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Abstract—Main call for Cloud computing is that users only utilize what they required and only pay for whatever they are using. Computing refers to an infrastructure where data processing and storage can happen away from mobile device.
With the never ending demand to maintain the highest levels of data integrity for increasingly large data sets, companies are increasingly challenged in finding effective data protection solutions that balance cost, data protection, and DR features. ISIT Cloud Backup offerings are designed around the need for maintaining the highest data integrity, while at the same time delivering the performance and costs that companies need in such a backup and DR solution.
This paper will discuss ways on how data security paradigms can change in the near future and ways to address the new. Traditionally Information Security has been governed by the “CIA” triad, namely Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability, but this is bound to change in the future especially with data being spread across the globe. Accountability is a concept in Ethics and Governance with several meanings. It is often used synonymously with concepts such as responsibility and answerability.
Draft SLAs which will clearly enlist the minimum time that the organization  can hold on disruptions. This is something new, draft agreements that clearly state the rewards that you will share with the provider if the ultimate goal of providing secure and reliable data quality is met; make them understand  the metrics that you require for sharing incentives. Clearly state the legal and other risks that the vendor will incur if they do not meet the metrics that are deemed fit  by the organization; outcomes could range from cancellation of contracts to fines imposed due to legal obligations. Clearly enlist the kind of people who must be employed to manage your data and infrastructure, the kind of  checks that must be done on those  people, the credentials (degrees and  certifications) that they must hold.
Ensure that an organization such as   an Internet Service Provider (ISP) will    practice good governance principles   in reference to management, which   is basically corporate governance that extends beyond IT governance. Make them accountable to follow good IT practices such as ITIL, SAS70, etc. This will ensure that your data is taken care of properly, as organizations that have these certifications get audited by an independent body. One of the biggest challenges of Cloud Computing is gaining visibility into the infrastructure of the service provider. Most organizations will provide some sort of certification such as ISO 27001 but does that ensure that everything is taken care of? Through CCTV monitoring the customer can have a ground view on the physical security of the place in which the data resides. Ensure that the service provider give you the power to enforce Identity Management and Access Control privileges as per your requirements; for critical systems implement dual identity authentication wherein changes on require the acknowledgement of two people.
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery are critical components of availability but the CIO needs to ensure that they have first-hand facts on the back-up data, as to where it is  located, who has access to it, and how the data is being managed. Implement a logging server wherein   all transactions carried on your  infrastructure and data will be logged to this server. Have a quarterly risk assessment conducted by your internal security team in line with international standards such as NIST or COBIT. Record the observations and have them circulated. Have a year-end audit conducted by an internal team and a similar audit done by external auditors, who are specialists. Have the audits collated, and discuss    the results with the top management   of service providers.
Cloud Computing is here to stay and will change   the way data is being managed, stored and processed. Professional security expert focussing to reach pinnacle of excellence in areas of IT security ,  governance , Ethics and Leadership. To help businesses cope with a rapidly growing amount of data effortlessly, DS916+ supports robust scalability up to 9 drives with DX513 expansion unit, combining drives into one large volume. With the support of Windows AD, LDAP, and Domain Trust, DS916+ enables seamless account integration.
With the Surveillance Station add-on package and two free IP camera and device licenses, DS916+ serves as your home surveillance hub. When dealing with large-scale data storage, businesses require a solution that offers reliable backup and prevents file corruption. Snapshots preserve the history of a shared folder allowing you to save up to 1024 backup copies for point-in-time recovery.
Btrfs file system stores two copies of critical metadata on a volume, improving the availability and ensuring the integrity of your file system. Btrfs generates checksums for data and metadata, and then verifies the checksums during each read process to ensure the integrity of the filesystem and files.
With Btrfs, you can specify a storage limit for each shared folder, making it possible to precisely control space consumption when multiple teams or departments save files on the same Synology NAS server. File Station is a fast and secure feature for sharing and managing your files stored on DS916+. DS916+ provides seamless storage solutions for virtualization environments, including VMware, Citrix, and Microsoft Hyper-V. DS916+ is highly compatible with other devices, letting you manage and enjoy digital content with the devices you already have: computers, mobile devices, TVs, DLNA devices, and stereos.
Power consumption is measured when fully loaded with Western Digital 1TB WD10EFRX hard drive(s).
Read-write SSD cache was enabled in 5-bay (and above) NAS models with 2 SSDs units installed.
The performance of the mail system will slightly decrease in high-availability mode due to data synchronization between the two servers. Functions that were enabled in all of the tests above: anti-spam, anti-virus, DNSBL, greylist, content scan, full-text search (English only). Surveillance Station throughput is tested with Axis network camera, using continuous recording with live view from Surveillance Station and motion detection by camera.
If you manage this site and have a question about why the site is not available, please contact us directly. As threats continue to mount against customer networks, effective approaches to data protection are crucial for ensuring the integrity of stored information. There are several approaches and technologies that solution providers can leverage with their offerings to contribute to effective data protection.
The Partner Marketing Guide lists marketing programs that vendors offer to VARs, providing support, services and capabilities to the indirect IT channel.
Efficient Remote Data Possession Checking In Critical Information Infrastructures Ensuring Data Storage Security In Cloud Computing Dr. 1 Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Secure Cloud Storage Cong Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Sherman S.-M.
1 Privacy-Preserving Public Auditing for Secure Cloud Storage Cong Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Sherman S.M. Enabling Data Dynamic and Indirect Mutual Trust for Cloud Computing Storage Systems Ayad F.
Integrity Verification In Multiple Cloud Storage Using Cooperative PDP Method * Usha Sundari Dara 1 M.
Historical approaches such as tape backup and disk to disk replication for protecting data and ensuring recoverability in disaster scenarios face enormous constraints due to the amount of human intervention such solutions require to meet recovery requirements. We will focus this article from a Process and Governance perspective. A clear well-defined Service Level Agreement (SLA) is the first step in ensuring the security of our data. This is because certain applications in an organization will not be critical as compared to their front-line applications. This way the customer ends up getting better quality of service for their most critical applications.
Also provide certificate-ofexcellence  rewards to the people who maintain your infrastructure and help achieve business excellence. Record the findings, review them every month, note observations, circulate the observations and archive them on an external storage. Implement Authentication, Authorization, and Audit (AAA) for these systems and have them logged on a sys-log server.

In spite of getting all the above factors correct the CISO  or CIO must adopt an audit-based approach.
Identify concerns    and areas for improvements and have   them addressed through various  compensating mechanisms. With a powerful quad-core CPU, AES-NI hardware encryption engine, scalability up to nine drives, and 2GB or 8GB memory options, DS916+ brings better support for multitasking, and increases business dynamics.
Your business can start with a lower upfront cost and scale up storage capacity as requirements grow while investing less time on storage management. 4K transcoding is available only through Synology’s Video Station, DS video, Media Server. Featuring an intuitive user interface, DSM makes accessing and sharing your data smarter and simpler.
With Windows AD and LDAP integration, DS916+ can fit effortlessly into any existing network environment - there is no need for IT administrators to maintain two sets of credentials. The User Home feature can automatically create a "home" folder for every user account to minimize the administrator's effort in repeatedly creating "home" folders for all accounts.
Whether you are a Windows or Mac user, you can back up everything on your computer directly to Synology NAS using Cloud Station Backup.
With support for the next-generation Btrfs file system, DS916+ ensures information is stored with a high level of data integrity, while providing flexible and efficient data protection tools. Snapshots can be automatically captured up to every 5 minutes, without noticeably impacting system performance. If the file system discovers a mismatch, metadata will be repaired to keep file system consistent. Security Advisor analyzes system settings, password strength, network preferences and removes any possible malware.
Synology offers the latest support for TV streaming, including Samsung TV, Roku players, Apple TV, and Google Chromecast, meaning you can stream digital content stored on DS916+ to your widescreen TV effortlessly.
In the event that antivirus, e-mail archiving or other security tools are compromised, or if a system crashes, having reliable backups and a strong disaster recovery plan in place can be a critical difference maker.
With a little help from CRN's Channel Encyclopedia, we'll examine various data protection methods, including different backup types, disaster recovery plans and data deduplication.
2) Unlike most prior works for ensuring remote data integrity, the new scheme further supports secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks, including:update, delete and append. ENSURING CLOUD DATA STORAGE In cloud data storage system, users store their data in the cloud and no longer possess the data locally. Specifically, the user can construct a general update matrix F as Note that we use zero elements in F to denote the unchanged blocks and thus F should only be a sparse matrix most of the time (we assume for certain time epoch, the user only updates a relatively small part of file F).
On the other hand, using the block index mapping information, the user can still access or retrieve the file as it is. Trends such as Cloud Computing have been helping Small and Medium Investors and Innovators (SMIs) by reducing the initial cost of deployment and maintenance. Here we provide some fresh approaches to drafting an SLA that will deliver a win-win situation. These findings will be particularly useful when dealing with legal issues arising out of operations occurring across the globe.
The above process requires well-planned  strategy, budget and resources but going by the Return-On-Investment  (ROI) that Cloud Computing provides management will hardly say NO. Synology's Package Center lets you download and install useful add-on packages designed specifically for individual or business needs, meaning you can enjoy more entertainment in your life or better productivity at work. With Cloud Sync, you can even sync your DiskStation with Amazon Cloud Drive, Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, Dropbox, Box, Baidu Cloud, and many more — establish your hybrid cloud to enjoy more storage flexibility and prevent data loss. You also won't worry about missing files with the Recycle Bin feature which is supported on AFP, CIFS, File Station, and WebDAV. Windows ACL support on DS916+ allows IT administrators to fine tune access controls and set up privileges to files and folders on DS916+ through the familiar Windows user interface.
Thus, the correctness and availability of the data files being stored on the distributed cloud servers must be guaranteed.
Note that as a tradeoff, the extra data structure information has to be maintained locally on the user side. To cite an example, in  the case of an Internet Service Provider  going in for a merger or acquisition the  ISP should ensure that customers are  properly informed and have visibility on what is happening to their data. With compatibility for major protocols, DS916+ can eliminate server configuration overhead and enhance IT administrators’ efficiency. With built-in FTP or email clients, DS916+ lets you organize and share files through an advanced web application effortlessly. The technical foundations of Cloud Computing include Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Virtualizations of hardware and software. Extensive security analysis shows our scheme is resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks. 4.2 Delete Operation Sometimes, after being stored in the cloud, certain data blocks may need to be deleted.
With emerging trends such as these data security in the Clouds must not be viewed in the traditional triadic way but must be viewed in a different way. The goal of Cloud Computing is to share resources among the cloud service consumers, cloud partners, and cloud vendors in the cloud value chain. The delete operation we are considering is a general one, in which user replaces the data block with zero or some special reserved data symbol.
CONCLUSION In this paper, we investigate the problem of data security in cloud data storage, which is essentially a distributed storage system. PROBLEM STATEMENT 2.1 System Model A representative network architecture for cloud storage service architecture is illustrated in Figure 1.
To address these problems, our main scheme for ensuring cloud data storage is presented in this section. From this point of view, the delete operation is actually a special case of the data update operation, where the original data blocks can be replaced with zeros or some predetermined special blocks.
To achieve the assurances of cloud data integrity and availability and enforce the quality of dependable cloud storage service for users, we propose an effective and flexible distributed scheme with explicit dynamic data support, including block update, delete, and append.
The first part of the section is devoted to a review of basic tools from coding theory that is needed in our scheme for file distribution across cloud servers. We rely on erasure-correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide redundancy parity vectors and guarantee the data dependability. Also, all the affected tokens have to be modified and the updated parity information has to be blinded using the same method specified in update operation.
INTRODUCTION Several trends are opening up the era of Cloud Computing, which is an Internet-based development and use of computer technology. Third Party Auditor (TPA): an optional TPA, who has expertise and capabilities that users may not have, is trusted to assess and expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the users upon request. The token computation function we are considering belongs to a family of universal hash function [4], chosen to preserve the homomorphic properties, which can be perfectly integrated with the verification of erasure-coded data [5] [6].Subsequently, it is shown how to derive a challenge response protocol for verifying the storage correctness as well as identifying misbehaving servers.
4.3 Append Operation In some cases, the user may want to increase the size of his stored data by adding blocks at the end of the data file, which we refer as data append. The ever cheaper and more powerful processors, together with the software as a service (SaaS) computing architecture, are transforming data centers into pools of computing service on a huge scale. In cloud data storage, a user stores his data through a CSP into a set of cloud servers, which are running in a simultaneous, cooperated and distributed manner.

The procedure for file retrieval and error recovery based on erasure correcting code is also outlined. We anticipate that the most frequent append operation in cloud data storage is bulk append, in which the user needs to upload a large number of blocks (not a single block) at one time.
The increasing network bandwidth and reliable yet flexible network connections make it even possible that users can now subscribe high quality services from data and software that reside solely on remote data centers.
Data redundancy can be employed with technique of erasure correcting code to further tolerate faults or server crash as user s data grows in size and importance. Finally, we describe how to extend our scheme to third party auditing with only slight modification of the main design. Given the file matrix F illustrated in file distribution preparation, appending blocks towards the end of a data file is equivalent to concatenate corresponding rows at the bottom of the matrix layout for file F (See Figure 2). Although cloud computing promises lower costs, rapid scaling, easier maintenance, and service availability anywhere, anytime, a key challenge is how to ensure and build confidence that the cloud can handle user data securely. Thereafter, for application purposes, the user interacts with the cloud servers via CSP to access or retrieve his data.
A recent Microsoft survey found that 58 percent of the public and 86 percent of business leaders are excited about the possibilities of cloud computing. 2.2 Data Protection As a Service Currently, users must rely primarily on legal agreements and implied economic and reputational harm as a proxy for application trustworthiness. PROVIDING DYNAMIC DATA OPERATION SUPPORT So far, we assumed that F represents static or archived data. But more than 90 percent of them are worried about security, availability, and privacy of their data as it rests in the cloud. As an alternative, a cloud platform could help achieve a robust technical solution by making it easy for developers to write maintainable applications that protect user data in the cloud, thereby providing the same economies of scale for security and privacy as for computation and storage; and enabling independent verification both of the platform s operation and the runtime state of applications on it, so users can gain confidence that their data is being handled properly. Much as an operating system provides isolation between processes but allows substantial freedom inside a process, cloud platforms could offer transparently verifiable partitions for applications that compute on data units, while still allowing broad computational latitude within those partitions.
However, in cloud data storage, there are many potential scenarios where data stored in the cloud is dynamic, like electronic documents, photos, or log files etc.
Thus, an insert operation may affect many rows in the logical data file matrix F, and a substantial number of computations are required to renumber all the subsequent blocks as well as re-compute the challenge-response tokens. However, the fact that users no longer have physical possession of data in the cloud prohibits the direct adoption of traditional cryptographic primitives for the purpose of data integrity protection. DPaaS enforces fine-grained access control policies on data units through application confinement and information flow checking. Therefore, it is crucial to consider the dynamic case, where a user may wish to perform various block-level operations of update, delete and append to modify the data file while maintaining the storage correctness assurance. Hence, the verification of cloud storage correctness must be conducted without explicit knowledge of the whole data files.
It employs cryptographic protections at rest and offers robust logging and auditing to provide accountability.
Since data do not reside at users local site but at cloud service provider s address domain, supporting dynamic data operation can be quite challenging. In order to fully support block insertion operation, recent work [7], [8] suggests utilizing additional data structure (for example, Merkle Hash Tree [9]) to maintain and enforce the block index information. On the one hand, CSP needs to process the data dynamics request without knowing the secret keying material.
Following this line of research, we can circumvent the dilemma of our block insertion by viewing each insertion as a logical append operation at the end of file F. The data stored in the cloud may not only be accessed but also be frequently updated by the users, including insertion, deletion, modification, appending, etc. To truly support this vision, cloud platform providers would have to offer DPaaS in addition to their existing hosting environment, which could be especially beneficial for small companies or developers who don t have much in-house security expertise, helping them build user confidence much more quickly than they otherwise might. On the other hand, users need to ensure that all the dynamic data operation request has been faithfully processed by CSP.
Thus, it is also imperative to support the integration of this dynamic feature into the cloud storage correctness assurance, which makes the system design even more challenging.
Figure 2 illustrates an example architecture for exploring the DPaaS design space.[3] Here, each server contains a trusted platform module (TPM) to provide secure and verifiable boot and dynamic root of trust. To address this problem, we briefly explain our approach methodology here and provide the details later. Last but not the least, the deployment of Cloud Computing is powered by data centers running in a simultaneous, cooperated and distributed manner [2].
This example architecture demonstrates at a high level how it s potentially possible to combine various technologies such as application confinement, encryption, logging, code attestation, and information flow checking to realize DPaaS. For any data dynamic operation, the user must first generate the corresponding resulted file blocks and parities. In this paper, we propose an effective and flexible distributed storage verification scheme with explicit dynamic data support to ensure the correctness and availability of users data in the cloud. This part of operation has to be carried out by the user, since only he knows the secret matrix P.
We rely on erasure correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide redundancies and guarantee the data dependability against Byzantine servers [23], where a storage server may fail in arbitrary ways. Besides, to ensure the changes of data blocks correctly reflected in the cloud address domain, the user also needs to modify the corresponding storage verification tokens to accommodate the changes on data blocks.
This construction drastically reduces the communication and storage overhead as compared to the traditional replication-based file distribution techniques.
Only with the accordingly changed storage verification tokens, the previously discussed challenge-response protocol can be carried on successfully even after data dynamics. Miller, Store, forget, and check: Using algebraic signatures to check remotely administered storage, in Proc. In other words, these verification tokens help ensure that CSP would correctly execute the processing of any dynamic data operation request. In order to strike a good balance between error resilience and data dynamics, we further explore the algebraic property of our token computation and erasure-coded data, and demonstrate how to efficiently support dynamic operation on data blocks, while maintaining the same level of storage correctness assurance. Otherwise, CSP would be caught cheating with high probability in the protocol execution later on. In order to save the time, computation resources, and even the related online burden of users, we also provide the extension of the proposed main scheme to support third-party auditing, where users can safely delegate the integrity checking tasks to third-party auditors and be worry-free to use the cloud storage services. Given this design methodology, the straightforward and trivial way to support these operations is for user to download all the data from the cloud servers and re-compute the whole parity blocks as well as verification tokens.
Our work is among the first few ones in this field to consider distributed data storage security in Cloud Computing.
In this section, we will show how our scheme can explicitly and efficiently handle dynamic data operations for cloud data storage, by utilizing the linear property of Reed-Solomon code and verification token construction.
4.1 Update Operation In cloud data storage, a user may need to modify some data block(s) stored in the cloud, from its current value fij to a new one, fij + fij. Lou, Enabling public verifiability and data dynamics for storage security in cloud computing, in Proc.

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