This week in the social media chatter, I noticed tweets regarding a new Microsoft white paper by Joseph D'Antoni and Stacia Misner published to TechNet on Hybrid Business Intelligence with Power BI. Browse back issues of SQL Server Pro, from January 2007 through the last issue published in April 2014. To become a truly data-driven enterprise, many business leaders recognize that they must extend the capabilities of self-service business intelligence (BI) and analytics to more of their business users.
Get answers to questions, share tips, and engage with the SQL Server community in our Forums. Designing and building a network that meets your organization's needs isn't a trivial exercise. WLANs in the schools have emerged as one of the most effective means for connecting to a network, given the mobility of students and staff. The CUWN network is composed of two key elements: Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs) and Access Points (APs). Note CUWN is migrating from the LWAPP protocol to CAPWAP, and the WLC software version in the Schools SRA uses CAPWAP. The easier a system is to deploy and manage, the easier it will be to manage the security associated with that system.
In addition to the improvements in physical security, firmware, and configuration management offered by LWAPP, the tunneling of WLAN traffic in an LWAPP-based architecture improves the ease of deployment without compromising the overall security of the solution. The standalone WLCs used in this design support AP capacities from 12 to 250 APs per WLC, and multiple WLCs may be deployed at the same school if more than 250 APs are required or if a load sharing or higher availability WLAN solution is required. A similar principle to N+1 is used to provide high availability for the AAA service provided by the Cisco ACS server.
Each of the WLCs has both a CLI and web interface to provide WLAN configuration and management features, but for a complete lifecycle management solution, the Cisco Wireless Control System (WCS) is needed. Designing a wireless LAN that effectively supports business-critical data, voice, and video services is simplified with the Cisco WCS suite of built-in planning and design tools. Getting the WLAN up and running quickly and cost-effectively to meet end-user needs is streamlined with the broad array of Cisco WCS integrated configuration templates. Cisco WCS is the ideal management platform for monitoring the entire WLAN to maintain robust performance and deliver an optimal wireless experience to mobile end users.
The integrated workflow and expansive array of troubleshooting tools in the Cisco WCS help IT administrators quickly identify, isolate, and resolve problems across all components of the Cisco Unified Wireless Network.
Cisco WCS includes customizable reporting that assists IT teams in more effectively managing, maintaining, and evolving the wireless LAN to meet ongoing business and operations requirements.
Part of a WLCs role is to manage the RF network in its area, and to provide mobility services to WLCs in its network. A school with only one WLC will have a mobility group with only its own details in the mobility group.
In a typical school WLAN environment, it is expected that there be multiple WLANs (SSIDs) serving different purposes and different client groups. For ease of administration and support for users who visit multiple schools, the WLAN SSIDs should be the same for each school in the district. Figure 5-18 shows the general WLAN configuration tab for the secured data WLAN network. The CUWN prioritizes traffic based upon the QoS profiles applied to each WLAN, but it does not change the IP QoS classification (DSCP) of the client traffic carried by the CUWN. The second method is preferable as it requires less configuration and maintenance of the policy; the policy only needs to be maintained upon WLCs, and not open the WLCs and the connected switch. In many situations, it is not possible to administer and support the WLANs clients that are required to connect to the network.
To provide some level of access control and audit trail, these WLANs perform a Web-Authentication where all network accessa€”apart from DHCP and DNSa€”is blocked until the user enters a correct username and password into an authentication web page. Figure 5-26 shows the QoS settings for the Student WLAN WMM is disabled, and the QoS profile of Bronze. The usernames and passwords for authentication can use the Local Net Users database on the WLC or a RADIUS AAA server.
Note This web authentication mechanism can also be used with the WLC is used to provide wired guest access. As with any other WLAN deployment, the key design decision are as follows: which areas require coverage and what level of performance is required in those areas with WLAN coverage.
The Cisco 1250 Series is a rugged indoor access point designed for challenging RF environments that require the antenna versatility associated with connectorized antennas, a rugged metal enclosure, and a broad operating temperature range. The Cisco 1140 Series Access Point is a business-ready, 802.11n access point designed for simple deployment and energy efficiency. The WLAN coverage requirements can be expected to vary from school to school depending upon their goals and their budget. If the school is planning to implement mobility solution, they need to examine the expected workflow and movement of the users of these applications to determine the range of coverage required and perform a site survey based on these coverage requirements. If your goal is to simply provide WLAN coverage without trying to optimize capacity and performance then a single band AP is an appropriate choice, but in most cases a dual band Access Point is a better long term choice. The additional 5GHz radio, of a dual band AP, is able to support a much higher capacity WLAN network as it has access to approximately 7 times the number of non-overlapping channels as the 2.4GHz. Another consideration in the single-band versus dual-band AP discussion is 802.11n performance.
Deploying a dual-band WLAN system is not a matter of simply replacing the APs in place, the 5GHz band has different power contraints, and has different propagation properties that need to be considered when deciding on AP density and placement.
One additional consideration in the single-band versus dual-band AP decision is the client devices that the WLAN network is going to support. CUWN provides auto-discovery functionality for its APs, where an AP upon connection to an appropriately connected network can automatically find and connect to a WLC. Given that the schools architecture utilizes a local DNS server for school to ensure survivability the use of the DNS discovery provides the simplest WLC discovery mechanism.
CUWN provides multiple failover options allowing APs to make a choice between WLCs based upon configured priorities. This feature allows the distinct office to become a backup WLC for school sites in an event of an WLC outage at the school. Whether you are a small organisation with limited IT resources or a large organisation with advanced IT needs, the new Office has solutions optimised for business size and IT needs. The new Office delivers the best value to companies through Office 365 cloud subscription services, which gives you access to the familiar Office desktop applications as well as business-grade email, shared calendar, and video conferencing. Document sharing and management in the cloud with internal and external sites for working together on projects. For more infomation about Office 365 please contact our sales team today on 0121 643 5362 and we will be happy to answer all your questions.
If you still have Windows 7 or 8 running on your machine you may have noticed the annoying little pop-ups asking you to upgrade to Windows 10. VMware NSX, Cisco UCS and Cisco Nexus, TOGETHER solve many of the most pressing issues at the intersection of networking and virtualization. A well-engineered physical network always has been and will continue to be a very important part of the infrastructure. The Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) is an innovative architecture that simplifies and automates the deployment of stateless servers on a converged 10GE network. With Cisco UCS and Nexus 7000 platforms laying the foundation for convergence and automation in the physical infrastructure, the focus now turns to the virtual infrastructure. VMware NSX adds network virtualization capabilities to existing Cisco UCS and Cisco Nexus 7000-based infrastructures, through the abstraction of the virtual network, complete with services such as logical switching, routing, load balancing, security, and more. The virtual network allows the application architecture (including the virtual network and virtual compute) to be deployed together from policy-based templates, consolidating what was once many manual touch points across disparate platforms into one automated provisioning system. VMware NSX provides the capability to dynamically provision logical Layer 2 networks for application virtual machines across multiple hypervisor hosts, without any requisite VLAN or IP Multicast configuration in the Cisco UCS and Cisco Nexus 7000 infrastructure.
Limited number of STP logical port instances the switch control plane CPUs can support, placing a ceiling on VLAN density.
Limited MAC & IP forwarding table resources available in switch hardware, placing a ceiling on virtual machine density.
One thousand fewer infrastructure VLANs with VMware NSX translates into one thousand times fewer STP logical port instances loading the Cisco UCS and Nexus 7000 control plane CPUs. Normally, the size of the MAC & IP forwarding tables in a switch roughly determines the ceiling of total virtual machines you can scale to (D), as each virtual machine requires one or more entries. Reduced VLAN sprawl and logical Layer 2 networks compound to both simplify the Cisco UCS and Nexus configurations and significantly extend the virtualization scalability and virtual life of these platforms.
VMware NSX provides distributed logical Layer 3 routing capabilities for the virtual network subnets at the hypervisor kernel. In the diagram above, VMware NSX distributed logical routing provides east-west Layer 3 forwarding directly between virtual machines on the same Cisco UCS host, without any hairpin hops to the Cisco Nexus 7000 — the most efficient path possible. VMware NSX spans multiple Cisco UCS hosts acting as one distributed logical router at the edge. This efficient Layer 3 forwarding works with the existing Cisco UCS Layer 2 fabric, keeping more east-west application traffic within the non-blocking server ports, minimizing traffic on the fewer uplink ports facing the Cisco Nexus 7000 switches.
With Layer 3 forwarding for the virtual network handled by the hypervisors on Cisco UCS, the Cisco Nexus 7000 switch configurations are simpler; because VMware NSX distributed routing obviates the need for numerous configurations of virtual machine adjacent Layer 3 VLAN interfaces (SVIs) and their associated HSRP settings.
The Cisco Nexus 7000 switches are also made more scalable and robust as the supervisor engine CPUs are no longer burdened with ARP and HSRP state management for numerous VLAN interfaces and virtual machines.  Instead, VMware NSX decouples and distributes this function across the plethora of x86 CPUs at the edge. Similar to the aforementioned distributed logical routing, VMware NSX for vSphere also includes a powerful distributed stateful firewall in the hypervisor kernel, which is ideal for securing east-west application traffic directly at the virtual machine network interface (inspecting every packet) with scale-out data plane performance. The theoretical throughput of the VMware NSX distributed firewall is some calculation of (H * B). As we see in the diagram above, the distributed firewall provides stateful east-west application security directly between virtual machines on the same Cisco UCS host, without any hairpin traffic steering through a traditional firewall choke point. The VMware NSX distributed firewall spans multiple Cisco UCS hosts, like one massive firewall connected directly to every virtual machines. One of the more pressing challenges in a virtualized data center surrounds efficient network service provisioning (firewall, load balancing) in a multi-tenant environment. To address this, VMware NSX includes performance optimized multi-service virtual machines (NSX Edge Services), auto deployed with the NSX API into a vSphere HA & DRS edge cluster. Dynamic IP routing protocols on the NSX Edge (BGP, OSPF, IS-IS) allow the Cisco Nexus 7000 switches to learn about new (or moved) virtual network IP prefixes automatically — doing away with stale and error prone static routes. With VMware NSX, traffic enters the Cisco UCS domain where all required network services for both north-south and east-west flows are applied using high performance servers within the non-blocking converged fabric, resulting in the most efficient application flows possible. Note: VMware NSX is also capable of bridging virtual networks to physical through the NSX Edge, where specific VXLAN segments can be mapped to physical VLANs connecting physical workloads, or extended to other sites. Solving the multi data center challenge involves tackling a few very different problem areas related to networking.
In abstracting the virtual network, complete with Logical Layer 2 segments, distributed logical routing, distributed firewall, perimeter firewall, and load balancing, all entirely provisioned by API and software, VMware NSX is the ideal tool for quickly and faithfully recreating the applications network topology and services in another data center.
It’s hard to think of two technology leaders with a better track record of doing more operationally focused engineering work together than Cisco and VMware.
VMware NSX represents best-in-class virtual networking, for any hypervisor, any application, any cloud platform, and any physical network.  A well-engineered physical network is, and always will be, an important part of the infrastructure.
The point of this post is not so much to help you decide what your data center infrastructure should be, but to show you how adding VMware NSX to Cisco UCS & Nexus will allow you to get much more out of those best-in-class platforms. Excellent Article, this is the start of the journey, we see that NSX allows the next step to real cloud convergence. I think it’s unprofessional of VMware to publish in their official blogs a post that sides so much with one of their many networking partners and shamelessly promotes Cisco Nexus and UCS infrastructure over other vendors in this manner. The concept of virtual overlay topologies that NSX enables is truly intriguing and exciting technology. Arista believes in a open ecosystem in which the customer can choose the vendors that best meet their need, to this end there are many direct integrations with Arista EOS and other vendors. Can you please explain more about this “Complete visibility to both physical and virtual topologies via the switches CLI”?
Is this information embedded into NSX management tools or you need to jump to Arista CLI to access it?
This post was written to answer questions from customers about how NSX can be used on their existing infrastructure, and what the benefits are. A large number of our enterprise and service provider customers have a significant Cisco installed base of physical network infrastructure. We look forward to working with all of our partners, including Arista and Brocade, to promote how customers can benefit from deploying NSX across those infrastructure choices as well. Where and how can a network engineer or systems or infrastructure engineer troubleshoot a reported network problem? Providing linkages between infrastructure and applications is critical in any highly virtualized data center.
As you point out having a SPAN session is critical is getting the appropriate information about what is going on in the network. The issues you bring up are good ones and are being solved by the networking vendors that look toward an open ecosystem, instead of one that is closed. Looking into the future the merger of all of the data center disciplines will happen, as it has with so many other technologies, but looking nearer term I 100% agree with you that tools are need to help not only deploy but to manage these highly virtualized overlay based networks.
The only correlation between physical and virtual is occurring at the edges of an overlay network on either x86 hypervisors or one of the third-party partner switches supporting VXLAN VTEP functionality.
Referring to the post above, there are arguments targeting the UCS Fabric Interconnect which did not support L3 traffic forwarding, and now NSX will perform the L3 traffic forwarding via the L2 physical link.
Most data center do not enable L3 on every switch just to reduce the uplink and routing traffic. I agree NSX is brand new concept to be reconsidered for virtualize environment, but it may not easily fit in to the existing infrastructure without major changes required. Definitely agree that packet forwarding throughput in the physical network plays an important role in performance.
1) You say NSX adds Vitual Networking to UCS, but doesn’t it add this Virtual Networking to almost any vendor the same way? You described how UCS abstracts the characteristics of a server into a profile stored as file that can be copied and templated, and how that reduces the time to deploy a server.
To your point, routes would be higher but from a raw layer 2 perspective, it scales much higher than 16K mostly due to the custom ASICS and integrated Switch On Chip (SOC) capabilities of the line cards. At any rate, the point of the post was show that NSX helps to extend the scalability of the existing Nexus hardware you have, without any necessary change to its configuration.
The Nexus 1000v soft-switch, which 1000’s of installs has proved to solve many of the traffic flow issues pointed out in this article.
Cisco is continuing to innovate in the both the virtual switching space as well as moving into application centric architectures that will ease implementation, troubleshooting, and support by providing visibility of traffic both P to V and in a uniform manner. Why admit Cisco needs NSX when they have innovated technologies that already solve these traffic flow challenges?
The unit has four GB Ethernet ports, six expansion ports, six USB ports, and shipped with dual power supplies. The new FlexibleLOM (LAN on motherboard) feature means you can have your server initially configured with standard Gigabit Ethernet ports only and then easily upgrade to 10 GBe, Fibre Channel over Ethernet, converged networking, or other network connectivity options.
The new SmartDrive feature makes use of tray carriers that only fit SmartDrive-supported hard drives—these drive carriers don't fit into legacy Proliant servers.
With SmartDrive, each drive carrier has an LED that will tell you what is going on with the drive— imminent failure or a RAID array rebuild, for examples. The only down side to the SmartDrive LED indicators is that there can be an awful lot of light blinking that looks like major disk activity—even when the server is pretty idle.
Can i sign into google accounts on the kindle fire?, Askville question: can i sign into google accounts on the kindle fire? How to install google apps on kindle fire hd or hdx, Hello, thank you for writing this article. Kindle fire hdx vs ipad mini 2 vs google nexus 7, The amazon kindle fire hd heats up the 7-inch tablet wars, but with the google nexus 7 and the soon-to-be-announced ipad mini, which is the best 7-inch tablet for the. This white paper is a fantastic technical overview and a must-read for groups looking at Power BI, wondering how to best implement it with existing on-premises business intelligence BI, or Azure Infrastracture as a Service (IaaS) hosted BI. The Cisco Unified Wireless Network (CUWN) is a unified wired and wireless network solution that addresses the wireless network security, deployment, management, and control aspects of deploying a wireless network. The Cisco Access Control Server (ACS) and its Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) features complete the solution by providing RADIUS services in support of wireless user authentication and authorization.
These form the core of the Wireless LAN system, where the APs provide the radio connection between wireless clients and the network, and the WLCs provide network. In this way, if the AP is physically compromised, there is no configuration information resident in NVRAM that can be used to perform further malicious activity. LAPs that support multiple WLAN VLANs can be deployed on access-layer switches without requiring dot1q trunking or adding additional client subnets at the access switches. The key features of the CUWN integration is the use of a WLC at each school, with the management function (WCS) located at the district office.
An alternate higher availability solution is to use a WLC at the district office as a backup WLC for the school's WLCs. Each school will have a local ACS server to provide AAA services, and use the district office ACS server as its secondary AAA server. The WCS supports the delivery of high-performance applications and mission-critical solutions that simplify business operations and improve productivity. For large-scale indoor and outdoor deployments, Cisco WCS Navigator can be included to simultaneously support up to 20 Cisco WCS platforms and 30,000 Cisco access points.


Figure 5-4 shows an example of the simplified Wireless LAN Planning and Design Cisco WCS planning and design tools simplify the process of defining access point placement and determining access point coverage areas for standard and irregularly shaped buildings. These easy-to-use templates and deployment tools help IT managers provision and configure the wireless LAN to expressly deliver the services that their business requires. Cisco WCS centralized interface makes it easy to access information where it is needed, when it is needed, on demand or as scheduled. Flexible reports provide access to the right data, at the right time, in a format to meet any requirement. The key SVIs are an SVI for the management and AP manager interface of the WLC, and the SVIs for each of the different WLANs implemented on the WLC; there is not always a one-to-one relationship between SVIs and WLANs, but in most simple WLAN deployments this is the case. The key interfaces of interest are ap-manger, manager, and wlan data1, wlan data2, and wlan voice1 interfaces. The virtual interface and its interface address are used to assist in the provisioning of seamless mobility. A WLAN can be mapped to the management interface (this is normally not recommended), or any dynamic interface.
To define the area of the RF network that you are interested in managing, use an RF group name; to define the mobility services domain, use a mobility group.
If there is more than one WLC at the school, then the mobility group configuration will contain both WLCs. The key point shown are the security policy that has been set under the security tab and the WLC interface that the WLAN has been mapped to.
The only change from the default settings on the tab is enabling the DHCP address assignment required feature. The primary difference between this WLAN and the secured data WLAN is that the security policy is WPA with CCKM, because this is the optimum security configuration for the Cisco 7921G and 7925G.
This means that once the handset associates with a network in one band, it will not leave that band while call quality is maintained.
In this WLAN configuration, WMM is required (both the 7921G and 7921G) support WMM, and WMM will give voice traffic priority over other WLAN traffic on the network. This means that client traffic that leaves the CUWN may need to be reclassified based upon the network policy. Learning the QoS policy that was applied within the CUWN as this should be in alignment with the network policy. To achieve this, the Wired Protocol in the QoS profiles (Platinum, Gold, Sliver, and Bronze) must be set to 802.1p and all other settings may remain as default. There can be a wide variety of operating systems, WLAN clients, and user ability to support, and a very limited amount of support resources. This authentication web page will be forced to the WLAN client screen when the client attempts to open any web page. WMM is disabled to prevent WLAN clients on the Student assigning a WMM classification, and the QoS profile of Bronze assigns network priority of less than best effort. Web policy presents a number of web-based controls for network access, the option chosen in the case is authentication. The Schools environment introduces an additional challenge to the design considerations due to the structured nature of network use. The combined data rates of up to 600 Mbps to provide users with mobile access to high-bandwidth data, voice, and video applications.
If the school is simply to try to provide wireless network connectivity in selected classrooms, then simple tactical placement of APs in the selected rooms is likely to be sufficient. If the customer is considering WLAN location-based services as a possibility for future deployments, this should also be taken into account during the site survey process as the density and placement of APs can be substantially different when providing a suitable WLAN platform for location-based services. A quick look at the dual-band deployment shows that it has twice the capacity of a single-band solution, but a deeper look will reveal that the advantage of a dual-band solution is much greater than an additional radio. In almost all 2.4GHz deployments, APs reusing the three non-overlapping channels interfere with each other and prevent the WLAN deployment from delivering a full WLAN capacity increase when the number of APs is increased. Many earlier laptops and mobile devices only supported the 2.4GHz band, and this is still true for many consumer WLAN clients. The WLC will ensure that the AP is running the appropriate software version, apply the appropriate configuration to that AP, and adjust the radio settings to optimize the AP for its current environment. When an AP goes through its discovery process it learns about all of the WLCs in the mobility group, and can prioritize based upon its high availability (HA) configuration or choose an WLC based upon loads. In this scenario, the remote WLC would not be in the Mobility Group that is learned during the AP discovery process, and the IP address of the remote WLC need to be provided in the HA configuration.
For this to be effective, a common WLAN SSID naming policy for key WLANs needs to be implemented within the school district to ensure that WLAN client do not have to be reconfigured in the event of an AP failover to the district office WLC. Always have the latest versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, OneNote, Publisher, and Access for your PC or Mac. Online and offline access to your documents and build your company public website with easy-to-use templates. Use your own domain name to send emails and protect against spam with premium spam and malware protection. Cisco UCS Manager simultaneously deploys both the server and its connection to the network through service profiles and templates; changing what was once many manual touch points across disparate platforms into one automated provisioning system. VMware NSX, when deployed with Cisco UCS and Cisco Nexus, elegantly solves many of the most pressing issues at the intersection of networking and virtualization.
Virtual networks are deployed programmatically with a similar speed and operational model as the virtual machine — create, start, stop, template, clone, snapshot, introspect, delete, etc. In a nutshell, VMware NSX is to virtual servers and the virtual network what Cisco UCS is to physical servers and the physical network. For example, thousands of VXLAN logical Layer 2 networks can be added or removed programmatically through the NSX API, with only a few static infrastructure VLANs; compared to what was once thousands of manually provisioned VLANs across hundreds of switches and interfaces. Fortunately, VMware NSX provides significant headroom for both, by orders of magnitude, for the simple reason that VLAN and STP instances are dramatically reduced; and hardware forwarding tables are utilized much more efficiently. With VMware NSX, however, virtual machines attached to logical Layer 2 networks do not consume MAC & IP forwarding table entries in the Cisco UCS and Nexus 7000 switch hardware.
For example, the network design that works best for virtualization (Layer 2 fabric) isn’t the best design for Layer 3 traffic forwarding, and vice versa.
Each hypervisor provides the Layer 3 default gateway, ARP resolver, and first routing hop for its hosted virtual machines.  The result is the most efficient forwarding possible for east-west application traffic on any existing Layer 2 fabric design, most notably Cisco UCS. Each hypervisor provides transparent stateful firewall inspection for its hosted virtual machines, in the kernel, as a service – and yet all under centralized control.
Each hypervisor kernel provides the stateful traffic inspection for its hosted virtual machines. Of particular importance are the services establishing the perimeter edge — the demarcation point establishing the application’s point of presence (NAT, VIP, VPN, IP routing). Multi-tenancy contexts are virtually unlimited by shifting perimeter services from hardware appliances to NSX Edge virtual machines on Cisco UCS. Rarely does one platform have all the tools to solve all of the different problems in the most elegant way.
At this point the NSX Edge provides the application a consolidated point of presence for optimized routing solutions to solve against. A comprehensive API is the basis on which two industry leaders can engineer tools together exchanging data to provide superior operational visibility. Network virtualization makes it even better by simplifying the configuration, making it more scalable, enabling rapid deployment of networking services, and providing centralized operational visibility and monitoring into the state of the virtual and physical network. In fact, isn’t the whole point and marketing message of VMware NSX is that you can build these virtual networks regardless of the underlying physical infrastructure, and that it provides all these benefits to any existing network from any vendor?
Unfortunately there really is nothing in the above post that discusses any differentiators that you get when using NSX with a Cisco infrastructure.
This is all done with the native hypervisor from vmware and does not require a rip-n-replace. This post was intended to make sure that those customers have the information they need to understand how and why they should consider looking at VMware NSX today. Will we have to touch a lot of different hosts to accomplish what was once a span of a physical switch port?
These linkages should allow visibility for all of the administrators of the various components of the data center ecosystem. While there are different ways to accomplish this goal the implementation of a tap aggregation switch can help solve many of these issues as it will allow the network monitoring tools to stay in one place aggregating back of your data traffic and allowing you to select which flows go to which tools. By working together best of breed vendors can provide both network and application teams the tools and visibility so they can work together in a positive manner. Network virtualization approach advocated by VMware in a form of NSX product creates operational, administrative and maintenance silo of network, security and application delivery principles encapsulated in a software-only form.
There are risk and operation concerns to enable L3 on every switch in the data center, by targeting to reduce latency on the number of hops.
It may be good use case if users are targetting to deploy a brand new infrastructure and fully virtualize infrastructure.
Reading through blogs and looking at marketing (most notably the man with the hammer ready to thwart the dragon in the city), it appears that vmware has aspirations attempting to commoditize the networking industry and bring Cisco to it’s knees.
It bundles vlans into the same instance and is how the savvy engineers run data center networks today. NSX has possibilities but really most of it’s capabilities already exist in virtually using the Cisco 1000v, VSG, ASA1000v, and Citrix 1000v. This blog came as a surprise to me, but it was well worth the read and I appreciate your prompt and candid feeback. With respect to lock-in, it is hypervisor agnostic and officially supported on vmware, hyper-v, and KVM. One is clear baffles over the processors and other components, which give you a view of these components.
It combines the best elements of wireless and wired networking to deliver secure, scalable wireless networks with a low total cost of ownership. Documents discussing the LWAPP architecture operation and behavior are still valid for CAPWAP, apart from the UDP port numbers. Even worse, APs are often deployed in physically unsecured areas where theft of an AP could result in someone accessing its configuration to gain information to aid in some other form of malicious activity. This moves the configuration and firmware functions to the WLC, which can be further centralized through the use of the WCS. All WLAN client traffic is tunneled to centralized locations (where the WLC resides), making it simpler to implement enterprise-wide WLAN access and security policies. If context-aware services are implemented, the Cisco Mobility Services Engine (MSE) may be placed at the school; for smaller schools, an MSE at the district office may provide a centralized service. This is known as an N+1 solution, where a district office WLC maintains sufficient capacity to support the APs of any individual school site. This comprehensive platform scales to meet the needs of small, midsize, and large-scale wireless LANs across local, remote, national, and international locations. Adding mobility services such as context-aware software and adaptive wireless intrusion prevention systems (wIPS) is simplified through Cisco WCS integration with the Cisco MSE.
These tools give IT administrators clear visibility into the radio frequency (RF) environment. Figure 5-5 shows an example of the Flexible Deployment Tools and Configuration Templates available through an easy-to-use interface, make it simple to apply common configurations across one or more wireless LAN controllers, regardless of their location in the networka€”whether on the same LAN as Cisco WCS, on separate routed subnets, or across a wide-area connection.
Figure 5-6 shows an example of the Customizable Dashboard and Easy-to-Use Web-Based Interface Cisco WCS easy-to-use graphical displays serve as a starting point for maintenance, security, troubleshooting, and future capacity planning activities. These Gigabit Ethernet connections are to different line cards on switches or line card to ensure that a single switch or line card failure does not result in the loss of the WLC connection to the school network. The details of RF groups and mobility groups are beyond the scope of this design guide, but the key point for the design is that the RF network area and the mobility services domain will typically be a single school campus, and only WLCs that are at the same school should have the same RF group name or mobility group name. The primary role of WMM is to give higher priority to voice and video traffic over the WLAN. Typically, WLAN mobile clients use DHCP, and any statically configured client runs the risk of introducing an address duplication issue. The QoS profile is set to Platinum to ensure that the QoS classification is appropriate for voice. This configures the WLC to set the 802.1p marking of the frames sent from the WLC to reflect QoS policy on that WLAN.
That is, classes start at particular times and a teacher will often ask the entire class to start an activity at the same time. Designed for sustainability, the Cisco 1140 Series delivers high performance from standard 802.3af PoE while decreasing waste with multi-unit eco-packs and Energy Star certified power supplies.
If the school is planning to leverage the productivity associated with mobile application and mobile access, then a more strategic approach is required. A 5GHz AP is 7 times more likely to be able to delivery additional capacity for the addition of an AP. The first mechanism changes in the modulation, and error correction that can provide a data rate of up to 150Mbps, and the second mechanism is channel binding that combines non-overlapping channels to deliver data rates that are multiples of what a single channel could achieve.
To take advantage of a dual-band solution a concerted effort needs to be made to ensure that as many clients as possible are also dual-band. This type of HA configuration is call N+1 where a single district office WLC is able to provide HA at a much lower cost than a traditional 1+1 design which would require additional WLCs at each school.
A server is a powerful computer that provides one or more services to a network and its users. Layer 3 traffic between virtual machines travels directly from source to destination hosts inside the non-blocking Cisco UCS fabric — the most efficient path possible. For example, 500 hypervisors each with two 10G NICs would approximate to a 20 Terabit east-west firewall. In other words, traffic leaving a Cisco UCS host and hitting the fabric has already been permitted by a stateful firewall, and is therefore free to travel directly to its destination (where it’s inspected again). Cisco UCS and VMware NSX are two platforms with a rich API engineered at its core (not a bolted on afterthought). Alternately there is one vendor that has products that are ready today that have deep integrations with NSX – these come from Arista Networks. While I think NSX adds a lot of value especially when it comes to network provisioning for a VM, I would like to know how I am going to troubleshoot this infrastructure when something hits the virtual fan.
In addition having hooks in the network operating system which allow intelligent interaction with the virtualization platform so that SPAN sessions can follow a VM as it moves are vary useful. Sure, you can look at counters or perform packet capture at the overlay tunnel endpoints, you can also send a probe packets to determine end-to-end reachability, but it’s like trying to diagnose and solve a power grid problem in your neighborhood by looking at the power outlet in your home… Comprehensive solution should treat virtual and physical environments as one cohesive domain, where provisioning enhancements are coupled with full visibility and operational transparency.
Most of the marketing so far has been rather pretentious and would at least say this is a modest improvement to understanding the realities that exist in service provider and data center environments throughout the world. Speaking of spanning tree, why do you see the need for spanning tree when there is now support for Multi-Chassis Etherchannels (vPC & VSS) , fabric path , TRILL already positioned to solve this issue and sipped in the Nexus 7000’s? On that note Cisco does offer 1000v, Cloud Services Rotuer, 1000v ASA, VSG essentially already solving problems that have been identified int his article. The article does a great job pointing out recent innovations at Cisco both in compute, data center switching, and data center interconnect technologies. This guide reduces the amount of handling you have to do of an actual processor during installation and also makes it easy to correctly seat the processor into the socket. It's a niggle, but it kept raising my blood pressure: to me, that amount of flashing lights means a problem. For the purposes of this document and other documents referring to LWAPP, the Cisco CAPWAP implementation can be considered as a superset of LWAPP features and behavior. The WCS gives IT managers immediate access to the tools they need, when they need them, to more efficiently implement and maintain new or expanding WLANsa€”all from a centralized location requiring minimal IT staffing. They make it easier to visualize the ideal RF environment, anticipate future coverage needs, and assess wireless LAN behavior.
At the click of a button, IT administrators can streamline even the most complex controller configurations, updates, and scheduling across the entire wireless network. Quick access to actionable data about healthy and unhealthy events occurring on the network is available from a variety of entry points, making Cisco WCS vital to ongoing network operations.The ever-present alarm summary in the Cisco WCS simplifies access to critical information, faults, and alarms based on their severity. Cisco WCS makes it easy to quickly assess service disruptions, receive notices about performance degradation, research resolutions, and take action to remedy nonoptimal situations. An extensive variety of reports is available to help IT managers stay on top of network trends, maintain network control, audit operations, and quickly address changing business and end-user requirements. The switch feature to achieve this is the same switch feature used for the Ether Channel connections between switches in the Schools SRA. Figure 5-15 shows an example of the RF and mobility group configuration on the controllers.
Most WLAN should now support WPA2, and CCKM has been added to 802.1X as it provides a faster roaming for WLAN clients. Unless the school is planning to deliver interactive voice and video applications to their WLAN data clients, WMM can remain disabled. Whether this is a viable option for a school depends on the required call capacity of the school's WLAN and the type of AP network that has been deployed.
The QoS profile controls the maximum classification value for both the WLAN frames and LWAPP packets. For example, the IP packet was from a Platinum WLAN and had a DSCP value of EF, the WLC would use a CoS value of 5 in the frame header.
The web page used can be an internal server provided by the WLC, or to a third-party service.


This is a contrast to a typical enterprise deployment where network users are much more independent. As part of the CUWN, the Cisco 1140 Series provides the industry's lowest total cost of ownership and investment protection by integrating seamlessly with the existing network. Channel binding is only available for the 5GHz band, as there is not sufficient channel capacity to support it in an enterprise 2.4GHz deployment.
For cases where the school is purchasing WLAN clients, they should favor dual-band devices, in recommending WLAN client devices they should point out that the dual-band client devices will have access to a higher performance network.
In other words, with VMware NSX, the ceiling is placed on the multiplier (P2), not the total (D).
When looking at both the track record and capabilities of VMware and Cisco, working together to serve their mutual customer better, we’re excited about what lies ahead.
It should be up to Cisco (and the rest of the networking vendors) to convince their customers why VMware NSX is better running on their own networking infrastructure.
Organizations are striving to eliminate siloed approaches to increase efficiencies and NSX is not helping much on this front.
As stated, it can reduce time to prep bare metal into minutes as opposed to hours (or more depending on the sysadmin). I believe it worth while for them to see what capabilities exist with said products and due a true apples to apples comparison on both feature and price before making any hasty decisions on a rev 0 product that has generated plenty of hype and not much revenue. Where to start on this one HSRP (VRRP), CDP (LLDP), Fabric Path (TRILL), FCoE… It is a large list and growing. Not only can you completely trick it out spec-wise for maximum performance, but it also offers a ton of management and control options. This is ideal, because the processor's pins are delicate and can bend if the component is handled too roughly.
Removing the drive during a rebuild or restore operation can mean a server recovery failure. Typically, I see those groups leveraging APIs or connectors to bring cloud data back on site into a local data warehouse for creating reports.
Operational costs are significantly reduced through the Cisco WCS's intuitive GUI, simplified ease-of-use, and built-in tools that deliver improved IT efficiency, lowered IT training costs, and minimized IT staffing requirements, even as the network grows.
They help IT administrators reduce, and in many cases eliminate, improper RF designs and coverage problems that can lead to end-user trouble tickets.Specialized Cisco WCS planning tools enable real-time assessment of the WLAN's readiness to support voice-over-WLAN (VoWLAN) and context-aware (location) services.
Auto-provisioning access points is just as simple, with easy-to-use templates that support customized configuration of single or multiple access points. Detecting, locating, and containing unauthorized (rogue) devices is fully supported when location services are enabled.
Integrated workflows support seamless linkage between all tools, alarms, alerts, searches, and reports for all infrastructure components and client devices.A variety of tools work together to help IT administrators understand the operational nuances occurring on the WLAN and discover nonoptimal events occurring outside baseline parameters such as client connection or roaming problems. Each school campus can be given a different RF group and mobility group as the WLCs are different schools and are not expected to be in the same RF group or mobility group.
The structured nature of a school network usage can greatly increase the peaks in load upon the WLAN network.
Of course, the first step is having the dual band network in place, for client devices to take advantage of their investment in a higher performance client.
You will have two disparate environments to deploy, manage and troubleshoot, the physical network and the virtual overlay.
That is how it was able to gain 2nd position worldwide in an industry it did not compete in 4 years ago.
Your awesome core switch can probably handle a lot more than 8 racks, so you’re not getting the most potential out of that investment. It's the fastest server we've tested, and that's thanks to the expensive configuration HP sent us for testing—an over $14,000 piece of iron. Cisco WCS lowers operational costs by incorporating the full breadth of management requirements, from radio frequency, to controllers services, and into a single unified platform.
Figure 5-7 shows an example of the Ever-Present Alarm Summary and Simplified Rogue Device Detection and Location. The ever-present search tool in Cisco WCS facilitates cross-network access to real-time and historic information about devices and assets located anywhere in the wireless network. Detailed analysis of what is going on, where and when in the network, as well as capacity planning, is simplified by collecting data from several reports and analyzing trends to understand how the WLAN has changed over time. Therefore, if the WLC is connected to switch network that is configured to trust CoS and maintains a translation table between CoS and DSCP for its network, the translation between CUWN policy and network policy will occur automatically.
The general guidance for enterprise AP deployments has been 15 to 20 active clients per AP, but the peaks in demand at schools has seen this translate into two APs per class room, where there may be 20 to 30 students in that class room. A school network is usually a LAN.LANs are often connected to WANs, for example a school network could be connected to the Internet.
Cisco also provides world-class support to their products in development, pre sales, and post sales. However, even a lower-spec configuration will deliver the performance and reliability that SMBs still need from a server. A built-in client troubleshooting tool provides a step-by-step method to analyze problems for all client devices.
The number of APs required per class room depends on many factors, including the number of clients, the type of applications, and the expected performance.
While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Who has not been thankful to that TAC engineer who was able to save the day at 2 AM minimizing downtimes, lost revenues, and resume writing events.
NSX isn’t a shim so much as a tunneling protocol that creates a lack of visibility into the physical characteristics of the network.
Cisco CleanAirsupports finding, classifying, and correlating sources of interference from Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi sources such as Bluetooth devices and cordless phones.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.
By not marrying up both the physical and virtual networks, it adds additional troubleshooting for both network and systems admins = more finger pointing and less productivity. Fortunately, many established best practices can help guide you through the process and help you determine the right mix of technologies and design that will meet your organization's IT goals. Let me start by laying the foundation for any good network-design discussion, then I'll discuss some network-design best practices.
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) 7-layer model is an industry-standard way to describe the network protocol stack and how it applies to practical aspects of networking.
Figure 1 shows the OSI model and lists examples of technologies that correspond to each layer.
Historically, identity management and security in Microsoft BI has not been easy to master. Devices such as NICs, firewalls, routers, and switches work mainly with these three layers (and on rare occasions Layer 5).
By understanding how the various technologies relate to one another at each level of the OSI model, you can better design and operate a network that meets your needs. I usually advise to folks considering a new SharePoint 2013 BI farm installation to first read Kay Unkroth's incredible white paper to understand SharePoint security, Microsoft BI security, and Kerberos delegation concepts. There are options to federate Active Directory (AD) to Office 365 and use Single Sign On (SSO).
Layer 3 defines the protocol—typically IP—you'll use to route traffic from one location to another. There are additional alternatives for multi-factor authentication in scenarios where you require additional layers of security. If those applications require a guarantee that the data they send is received, TCP will guarantee delivery.
When such a guarantee isn't necessary, UDP can provide quick, lightweight data transmission between applications.
The new Hybrid Business Intelligence with Power BI white paper goes into detail on those concepts and includes links to a plethora of excellent resources. The Data Management Gateway is a client agent application that is installed on an on-premises server and copies data from internal data sources to the Power BI cloud data source format. Let's pick apart this diagram, starting from the Internet and working our way in, and I'll give tips and advice on each aspect of the network design. Present Power BI Data Refresh capabilities, basically Excel workbooks deployed to a Power BI site, can have a single data refresh schedule from the following supported data sources: On-premises SQL Server (2005 and later) On-premises Oracle (10g and later) Azure SQL Database OData feed Azure VM running SQL Server Now, if you have a VPN connection and Azure virtual network, it opens up many more potential data sources for Power BI.
In that case, accessing data sources with Power BI data connections and scheduled refresh is similar to on-premises Power Pivot except it sure looks like you still need Data Management Gateway to get that data into Power BI-land. I see a lot of continual changes in Azure and total confusion out here especially around Azure cloud BI and Power BI with on-premises data sources.
Figure 2 shows one common method, in which an external router connects directly to the Internet, and an internal router connects to the organization's internal network. Hardware-based routers are available from vendors such as Cisco Systems, 3COM, and Nortel Networks.
A router, as its name implies, routes Layer 2 IP traffic according to source and destination IP address.
For example, you can build access lists on most routers to prevent certain kinds of inbound traffic from reaching your internal network. NAT is used when internal network hosts with private, non-Internet-routable IP addresses need to talk to Internet-based hosts with public IP addresses. I'll talk more about private IP addressing in the next section, but NAT servers provide a valuable service and are found in many network-perimeter devices on the market today. Proxies are generally software solutions (but can be hardware solutions) that provide a sort of bucket brigade of communication between hosts on the internal and external network.
The most common type of application proxy is the HTTP proxy (aka Web proxy), but you can use proxies for many different types of application traffic, including FTP, Telnet, remote procedure call (RPC)-based applications, and even Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP—Ping). Many of you are probably familiar with the Web proxy because you must enter that pesky proxy server address in Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) whenever you want to browse the Internet from your work network. The Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server add-on to Windows Server is an example of a common software-based application proxy.
The proxy server terminates the request, then sends a new request on my behalf to the target Web site.
Thus, no direct connection exists between my internal network and the Internet: The proxy server is the go-between. When the destination Web site responds, the proxy again takes that response and forwards it back to my Web browser on the original connection that I initiated.
As well as providing additional security to a network, a proxy is a convenient place for logging what's going on between the internal network and the Internet, so if an employee is browsing an illicit Web site, you can easily go through the proxy's logs to determine who visited the site and when.
Because application proxies require access to both the internal and external networks, they're usually located on the DMZ or equivalent segment within your network topology.
Now let's move inside the network and talk about some best practices for deploying switches, routers, server farms, and workstation segments.
As the Internet grew and this limitation became problematic, private IP addressing mitigated the problem.
Another reason private addressing has grown in popularity is because it gives organizations the flexibility to widen their IP network without fear of having to change or carve up their IP address space as they grow. Of course, using one or more of these address blocks internally means that you must have a NAT device at the perimeter of your network that can translate these nonpublic addresses into addresses that can be routed publicly; that's usually the job of a router, proxy, or multifunction edge device. Large networks with many devices and many routed segments generally use the Class A 10.x address space, but a Class B address might be sufficient for smaller organizations. When routers first appeared on the scene in the 1980s, it was common to have many routed segments or broadcast domains within a corporate network. Routers typically don't forward broadcast traffic.) Back then, Ethernet was a common Layer 2 protocol, as it remains today, but the majority of Ethernet devices were connected by shared hubs. Because the performance of Ethernet degrades significantly when too many devices are on one shared broadcast domain, the typical network workaround was to create many small routed segments. A switch differs from a shared hub in one significant way: A server or workstation connected to a switch port has available to it all bandwidth on that port.
In other words, a 100Mbps Ethernet switch provides the full 100Mbps of bandwidth to each device connected to each port on the switch; media is no longer shared.
Thus a switch allows for the flattening of a broadcast domain to include many more devices, which translates into fewer routers and more switches on a typical LAN.
Because switches don't need to make higher-layer routing decisions and maintain complicated routing tables, they can move packets quickly.
In general, fiber optic cable can carry higher bandwidths over greater distances than copper cable can, so that fact might drive some of your choices. You might ask, "Why wouldn't I implement 1Gbps Ethernet everywhere?" The most obvious answer is cost: The more bandwidth you deploy, the higher the cost.
For that reason, my rule of thumb is to deploy only the bandwidth that I think I'll need today, while allowing for some growth for tomorrow. Most network hardware has a useful life of about 3 to 5 years, so you should plan for your needs for at least that long. Given that large organizations might have hundreds or thousands of desktops, providing Gigabit Ethernet to the desktop might be prohibitively expensive. A good idea is to keep an eye on network usage to determine who your biggest bandwidth consumers are. You might find that the graphics department needs 100Mbps for every desktop, whereas your call center users might be just fine with dedicated 10Mbps. Typically, you specify a set of ports on one switch to be part of one VLAN and another set of ports on the same switch or on a different switch to be part of another VLAN. In effect, you're creating a routing boundary between these two groups of switch ports—a boundary that functions as if you had put a router between the two groups.
In this case, however, the switch performs the routing between the two groups of devices and creates two separate broadcast domains. VLANs let you segment your network without having to deploy costly routers in addition to your switches. Large telcos such as AT&T, MCI, and Sprint provide private frame relay networks that let you efficiently and cost-effectively extend your private IP network to many locations. Frame relay is a common Layer 2 WAN protocol that provides a network cloud that lets you serve many locations at once, as Figure 4 shows. Deploying a frame-relay network or similar private WAN is like extending your internal network to all your organization's locations.
The private WAN typically has no contact with the Internet, so if users in your branch offices need to get to the Internet, they must come through the frame relay cloud to use the Internet Point of Presence (POP) at your headquarters. VPNs are advantageous because they use the Internet as their backbone and thus have little trouble reaching even the most far-flung offices.
Also, because VPNs use the Internet, their expense is based only on local access costs at each location. The downside to building a VPN-based WAN is that you can't guarantee that the Internet connection (and thus the VPN) will always be available, or available at the speed you need.
And, if you have many locations to manage, you'll need to deploy and manage VPN devices at each location. Additionally, because VPNs use the public Internet, a malicious user could potentially break into your network from the Internet and gain access to your internal corporate resources. Thus, choosing whether to deploy a private WAN or a VPN-based solution will depend on the complexity, cost requirements, and risk criteria inherent in your environment. Both standards provide 54Mbps of throughput but use different techniques to achieve that speed. Wireless APs designed for the enterprise differ from home versions in their built-in management features; nevertheless, they function in basically the same ways. For more information about wireless APs, see Buyer's Guide, "802.11g Access Points," May 2004, InstantDoc ID 42272. You shouldn't consider deploying WEP in a commercial organization unless you don't care about the privacy of your data. The 802.11i standard, which is being dubbed Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), is currently supported on Windows XP. Because WPA isn't officially a standard, make sure that the wireless AP you buy supports the Microsoft implementation of WPA.
Because VPNs are now common, they might provide you with a quicker path to secure Wi-Fi than trying to follow the emerging WPA standard will. You'll just need to ensure that your wireless users can connect to your internal network only through a VPN connection. You can accomplish this restriction by deploying a VPN server on your internal network between your wireless APs and the rest of the network, just as you would for mobile clients that connect from the external Internet. Choosing a firewall and a switching standard, deciding whether to deploy Gigabit Ethernet or 100Mbps connectivity, and deciding whether to deploy Wi-Fi are all elements of the design process. After you know how network devices route and filter traffic, you can move up the OSI model stack to provide more value-added services to your users.



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