The city lacks a suitable road network to handle the traffic loads and street drainage that might be seen in any typical Australian town or city simply does not exist.
The heavy rain cleared the local streets with traffic and motor scooters although traffic returned once the rain eased and flood waters had subsided. With a lack of drainage, water was seen cascading across roadways with excess water ponding across streets. Many locals who spend their daytime lives with small struggling food stall businesses on the edges of roads simply took shelter and closed up shop during the downpour. The rain was so heavy that skyscrapers only 1 km to the south of where I was staying could not be seen. While this was only one such event that was captured, such scenes is a common occurrence annually across Jakarta and such flooding will continue until the road network is rebuilt which is unlikely to occur any time soon. Positive lightning is particularly dangerous, because it frequently strikes away from the rain core, either ahead or behind the thunderstorm. In addition to the visible flash that travels through the air, the current associated with the lightning discharge travels along the ground. Where organized sports activities take place, coaches, umpires, referees, or camp counselors must protect the safety of the participants by stopping the activities sooner, so that the participants and spectators can get to a safe place before the lightning threat becomes significant.
In particular, people should stay away from windows and doors and avoid contact with anything that conducts electricity, including landline telephones.
On the outside, lightning can travel along the outer shell of the building or may follow metal gutters and downspouts to the ground. A shelter that does not contain plumbing or wiring throughout or some other mechanism for grounding from the roof to ground is not safe. Avoid washers and dryers, since they not only have contacts with the plumbing and electrical systems but also contain an electrical path to the outside through the dryer vent. Tornadoes can be detected with Doppler RADAR and when they are, tornado warnings are issued. Los Alamos researchers and a collaborator have made measurements during thunderstorms to study the affect of lightning on the lower ionosphere and radiofrequency signals. Thunderstorms occur in the troposphere, the lowest region of the Earth's atmosphere, where most of the clouds and water vapor reside.
The partially ionized plasma of the ionosphere, which ranges from about 60 to 1,000 km, can "bounce" radio signals transmitted from the Earth.This property enables them to travel long distances over the horizon and can distort radio signals traveling to satellites important to communications, navigation or national security. A thunderstorm and its lightning discharges create disturbances in the ionosphere that perturb and distort radio signals and impact communications with orbiting satellites. Schematic of how a thunderstorm and its lightning strokes in the troposphere affect the ionosphere. This study supports the theory that tropospheric thunderstorms create ionospheric disturbances through the influence of the electric field associated with the lightning.
The perturbations affect radiofrequency communications and signals important for space-based nuclear detonation detection. The researchers deployed an array of six receivers, called the Los Alamos Sferics Array, in the Midwest to capture radio signals generated by lightning strikes associated with a thunderstorm hundreds of miles away. During the study, the thunderstorm generated about four cloud-to-ground lightning strokes per second at its peak activity. The team found that the electron density in the lower ionosphere decreased in response to lightning discharges.
Today, at the Space Weather Workshop in Boulder, Colo., NASA-funded researchers released to the general public a new “4D” live model of Earth’s ionosphere.
The first global simulation study of equatorial spread F (ESF) bubble evolution using a comprehensive 3D ionosphere model, SAMI3, has been demonstrated.
At any given moment about 2,000 thunderstorms roll over Earth, producing some 50 flashes of lightning every second. A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has found possible evidence of iron from a supernova in sediment cores taken from the floor of the Pacific Ocean.


Warming oceans may be boosting levels of dangerous bacteria in northern seas, possibly explaining why more people are getting sickened by tainted seafood and seawater, new research suggests. In a new study researchers from Sweden and Italy show what happens when magma meets limestone on its way up to the surface.
Nowhere in the article can I find the word "surprising." It's just you trying to put words in people's mouths again.
As such, it does not take much rain to cause flooding issues and many areas across northern Jakarta is susceptible to serious flooding each year during the monsoon season.
Kerbing and guttering does not exist in any proper form and as such, flood waters are compounded within the local street network.
The spark can reach over five miles (eight kilometers) in length, raise the temperature of the air by as much as 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit (27,700 degrees Celsius), and contain a hundred million electrical volts. The immense heat and other energy given off during a stroke has been found to convert elements into compounds that are found in organisms. It is estimated that Earth as a whole is struck by an average of more than a hundred lightning bolts every second.
It’s been seen in volcanic eruptions, extremely intense forest fires, surface nuclear detonations, heavy snowstorms, and in large hurricanes. Ice particles collide as they swirl around in a storm, causing a separation of electrical charges. When the charge gets close to the ground, it is attracted by all the positively charged objects, and a channel develops.
Some lightning originates in the top of the thunderstorm, the area carrying a large positive charge. It can strike as far as 5 or 10 miles (8 or 16 kilometers) from the storm, in areas that most people do not consider to be a lightning-risk area. The determining factor on whether a particular flash could be deadly depends on whether a person is in the path of the lightning discharge. Although some victims are struck directly by the main lightning stroke, many victims are struck as the current moves in and along the ground.
People involved in activities such as boating, swimming, fishing, bicycling, golfing, jogging, walking, hiking, camping, or working outdoors all need to take the appropriate actions in a timely manner when thunderstorms approach. In summer, especially on a holiday, more people are outside, on the beach, golf course, mountains, or ball fields.
Swimming is particularly dangerous, as not only do swimmers protrude from the water, presenting a potential channel for electrical discharge, but also because water is a good conductor of electricity. As with the outdoor activities, these activities should be avoided before, during, and after storms. Most people hurt by lightning while inside their homes are talking on the telephone at the time. Cardiac arrest and irregularities, burns, and nerve damage are common in cases where people are struck by lightning. For a shelter to provide protection from lightning, it must contain a mechanism for conducting the electrical current from the point of contact to the ground.
Inside a structure, lightning can follow conductors such as the electrical wiring, plumbing, and telephone lines to the ground. Many small open shelters on athletic fields, on golf courses, in parks, at roadside picnic areas, in school yards, and elsewhere are designed to protect people from rain and sun, but not lightning. Small wooden, vinyl, or metal sheds offer little or no protection from lightning and should be avoided during thunderstorms.
Regardless of the method of entrance, once in a structure, the lightning can travel through the electrical, phone, plumbing, and radio or television reception systems. Lightning can travel long distances in both phone and electrical wires, particularly in rural areas. Avoid being near a lightning rod or standing near metal objects such as a fence or underground pipes.


This study supports one theory for how tropospheric thunderstorms can create ionospheric disturbances that affect radiofrequency communication.
Thunderstorms can affect radio communications at a much higher level of the Earth's atmosphere, the ionosphere. Theoretical simulations suggest that lightning's electric fields enhance electron attachment to molecular oxygen and reduce electron density in the lower ionosphere. These findings indicate that enhanced electron attachment is responsible for the reduction in electron density. Understanding the sources and impacts of ionospheric disturbances aids the Laboratory's fulfillment of its national security mission. Lightning creates a radio signal (think about the crackle of static on an AM radio) that radiates outward in all directions. The lightning produced a large number of signals, which the scientists analyzed to determine localized, high-spatial resolution measurements of ionospheric conditions. The extent of the reduction is closely related in time and space to the rate of lightning discharges. I had the opportunity to experience this event and during the downpour, I took my camera out onto the local streets to take photos of poor street drainage and roads being inundated with water. Injuries range from severe burns and permanent brain damage to memory loss and personality change. Positively charged ice crystals rise to the top of the thunderstorm, and negatively charged ice particles and hailstones drop to the lower parts of the storm. If you see lightning and hear thunder at the same time, that lightning is in your neighborhood. If that time is 30 seconds or less, the thunderstorm is within six miles (ten kilometers) of you and is dangerous. Outdoor jobs such as construction and agriculture, and outdoor chores such as lawn mowing or house painting are at their peak, putting people involved in danger. However, with proper treatment, including CPR if necessary, most victims survive a lightning strike, although the long-term effects on their lives and the lives of family members can be devastating. These mechanisms may be on the outside of the structure, may be contained within the walls of the structure, or may be a combination of the two. Due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult.
The array captured two portions of the signal, a ground-hugging portion that travels across the surface and reaches the array first and a portion that emanates skyward until it reaches the lower regions of the ionosphere, where the electrically charged medium bends the signal and reflects it back Earthward. The researchers compared the measured signals with calculated signals to determine the most likely value of electron density, a key parameter of the ionosphere for its effect on radio signal propagation. After the storm stops producing lightning, the lower ionosphere returns to its original condition in minutes through re-ionization. As the electric current flows through the plasma it will "harvest" or attract all of the electrons in the area by electromagnetic forces. About 10 percent of lightning-stroke victims are killed, and 70 percent suffer serious long-term effects. If you see successive strokes of lightning in the same place on the horizon then you are in line with the storm, and it may be moving toward you.
Until it is acknowledged that lightning is but just a portion of the overall circuit linking the planet with the Sun any attempt to understand any part of the circuit will be futile. The characteristics of the reflected signal depend on the ionospheric properties in the local region centered above the midpoint between the lightning and the sensor.



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