plays an integral role in monitoring and maintaining the health of your IT resources. You can drill down into the database home page for more information and carry out administrative operations. For detailed information, you can click on the status icon to drill down into the Enterprise Manager Job Service home page. The page can be accessed by selecting Monitoring and then Diagnostic Metrics from the OMS and Repository menu. Each node in the hierarchy displays key information about the member type, the host on which it resides, and the number of incidents, if any. Manual discovery is also required in order to have the database's metric data (Database Time (centiseconds per second)) displayed in the charts.
These are Overall Files Pending Load -Agent, Job Step Backlog, Job Step Throughput (per second), Request Processing Time (ms), Database Time (centiseconds per second), CPU Utilization (%), Pages Paged-in (per second), Pages Paged-out (per second).
There are details of the page performance in each of the OMSs as well as the details of the available repositories. Symptom diagnosis is triggered when the set metric thresholds for overall page processing time are exceeded. Clicking on the icon, you are taken to another tab where the details of the diagnosis are presented. The icon is displayed in the Agent List and Agent Home pages in the event that the Agent target is unreachable or in pending status.
From this region, you can click on the number Management Service Repository Sessions details to view the exact number of repository connections per individual Enterprise Manager subcomponent such as the event system, console, job system, or connector framework.
For more detailed incident or problem information, you can click on the Summary link to access the issue in Incident Manager. They are collected by background DBMS jobs in the repository database called collection workers.
When viewing Short Running workers, you can click Configure to change short worker settings.
For this reason, the change will not be instantaneous and may require a minute or so in order to take effect. This provides a central point where all Management Agents within your monitored environment can be compared, configured and controlled. This page also includes misconfigured, blocked and both upgradable and non- upgradable Agents. When you block an Agent, the OMS rejects all heartbeat or upload requests from the blocked Agent. The Interaction with Management Service region provides details on the communication between the OMS and the Agent and metric extensions and management plug-ins deployed in the Agent. These operations require the credentials of the OS user who owns the Agent, or credentials of a user who has SUDO or PowerBroker privilege of the Agent owner. Therefore, you must have Job privileges for controlling multiple Management Agents through a single action.
You can then add a new administrator or modify the access level to View or Full, if you have the requisite privileges. You can then add a new administrator or modify the access level to View or Full if you have the requisite privileges. For more information on upgrading Management Agents, refer Upgrading Oracle Management Agents.
In addition, the Management Services displayed can be filtered by Normal Mode, Console Only, PBS only and Standby Management Services.
If the Loader consistently runs at more than 85% capacity, contact Oracle Support to confirm whether your system capacity needs to be increased.
OWB components that may exist from earlier releases are not upgraded as part of the Oracle Database upgrade process. Oracle XML DB is automatically installed or upgraded when you upgrade an existing database to Oracle Database 12c.
It is therefore essential to ensure Enterprise Manager itself is operating at peak efficiency. A special set of services has been created (based on the system) to model Enterprise Manager functions. The incident icons on each of the nodes expand to display a global view of current status for each node in the hierarchy. Diagnosis is accessed by means of an icon in the Overview tab in the Overall Statistics section when the overall page performance threshold is exceeded, as shown in the following graphic. The diagnosis indicates the root cause for the overall page performance exceeding the metric threshold, the findings that were deduced on diagnosis and the checks that were performed to analyze the overall page performance issue.
Charts showing the key Repository Details and Backlog in Repository Collection are provided The Scheduler Status region provides the status of the scheduler and the number of Job Queue Processes.
However, even though blocked Agents continue to collect monitoring data, it will not be able to upload any alerts or metric data to the OMS. You can access an Agent home page by clicking on a specific Agent from in the Agent list page or by selecting it from the All Targets page. Advanced Properties are also a combination of name and value but can also be grouped into categories.


In the Parameters tab, you provide the modified value for a particular set of properties that you want to change. I have included at the end of this blog an appendix of the deprecated & desupported doc notes that I referenced in order to arrive at my conclusions. I think this is good news, the database download and DBCA should stick to just the database.
Repository collection performance metrics measure the performance data for repository metric collections for each task class.
Once the Agent configuration problem is resolved, you must manually unblock the Agent to resume normal operation. You also have the option of choosing a new set of credentials which could also be saved as the preferred credential or as a named credential for future use. You must have at least configure privileges in order to modify the existing properties and set custom properties.
You also have the option of choosing a new set of credentials which could also be saved as the preferred credential or as a named credential for future use.You are given the option to start the job immediately or schedule the job for a later time. The scripts are placed in a shell script wrapper at the Unix level, and then scheduled using the Unix cron job facility.
At this point, you can also create a repeating job by specifying the job start time, the frequency, and the end time.
But setting up Cloud Control is far from being as easy or automated as having DBCA create a local OEM Database Control. So while this change may at first seem harsh and painful, upon retrospect it’s actually the direction most of us having already been moving towards. As and when Oracle releases new versions of the Oracle database, the future versions of the Oracle Enterprise Manager database plug-in would automatically cater to the new release, and any special feature in that release, making RMAN script maintenance unnecessary.
This is an incremental level 0 cumulative backup that can be used as the basis of an incremental backup strategy.
New RMAN features (such as compression, encryption, block change tracking, etc.) would be available when setting up the backup in Enterprise Manager itself.
After this database backup is completed, a control file and SPFILE autobackup are also created, because we identified earlier that we wanted these files to be automatically backed up with each backup.
This results in time and cost savings due to increased productivity and automation of the entire approach. After successful backup, RMAN deletes the archivelogs from their disk location because of the included delete input clause. During such a recovery-complete or incomplete-Oracle uses the archive logs to apply all the changes, so as to restore the database to any point of time (the main purpose of archive logging). When the home page appears (make sure you are logged in to the database with SYSDBA credentials), set up the Fast Recovery Area (FRA) to help automate the backups. In the past, DBAs had to perform a manual restore of the archive logs from their compressed Unix tape archiving (or tar) archives and then place the restored archive logs in a directory accessible by the Oracle-controlled recovery. This kind of manual searching and restoring of the archive logs is no longer needed in the case of RMAN, which automatically locates the archive log backup sets needed and extracts the archive logs required for the recovery. The first two subdirectories will be used for the backup and the autobackup, and the archivelog subdirectory will be used to store normal archive logs that are generated by the database in archivelog mode. It is possible to resize the FRA later on, but if it runs out of space, archive logs (if in Archivelog Mode) may stop being generated, and the database will not process any transaction after that unless the space issue is resolved.
This happens every time a backup is taken and if the directory structure up to the day level doesn't exist, it is created. As we can see in the RMAN output, another control file and SPFILE autobackup takes place after the archive logs backup.
Once configured, these autobackups will automatically occur after any RMAN database backup or archive logs backup completes. The names of the backup files and archive log files have been catalogued by RMAN and exist as entries in the control file records. During the RMAN maintenance activities that are started by the maintenance commands you included (including the extra ones we had listed), these entries are crosschecked to verify that they physically exist on disk. Selecting a larger parallelism will increase the number of concurrent RMAN streams to the disk backup location; use this feature with care, since it depends on how much the disk can handle. Using such a setting will increase the speed of the backup, but this will also depend on the disk subsystem structure.
Similarly, since the database backup, archivelog backup, and the autobackup in this job have succeeded, the entries of the previous backup and autobackup files are checked to see if they still need to be retained, as per the retention policy.
In the case of obsolete records, the actual physical backup files are also deleted from the disk. The test will write some test backup files to the disk backup location, and let you know if successful. Oracle's integrated secure tape backup management system, OSB provides an alternative to third-party tape backup solutions that may not be tightly integrated with Oracle RMAN and Oracle Enterprise Manager.
This will create a level 1 cumulative incremental backup, as opposed to the level 0 backup that is taking place each Sunday.
Since you are using the nocatalog mode of RMAN, it is of utmost importance to ensure the safety of the control file and make certain it is backed up, because the control files contains the history of all the backups. Consequently, an incremental cumulative backup will be performed daily that updates the datafile copies with all the changes.
This feature was introduced in Oracle 10g and helps considerably to increase the speed of incremental backups, since all database block changes are tracked in this special file (only tens of MB in size). The RMAN process in this case will not need to scan the entire datafile for changed blocks, when taking incremental backups.
The advantage is that you can easily switch over to this backup and use it as a production database in the case of an emergency, without any restore of the backup or recovery of the database. However, when the database size is more than, say, 200 GB, it is time to rethink your backup strategy.
Select Retain at least the specified number of full backups for each datafile, and enter 1 as the number of backups to retain at any one time - this is your redundancy.
And regular testing of your RMAN backup of all your databases is one of the DBA's mandatory responsibilities. In this case, backups would be retained to allow recovery of the database up to the specified number of days. You can adopt a better backup strategy by taking a full database backup once a week on a Sunday and then an incremental database backup Monday through Saturday. You must take into account the following: The total size of the database The types of backups taken each day (full or incremental) The amount of archive logs generated each day (since archive log backups are also included) The amount of finite space allocated to the database's FRA The database administrator must keep all these factors in mind, and closely monitor the database backup space available over the next few weeks, adjusting the Recovery Window if required or changing the Retention Policy to Redundancy instead of a Recovery Window.
Assuming that the FRA is set, the archived redo logs that have been backed up and are obsolete as per the retention policy will be deleted by the RMAN maintenance commands. You can take an image copy of all the datafiles of a database once in a while, and then take an incremental backup each day that will actually refresh the image copy of the database with all the incremental changes. The datafile copies become the same as in production, since they are being brought up to date each day when the incremental backup is run. Technically, you have managed a recovery of the database without performing a restore of the files from backup, and this makes the entire recovery faster and simpler. If you use a backup strategy like this, which is based on incrementally updated backups, it can help minimize the media recovery time of your database. This option deletes the archived redo logs that have been applied or shipped to all remote destinations, and also deletes archived logs after considering whether the specified number of archived log backups have been backed up to a tertiary device. This facility is visible and easily understandable if Oracle Enterprise Manager is used to schedule RMAN backups. In the case of a standby database, there are three main options: None Delete archived redo log files after they have been applied to the standby database Delete archived redo logs after they have been backed up the specified number of times. You can now set up the level 1 incremental backup for every weekday as before, but with this refreshing of the image copy as well, to keep the image copy up-to-date with your production database.
Backup optimization is ON, controlfile autobackup is ON, and there is a parallelism of 1 using a compressed backupset. The DBA can then perform a fast recovery from the available disk-based backup, in case of any production issues, rather than waiting for the tape to be located and the tape backup to be restored to the disk. We are going to set up a full backup of this type on Sundays, as well as a daily incremental backup of the database. To delete backups marked as obsolete (as per the retention policy), select Delete obsolete backups. Backup Encryption was first introduced in Oracle Database 10g Release 2 and is available for all later versions. You must make sure you are licensed to use this option, because being licensed for the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition (EE) does not automatically mean you are licensed to use the Advanced Security Option. Also, there will be greater flexibility since you can use either the wallet or the password when the RMAN backup needs to be restored. For example, if you select days as the frequency type and 1 as the frequency, the back up will run once every day at the time you have specified. We suggest 3 AM the following morning so that the backup will start at this time of low activity.
The archive logs are deleted after backup, after which the maintenance commands that delete obsolete diskbackups are executed. These actions are derived from what we previously specified in the Cloud Control backup setup and backup schedule wizard pages.
Nevertheless, you may want to change the RMAN script to include extra maintenance commands that will crosscheck backups and archivelogs, and delete the backups and archivelogs that have expired.



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Comments

  1. 29.03.2016 at 22:38:11


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