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admin | Category: Sole E25 Parts | 10.09.2013
Traditionally, there are four main justifications for punishments being designed and implemented. In colonial Australia, there were three main punishments for male convicts; the wheel, irons and floggings. In theory, flogging was intended to act as deterant and it was dispensed for crimes such as neglecting work, attempting escape or general misconduct (being rude in the eyes of someone with power.) It also became common to flog Convicts until they confessed to crimes or to get information out of them. A short whip was made up of nine strands of leather and knotted along its length to give it extra bite.
Flogging was probably a popular punishment because it was easy to dispense and because many authority figures gained satisfaction in witnessing human misery.
Although it was easy to dispense, flogging had downside in that it often killed the Convict or reduced their capacity to work.
Convicts were usually flogged by other Convicts, who had been threatened with suffering the same fate if they didn't swing hard enough. The treadmill was a punishment that seemed to have been devised to make an economic profit out of the Convicts’ transgressions. The Convicts had to walk up a revolving set of steps which powered mills grinding grain into flour. Although it was designed to make something constructive out of punishment, there is some circumstantial evidence that it was also used to satisfy the desires of someone who wanted to see pain. Convicts in Australia were required to walk the treadmill without their shirts, unlike in England where Convicts kept their shirts on. Despite the little hope for independent survival, some Convicts kept trying, which in turn resulted in the authorities turning to leg irons.
The leg irons came in different weights so that different levels of discomfort could be applied. In the gangs, the Convicts were forced to do some kind of labouring, such as building roads.


Outside of the factories, it seems women were sometimes subjected to both the punishments inflicted on men as well as those on women.
Flogging and executions could be costly because they deprived the colony of workers or reduced their output. Although bushranger Ned Kelly was not a product of the Convict system, he was a product of the police culture that came out of the Convict system. It was not an effectively form of rehabilitation as many of the Convicts developed mental programs. The Port Arthur penal colony was the scene of some of the worst physical and psychological punishments that the world has ever seen. Instead, they were inflicted to serve as a deterrence, to gain some kind of economic benefit for a vested interest or just because some people in power gained pleasure in witnessing human misery. Perhaps this was because flogging was hard work that would be tiring for someone in authority.
Furthermore, when Convicts were unable to work because they had been flogged, they needed to be flogged again for not working. Although this could be explained as an environmental adaptation, it could also suggest that the treadmill was being used in the way described by Clarke. There wasn’t that much threat of the Convicts running away because, unless they were accepted by an Aboriginal tribe, Convicts lacked the knowledge of the bush to survive independently of the colonies. This involved placing shackles around the Convict’s ankles, which could in turn be chained to other Convicts in a gang. The above legs irons were in excess of 10kg and used far more steel than was needed to simply restrain. It was orginally constructed because Lieutenant-Colonel James Thomas Morisset wanted a calm rock pool for his own leisure.
For crimes such as public drunkardness, pregnancy on assignment, prostitution or theft, they were often sent to female factories for periods from two weeks to a number of years.


In 1838, Convict women at the Cascades Female Factory reacted by mooning the visiting governor and the reverend. They are based on the premise that victims wont feel satisfied unless the criminals suffers to the extent that they have suffered.
The hidden cost was the Convict’s own desire to commit more crime in order to extract revenge.
A mental asylum was subsequently constructed alongside the prison to house the criminals that the silent system turned insane.
For example, punishments such as an eye-for-an-eye aim to make criminals suffer to the degree that their victims have suffered. Their skin usually split by the fourth lash and the backbone could be exposed by 50 lashes. For the Convicts, it was tiring work and if they did not walk at a sufficient speed, they could be flogged like a donkey. Not only did the irons prevent the Convicts from being able to run away, they also caused discomfort and pain.
At the factory, they were forced to do some kind of labouring (such as making clothes) and if they were disorderly or disrespectful, they would be subjected to secondary punishments, such as having their heads shaved or sent to solitary confinement. In the case of punishments in Australia’s penal era, it would be difficult to define them as an eye-for-an-eye because the punishments so grossly exceeded the crime and were more like an eye for a fingernail. Furthermore, criminality was often conceived as a contagious disease so with sensory deprivation, the disease could not be caught or spread.
For example, forcing a criminal into an education program was intended to provide them with an alternative means aside from crime to survive.



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