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DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe.
Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482. In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter.
Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea.
Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China.
It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574.
It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus. However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca.
There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion.
The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage. The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library. The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio.
Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II. These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years.
The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript.
Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496. The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians. Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana. Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west.
Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia.
The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp. Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp.
Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries. The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487. First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun.
We rode to the port in a small shuttle that was crammed to the rafters with a wedding party from Indianapolis.
Built in 2003 and registered in Hamilton Bermuda, this sixteen deck floating hotel is a beauty. After the life boat drill, we dropped our vests off at the cabin and headed for deck # 15 and one of the more pleasant rituals, a drink at departure. We walked down to deck # 5 and the Bordeaux dining room, our assigned trough for the duration. A glass of Cabernet was followed by Spring rolls, mushroom soup, caesar salad, a seafood in pastry medley and a delicious swiss torte for dessert. Late afternoon found us in the deck 14 gym again for a 45 minute workout on the weights and exercycle. The ship was motoring on a Southwest course through the Windward passage between Cuba and Cap Dame headland of Hispanola bound for Aruba. After breakfast, we read for a time in our cabin and then settled in for a delicious hour long nap.
It was windy and humid out so we walked top the deck seven Princess Theater and settled in to watch a€?The Duchessa€? for two hours. We cleaned up for dinner and enjoyed a Martini on the balcony, watching the sea around us and relaxing before dinner. At seven P.M we walked along the deck seven interior promenade and enjoyed the ebb and flow of guests coming to and from dinner. We walked along the main drag and admired the prosperous looking facades of the business section.
From the Park, we walked back through the busy streets of Orangestad until we found a small internet cafe. We were standing topside as the Island Princess cast off her lines and eased out of Orangestad, bound for Cartegena, Columbia. After the lecture, we hit the deck 14 gym for an houra€™s workout with weights and exercycles.
The school system in Columbia is graduated and tuition is charged according to certain professions.
It now is a city of over one million souls, many of whom we were to discover to our dismay, were aggressive street vendors bent on draining every tourist of any money that they held on their person, willingly or not.
The fortress itself is huge and solid, like El Moro in Havana or those in Puerto Rico and St. After again running the gauntlet of the slum dog vendors, we reboarded the bus and drove off through the busy streets. At the hilltop, outside the monastery, we again waded through the slum dog vendors to get inside the ancient grounds.
Just inside the old citya€™s walls, we stopped at what had been both a jail house and a soldiers barracks.
An imposing statue of Columbia's founding father, Simon Bolivar, sits astride a horse at the center of the shaded square.
The ubiquitous slumdogs buzzed around us like angry mosquitoes on our line of march to the Church of Pedro Claver. From the church we walked over to a restored limestone building called the Naval Museum, though why we could not discern . We waded through the obnoxious slumdogs one more time to get back to the bus and its air conditioned comfort. We were tiring and mildly dehydrated, so we retreated to our room to read for a time( Double Cross- James Patterson), cool off and relax. After a bit, we cleaned up in the cabin, dressed for dinner and walked down to the deck six Provence Dining room. A glass of Cabernet, smoked salmon appetizers, tomato soup, caesar salad, sole Florentine and chocolate cake made for another wonderful meal. The process was repeated twice more until the Princess sailed into the manmade lake Gatun and motored to its center. The Canal had been built in the early 1900a€™s, completed in 1914 at a cost of $387 Million dollars by the United States, after a failed French effort. We walked topside for an hour enjoying the view of the locks and Lake Gatun and marveling at the engineering involved in creating this man mad river across Central America. The ship dispatched several tenders full of tour groups headed for rail and bus tours in Panama.
We settled for a breakfast of kippers, omelets and fruit in the Horizons Cafe on deck 14, then returned to our cabin to read for a bit and catch a one hour nap. We changed into our gym clothes and hit the deck 14 gym for an hours workout with exercycles and weights.
We sat for a time drinking an icy cold Heinekena€™s beer and watching native dancers do a rhythmic and enchanting Calypso and singers belt out the haunting a€?Day Oha€? a Caribbean favorite about banana pickers. Soon after, the Island Princess slipped her lines and edged gracefully from her berth to follow the Lyrica.
We followed a crew member off the ship to the wharf area where we got on to a large Swiss Tours bus for the trip.
First a€?discovereda€? and named by Christopher Columbus in 1502, Costa Rica (Rich Coast in Spanish) had declared her independence from Spain in 1821. As the bus emerged from the warm and humid drizzle of the rain forest, the air began to clear. As we traversed the mountains at the 8,000 foot level, we entered Trillaurillo National Park. The central court of the museum is flowered with cacti plants and bougainvillea and has a vista of the mountains and valley beyond. From the restaurant, we traversed the busy city streets, They were clogged with automobile traffic.
The driver pulled along the roadside so we could all look up and watch a three toed sloth hanging from a roadside tree. As the bus descended back into the rain forest of the coastal areas, we could see large puddles where the rain had fallen. Escargot, corn chowder, salad, pasta with mussels and an apple torte, accompanied with a glass of Cabernet, made for another pleasant dining experience.
After our swim, we changed into our workout gear and hit the gym for an hour of weights and the exercycle, still trying to win the caloric battle. After sitting topside sunning and swimming, we changed and sat down in the Bordeaux dining room for lunch. We had a glass of cabernet on our balcony and read for a time, enjoying the lazy day at sea in the late afternoon sun. We walked topside for a time after dinner, enjoying the night air and the moonlight sparkling on the sea. From Spanish class, we hit the gym again for another hour workout on the weights and excercylce. It was our last night aboard and our small cabin looked like a clothes bomb as we packed for out departure. It was late and we needed to finish packing our bags, so we returned to the cabin and completed out task. We found some coffee topside and walked the deck observing the hustle and bustle of a great ship entering port. DESCRIPTION: This large circular planisphere (6 feet 4 inches in diameter), drawn on parchment and mounted on wood in a square frame, is preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice.
Fra Mauro, a Camaldulian monk from the island of Murano near Venice, was active in about the middle of the 15th century. Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later. I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy.
Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available.
In my time I have striven to verify the writings by experience, through many yearsa€™ investigation, and intercourse with persons worthy of credence, who have seen with their own eyes what is faithfully set out above. Therefore, Mauro did not use Ptolemya€™s framework of longitude and latitude and he also opened up the Sea of India, which in editions of Ptolemy is traditionally landlocked, but was generally left open to the circumfluent ocean by Mauroa€™s contemporaries. Jerusalem is indeed the center of the inhabited world latitudinally, though longitudinally it is somewhat to the west, but since the western portion is more thickly populated by reason of Europe, therefore Jerusalem is also the center longitudinally if we regard not empty space but the density of population. Like the Greek geographers before Ptolemy and like the Arab cartographers, Fra Mauro shows all of the continents as being surrounded on all sides by the great ocean. Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them.
Fra Mauro, therefore, did not have a very accurate conception of exactly what proportion of the earth that he was portraying in his map. The orientation of the mappa mundi towards the south is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to north-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes.
AFRICA: Putting aside for the moment questions of interpretation, it is impossible not to be struck by the illusion of accuracy which the general shape of the continent produces here, especially when compared with most of the previous medieval European representations. Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed. The lack of tangible examples displaying the latest information on the map has been criticized, especially as Mauroa€™s assistant, Bianco, was employed in its production, but it is scarcely justifiable to argue from this that information was deliberately withheld from the cartographer by the Portuguese authorities. It is, however, evident that Fra Mauroa€™s map depicts the coasts of Africa as far as Senegal and Cape Verde, which were explored by the Portuguese expeditions of 1441, as well as giving evidence of that countrya€™s penetration as far as the Congo.
About the year of Our Lord 1420 a ship, what is called an Indian junk [Zoncho de India], on a crossing of the Sea of India towards the Isle of Men and Women, was driven by a storm beyond the Cape of Diab, through the Green Isles, out into the Sea of Darkness on their way west and southwest, in the direction of Algarve. The large island at the extreme southern end of Africa, named Diab, is probably based upon reports of the existence of the great island of Madagascar. Some authors state of the Sea of India that it is enclosed like a lake, and that the ocean sea does not enter it. The detailed knowledge of the northeast African interior extends as far as the river Zebe [? It has been shown that two main causes of the confused representations of northeast Africa are the ignorance of the cartographer about the existence of the eastern Sudan, so that he telescoped Egypt and Abyssinia together, and the failure to realize that much of the hydrographic detail available applied to one river only, the Abbai, and not to a number of distinct streams.
The Coptic Church of Abyssinia was in touch with Cairo and Jerusalem, and it was doubtless from emissaries of this Church that Fra Mauro obtained some of his information.
The suggestion is partly retained of a a€?western Nilea€™ flowing from a great marsh, no doubt Lake Chad; beyond this marsh a river flows westwards to enter the ocean by two branches to the north of Cape Verde, no doubt the Senegal and perhaps the Gambia.
The draftsman places the legendary and fabulously wealthy Christian ruler, Prester John and his kingdom of Abassia at the source of the Nile.
ASIA: Fra Mauroa€™s map was called by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485a€“1557, an Italian geographer and travel writer), who saw the original, a€?an improved copy of the one brought from Cathay by Marco Poloa€?.
An inscription appears near Chambalec [Beijing], and is very close to Marco Poloa€™s description of the seasona€™s hunting undertaken by Cubilai and his court. To the east, there is a more or less recognizable Bay of Bengal, confined on the further side by the great island of Sumatra. In the southeast, close to the border of the map, is an island with the inscription Isola Colombo, which has abundance of gold and much merchandise, and produces pepper in quantity . To the east of the Bay of Bengal is a very large island, Sumatra [Taprobana over Siometra], the first time that name appears unequivocally on a map.
Giava minor, a very fertile island, in which there are eight kingdoms, is surrounded by eight islands in which grow the a€?sotil speciea€™. Giava Major, a very noble island, placed in the east in the furthest part of the world in the direction of Cin, belonging to Cathay, and of the gulf or port of Zaiton, is 3,000 miles in circumference and has 1,111 kingdoms; the people are idolatrous, sorcerers, and evil.
The islands south of Giava minor doubtless represent the Moluccas, as on the 1457 Genoese map (#248).
For the representation of China, a great deal has been extracted from Marco Poloa€™s narrative, as for the Catalan Atlas (#235).
The towns, and the numerous annotations, are taken directly it would appear, from Poloa€™s narrative. With respect to the infamous Gog and Magog, Fra Mauro provides the following long legend on his map. Some write that on the slopes of Mount Caspian, or not far from there, live those peoples who, as one reads, were shut in by Alexander the Macedonian. Here Fra Mauro is opposing the literary and cartographical tradition that took Mount Caspian [the Caucasus mountains] as defining the territories occupied by the eastern-most populations of the world - in particular, such legendary figures as the giants Gog and Magog, whom Alexander the Great was said to have enclosed within the valley of the Eurus.
In the western regions, the picture is confused owing again to the inadequate space allotted to them.
EUROPE: Of particular interest here is Mauroa€™s delineation of the extreme northern regions. This note brings together information gleaned from various writers, including Paolo Diacono, Pietro Querini, etc.
Note that in ancient times Anglia was inhabited by giants, but some Trojans who had survived the slaughter of Troy came to this island, fought its inhabitants and defeated them; after their prince, Brutus, it was named Britannia. As it is shown, Scotia appears contiguous to Anglia, but in its southern part it is divided from it by water and mountains. The tradition in nautical cartography was often to depict Scotland as separated from England by water - perhaps a simple river; it is this error that Fra Mauro refers to in his note.
Fra Mauroa€™s depiction of the Baltic-Russian regions is much richer and more innovative than that one finds in his contemporaries.
Fra Mauro goes against contemporary opinion in the following map legend in saying that the river Don arises not in the Riphei mountains, as Ptolemy claims, but in the heart of Russia. The Caspian Mountains shown above start at the Sea of Pontus and extend eastwards as far as the Sea of Hycanus, which is also called the Caspian because [sic] near those coasts there are the Gates of Iron, which are named thus because they are impregnable.
According to authorities such as Leo Bagrow, the over-abundance of detail in Fra Mauroa€™s map is a blemish, since the important and accurately drawn geographical features are inextricably mixed with superficial data based upon hearsay. According to Angelo Cattaneo a€?Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi is among the most relevant compendia of knowledge of the Earth and the Cosmos of the 15th century.
The comparison between two of my favorite maps, Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi and the Kangnido (#236) permits us also to reflect closely on the issue of the 15th century cosmographic representation of Europe. This contribution will also present the romanization of the 210 or so toponyms written in Chinese, constituting the most ancient description of Europe existing on a map made in Asia. At first glance the circular form of Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi, the plentiful illustrations and the two thousand-odd inscriptions all around recall medieval world maps.
Though often acclaimed as representing the culmination of medieval mapmaking through its synthesis of the traditional, portolan and Ptolemaic, the Fra Mauro map in truth represents the first great map of a new tradition. The most definitive discussion of this map, with translations of all of the place names, legends and notes is in Falchetta, P. Facsimile manuscript by William Frazer for the East India Company, 1804, British Museum, Add.
Almagia, R., a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martellus,a€? La Bibliofilia 42 (Florence, 1940), pp.
Barber, Peter, a€?Visual Encyclopaedias the Hereford and other Mappae Mundi,a€? The Map Collector, Autumn 1989, No. Cattaneo, Angelo, Fra Mauroa€™s Mappa Mundi and Fifteenth-Century Venice, Terrarum Orbis, Brepolis Publishers, 470pp. Cerulli, Enrico, a€?Fonti arabe del mappamondo di Fra Mauro,a€? Orientalia commentarii periodici Pontifici Instituti Biblici, Roma, nova series, IV (1935), pp. Crone, Gerald Roe, Maps and their makers, an introduction to the history of cartography (London: Hutchinsona€™s University Library, 1953), pp.
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Omboni, T., a€?Ricerche sui mappamondi de Fra Mauro,a€? La€™Esploratore, Milano, IV (1879), pp. Sierakowski, JA?zef, Sul famoso mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese del secolo decimo quinto: lettera del Signor .
Skelton, Raleigh A., Explorersa€™ Maps Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery, pp. Fra Mauroa€™s map was in many ways a more up-to-date map than the printed versions of Ptolemy which succeeded it two decades later.A  Ptolemya€™s Geographia was a€?rediscovereda€™ in Western Europe and had been circulating in Latin manuscript form since 1406, coming to Italy fresh from the Byzantine conquests. I do not think it derogatory to Ptolemy if I do not follow his Cosmografia, because, to have observed his meridians or parallels or degrees, it would be necessary in respect to the setting out of the known parts of this circumference, to leave out many provinces not mentioned by Ptolemy.A  But principally in latitude, that is from south to north, he has much a€?terra incognitaa€™, because in his time it was unknown.
Ptolemy, he writes, like all cosmographers, could not personally verify everything that he entered on his map and with the lapse of time more accurate reports will become available.A  He claimed for himself to have done his best to establish the truth. Likewise I have found various opinions regarding this circumference, but it is not possible to verify them.A  It is said to be 22,500 or 24,000 miglia or more, or less according to various considerations and opinions, but they are not of much authenticity, since they have not been tested. Since very little of the coastline beyond Cape Roxo shows a linear correspondence with the actual coastline, these charts may have been worthless counterfeits, the latest official Portuguese findings having been suppressed even at this early stage of exploration to protect the competitive advantage that such knowledge bestowed.A A  Actually the only contemporary names that Mauro has included are C. Fra Mauroa€™s Indian must be taken to mean a€?Araba€™.A  The Arabs had established regular trade connections with places far to the south in East Africa, and it is not unlikely that a vessel may have rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed into the Atlantic, which the Arabs had long been calling the Sea of Darkness. Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps. No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries.
The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast. He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia. It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion. It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time.
It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument.
This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps.
In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it.
The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established. But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961. Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm). In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored.
It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean.
Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan]. The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents.
On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way.
This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond. In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427. One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts. His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change.
He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. As the vessel cleared the narrow causeway and turned on a Southerly heading, we retreated to our cabin. We parted company with the Browna€™s and returned to our cabin to read for a time and surrender to the sand man.
LIfe at sea can be very agreeable if you allow yourself to enjoy the slower pace of ship board life.
They are of bright pastel in color and feature that charming crenelated facade of Dutch Colonial Architecture. We walked through it admiring the green expanse and the colorful flags ruffling in the wind.
The many Jewelers, like Bulgari and Colombian Emeralds, were doing a brisk business with the tourists. A muscial group and the Cruise Director were whipping the passengers into a dancing frenzy pool side.
You could imagine the enemy fleets coming under her banks of guns when attempting a hostile sea landing. It was to become a treasure port where ship loads of gold and emeralds were shipped back to Spain over the next few hundred years. Along side the road we could see the shacks back in the hillsides, some mere collections of sticks. The Augustinian order of monks who founded the Monastery in the 1500 are still here in residence on the third floor of the complex.
The clay tiled roofs and stone walls warded off the heat that gets well over 100 degrees here in Summer. We fended off the slum dogs as we walked back to the bus and then enjoyed the slalom ride down the winding roads to the city below.
Now it is a series of commercial shops where every conceivable souvenir and product of Columbia is for sale. They followed people onto buses and into taxi cabs trying to coerce them into buying things. He had been a Jesuit and the patron saint of the one million slaves who had been imported through the port of Cartegena. The monks still live on the top floors of the church., Various nuns stood mutely seeking donations to the churches charities. A few plaques of some naval vintage, some old sailing trophies and an anchor or two were her only signs of naval provenance. We waded through one last wave of slum dogs to get to the bus for a very welcome ride back to the Island Princess.
Hordes of other tour groups had descended upon the Horizons court for a late lunch, so we settled for a slice of pizza topside. We then walked topside to stretch our legs and enjoy the early evening air as the ship motored westward towards Panama.
Off the bow of the ship, we could see a whole fleet of tanker ships who were waiting their turn to transit the canal eastwards towards the Caribbean.


Thousands of lives had been lost to yellow fever and tropical diseases during its construction. The Panamanian Government had set up a huge warehouse of craft vendors, performing cultural groups and even a few taverns for visiting tourists.
Wisps of clouds drifted amidst the steep mountain valleys giving the countryside a a€?Jurassic Parka€? appearance.
The coffee plantations needed 45 pounds of beans to yield 5 pounds of the countrya€™s highly prized coffee. All had the stone river beds similar to those you see in Alaska, from heavy mountain runoffs.
Colorful graffiti on some of the areas rocks and bridges was an expression of student opinions on the issues of the day. The cabin beckoned with a conversation with Ozzie Nelson.(nap) It was a nice routine we had going. We watched from our lofty perch as the ship slipped her lines and edged away from the James Bond Pier. Then we cleaned up for dinner and made our way to the wheel house lounge for a drink before dinner. Then we returned to our cabin to read ( Midnight Ramblera€?- James Swain )and surrender to the arms of Morpheus.
I found Evelyn our maid and tipped her liberally, thanking her for taking cares of us these last 10 days. They had a desert special today, tables laden with every imaginable sugar and chocolate coated confection. WE continued our task and got ready for our last dinner aboard in the Bordeaux Dining room. We then set the bags outside our cabin with the proper tags for pickup during the evening hours. Porters were off loading the huge volumes of luggage, ships [personnel were pre[paring to unload one passenger complement and take on another.
She is 964 feet long and 105 feet wide, She can carry 2368 passengers and a crew of 810 souls. He seems to have been, to some extent, a a€?professional cartographera€?, substantiated by the monastic records that document expenditure on materials and colors for mapping, wages for draftsmen, and so on. Mauro did, however, take account of Ptolemya€™s geography and travelersa€™ reports concerning the great extent of the East, and as a result, moved Jerusalem away from the position as the worlda€™s center, a marked departure from medieval custom to its true position, west of center in the Eurasian continent.
Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappae mundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the east. Nothing but air and water was seen for forty days and by their reckoning they ran 2,000 miles and fortune deserted them. There would be no improbability in a vessel being driven down to the latitude of the Cape of Good Hope, or of Arabs at Soffala having some inkling of the trend of the coast to the south. But Solinus holds that it is the ocean, and that its southern and southwestern parts are navigable. Fra Mauro tells us that he was supplied with Portuguese charts and had spoken with those who had navigated in these waters. When he travels, he sits in a carriage of gold and ivory decorated with gemstones of inestimable price. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands.
The mythical figures of Gog and Magog are represented behind Alexandera€™s Wall in northeast Asia and Termes [Sarmatia] is shown as a town near Bokhara, on the Amu Dorya [Iaxartes].
Fra Mauro states that these regions are inhabited and travelled by numerous well-known peoples, and that if there were such extraordinary figures in the area of the Caucasus then we would certainly have heard of it. But certainly if they had seen with their own eyes, they would have laid it out differently and enlarged its borders, because one can say that within Sithia are most of the peoples who live between the North-East and the East, between the North-East and the North.
The Alexandrinea€™s description and depiction of Central Asia showed Mount Imaus - the Himalayan range, in the widest sense of the term - in the center, with the territories of Scythia intra Imaum to the west, Scythia extra Imaum to the east. But later the Saxons and the Germans conquered it, and after one of their queens, Angela, called it Anglia. The people are of easy morals and are fierce and cruel against their enemies; and they prefer death to servitude. Such a division of the two was obviously a hang over from the Roman defenses (Hadriana€™s Wall) that had separated the two nations; it is clearly represented, for example, in the Tabula Peutingeriana (#120). The name, which also appears in this very form in the report of the Zeno brothers (which was, however, only published in the middle of the 16th century), is certainly an indication of the time when Greenland was under the control of the kings of Norway. Though there are a number of imaginary, or, one might say, conjectural elements in this area of the map, and as observed by Leo Bagrow, it cannot be denied that a€?one is surprised at the wide scope of knowledge Fra Mauro possessed because his picture is unprecedented and would remain so for a considerable period of timea€?. He then describes its course, saying it runs to within 20 miles of the Volga (in effect, the distance between the two rivers at Volgograd is 25 miles) and then flows into the Sea of Azov (Palude Meotida). It is through them that one has to pass if one wants to go through these mountains, which are very high, extend in depth for the distance of twenty day's travelling, and spread for many more days in length. The composite networks of contemporary knowledge (scholasticism, humanism, monastic culture, as well as more technical skills such as marine cartography and mercantile practices) converge in the epistemological unity of the imago mundia€?. In these 15th century documents, Europe therefore emerges as the result of global networks, encompassing trade and knowledge, with the intervening agencies of several cultures.
But where they relied on tradition, in his inscriptions Fra Mauro questioned it, on the basis of his own observations, reports received from abroad and from his contacts with contemporary merchants, mariners and visitors to Venice. The expanded depiction of Africa, showing Timbuctu and the rivers Senegal and Gambia, reveals knowledge of the ongoing Portuguese voyages which, with the help of Italian navigators (who had no scruples about passing on information to their compatriots in Venice), were rapidly revealing the true course of the African coast. Fra Mauroa€™s World Map with a Commentary and Translations of the Inscriptions, Brebols, 2006, Terrarum Orbis + CD ROM. Breve historia del mundo y su imagen (Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1968), Figure 15. R., a€?Fra Mauroa€™s representation of the Indian Ocean and the Eastren Islands,a€? Comitato cittadino per la celebrazione Colombiane.
It is clear from numerous legends on his map that Fra Mauro was very much aware of the great deference then paid to the cosmographical conceptions of Ptolemy, and the likelihood of severe criticism for any map which ignored them. Ethyopia extends to the west and south coasts of the continent.A  Thus Mauro weaves Marco Poloa€™s narrative into Arab theory and makes these fit together with the cartographic notions of Abyssinia which he had obtained from a€?first-hand sourcesa€™. To the north of it, and somewhat squeezed together by the limit of the map, are many islands.A A  As Fra Mauro states that in this region lack of space had compelled him to omit many islands, it no doubt also obliged him to alter their orientation drastically. Are you one of many businesses that require additional funding now and not in 60 or 90 days. Practical tips for parents of young school going children keeping up with your child s school routine and paraphernalia driving you and your family crazy.
It s like you ve got a sinking boat, where you plug one hole and another one fought a pitched battle with citigroup for the right to merge with wachovia.
Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography. His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west. A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon. Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.
He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km]. It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery.
There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast.
Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale. It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales.
They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492. It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect. It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world.
On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara. The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design. Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border. According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?.
The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea. It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map. A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China]. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. She had just disgorged her previous passengers a few hours earlier and was making ready to house her new compliment. We watched in the bright sunshine as a virtual parade of these floating hotels glided out slowly into the Atlantic. It was formal dress night for dinner and crowds of tuxedo clad passengers were already making their way to the Captaina€™s Cocktail party. We didna€™t know that the ships captain would be speaking in the three story atria outside the bar. We had to change our watches an hour forward to meet the shift into a more eastern time zone. We found the Art Auction on deck seven and watched for a time as the auctioneer explained the various paintings.
We could see the twinkling of running lights from the many oil tankers waiting in line offshore. The solitary statue to the long dead Queen sits atop a solitary pedestal at the center of the Park. On deck fourteen, we sat down to lunch with two Canadians from Niagara on the Lake,Ontario, a village just twenty miles from us in Amherst. We watched the frenetic activity around the main pool for a time and then retreated to our cabin for a conversation with Ozzie Nelson.
We walked topside to stretch our legs, enjoying our first look at the South American Coastline off Venezuela.
We could see the the recent forest of high rise condos that were springing up over Boca Grande a rounded point extending out from the harbor. The Don Lucho, one of those colorful and powerful harbor tugs was guiding us into a massive container port area of the harbor.
Each year, on the February Feast of the a€?Candelaria Virgin,a€? a procession of towns people carried an enormous statue of the Virgin, in a candle light procession on a gilded pallet, up these steep roads to the monastery above.
The hall was filled with tourists watching authentic native dancers in colorful costumes entertain them with a lively Samba. We rode in comfort to the newer section of the city, Boca Grande and an upscale collection of shops. The city is interesting, alive with history and stories of struggle and intrigue from many nations fighting for wealth, nationhood and religious freedom. We said an enthusiastic good bye to the hordes of slum dog vendors and hoped never to return.
We got off the ship and strolled through the booths that offered an eclectic array of trinkets and souvenirs for sale. Then, while topside we enjoyed a glass of cabernet as we watched the MSC Lyrica, berthed next to us, prepare to slip her lines and leave port.
A Crab and shrimp appetizer was followed by a wonderful mushroom soup, a garden salad, a delicious fresh water trout (sans le tete) and a sinful sacher torte, accompanied by a glass of cabernet. It was the beginning of a day long narration of the countrya€™s history, geographical and social progress. Orchids, pineapples and a variety of other agricultural products make Costa Rica comparatively prosperous among her neighbors. The pineapples took 24 months to mature and had three distinct grades of quality depending on the amount of sugar in them at the time they were harvested. The area hosts over 800 species of bird life, free roaming jaguars, three toed sloths and a whole host of jungle fauna. Just North of the city, there is a substantial settlement of ex-patriate Americans attracted to the country's mild weather, political stability and relative affluence. Enormous in size and perfect round, they have a series of stories attached to them, some believable some not. Costa Ricans have a long history of freedom of speech and use it often to express their displeasure on any issue they dona€™t agree with.
We had a pleasant and wide ranging discussion of travel and touring with all of our dinner companions. Later in the morning, we sat topside enjoying the hot sun and swimming in the cool waters of the main pool.
The constant chatter and restfulness of the aging viewers sitting around us gave us an early taste of watching television in a nursing home. She motored away from the beautiful beach and turquoise waters of Jamaica into the deeper blue of the Caribbean.
We listened to a musical group and enjoyed the comings and goings of passengers headed to and from dinner. Shrimp cocktail, lentil soup, King Crab legs and a black forest gateau (cake) made for an excellent repast. We found our luggage in the color coded section of the warehouse and then proceeded to the line for customs.
We walked topside to stretch our legs,A  enjoying our first look at the South American Coastline off Venezuela.
The map was fully described and reproduced on vellum for the first time published by William Frazer in London and Venice, 1804 Manuscript on vellum, BL Add.
But among the maps contemporary with that of Fra Mauro are the 1448 world map of Andreas Walsperger (#245), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappa mundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. When the stress of the weather had subsided they made the return to the said Cavo de Diab in seventy days and drawing near to the shore to supply their wants the sailors saw the egg of a bird called roc, the egg being as big as a seven gallon cask, and the size of the bird is such that from the point of one wing to another was sixty paces and it can quite easily lift an elephant or any other large animal.
He then continues that the less well-known peoples must necessarily be located in the more distant regions, which are bound on three sides by high mountains and on the fourth by the ocean - hence at a great distance from Mount Caspian. In fact, Fra Mauro underlines, the name of Scythia applies to a much larger territory, which is inhabited by innumerable different peoples. The island is very fertile in pastures, rivers, springs and animals and all other things; and it is like Anglia. In fact, the large island was first colonized around the year 1000, but passed under the political control of Norway in 1261.
He also underlines how trustworthy his information is by stating that he had obtained it from persone degnissime che hano veduto ad ochio [persons most worthy of credit, who have seen with their own eyes]. Then, at Belciman, it turns and runs almost southwest into the Sea of Abache - that is, the Meotide Marshes. The map is oriented with south and not east at the top (though Jerusalem does receive an especially large vignette).
Fra Mauro was the first mapmaker to make extensive use of the writings of Marco Polo and Niccolo de Conti for his portrayal of the Asian interior and the islands of the Indian Ocean. However, it has also been pointed out by researchers such as Portuguese scholar Professor A.
Crawford suggests that this was the origin of the legend about the source of the Nile, and that it was only later that the site was transferred to the Equator.
The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents. The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept. Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490. The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic. Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south. He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville.
Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara.
The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden.
Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus. Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty. Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts.
The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map. This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz.
Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India.
Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo. From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources. He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book. Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy. Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252). Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe. We checked into the busy hotel and signed up for a shuttle to the Port Everglades Terminal several miles away.($16 rt) A crowd of cruisers, bound for many ships, was already milling about the lobby. I bet that that was going to be one week-long party.We were dropped off at the Princess Terminal where we checked in for our ten day cruise aboard the Island Princess. Holland, Celebrity, Costa and another Princess ship slid out before us amidst cheers and waves from boating traffic and other passengers. Usually the entire shipa€™s crew is introduced at these affairs and awful champagne is served. We settled in with three Indian Couples and chatted with them enjoying the mix of cultural diversity. We noticed a few empty store fronts along the main drag and wondered if the recession was hitting so affluent an island like Aruba. We then retreated to our room and enjoyed a glass of Cabernet and some cheese on our balcony. Then, we sat back and enjoyed an eight ounce Lobster tail, scallops and a to die for chocolate cake. Maersk, from Germany, is the container company presiding over the rows of stacked metal containers. We were in Columbiaa€™s Summer Season(Nov.- April) The other wet season ran six months and drowned everything in hot steamy rain. Germon pointed out the Monument of the a€?Two Shoes.a€? It is a bronze memorial to Colombian Poet Carlos Lopez, whose most famous work is of that name. The procession stops at each of the twelve stations of the cross erected along the winding road. She has a Pocahontas type of history in Columbia and the casting looked suspiciously like one of Pocahontas in the Virginia area.
We wandered through a few shops eyeing the statues of Catalina, native carvings, tee shirts and other things on sale. We sat and enjoyed a Colombian beer called Aguilla and appreciated them for their artistry as well.
It is of interest, but until the local authorities reign in these slum dog vendors, give it a wide berth.
The ship was swaying like a hog in a wallow on the run through the narrow harbor entrance and then we were free in deep water. We had an interesting and enjoyable dinner with them talking about their professions and ours. The Princess picked up her Panama Canal Pilot and gingerly made her way into the entrance to the Canal near Cristobal, Panama. Each of the twin sets of parallel locks is essential a concrete box 100a€™ long by 106 feet wide and 40 feet deep. On the other side of Lake Gatun are a series of three more locks that gradually lower ships the 85 feet back down to the level of the Pacific at Panamaa€™s capital, Panama City.
You could look down the three locks from the lofty height of the ships top deck and get a sense of the distance in elevation that the ship needed to descend. Several of the booths were manned by indigenous peasants wearing grass skirts and nothing else.
Native Indians had mixed with the Spanish, a sizable number of Chinese, who had been imported in the late 1800a€™s to build a rail road and a large population of Jamaicans, who themselves are a varied mix of peoples. The central portion of the country is mountainous with peaks rising to three 8,000 foot range. The highway we were on runs from coast to coast, from Limon to Punta Reinas, and is sometimes called the a€?dry canal,a€? comparing it to the Panama Canal. Though attractive to look at, one would not want to have to walk through these lush green jungles without being armed with a knowledge of them and sufficient armaments to fend off whatever came at you in the wild. Salaries are good here and workers pay a 9% social security tax so that they can retire at age 68 with good old age pensions.
We thanked our guide an driver and tipped them liberally for their wonderful days experience. We returned to the cabin to read ( Brass Verdict- Michael Connelly ) and surrender to the sandman. We made our way to the Princess Cocktail lounge and sat with almost 900 other Captaina€™s Circle members for a free drink and a short speech by the cruise director. The ship set a course for the Northwest headed for the narrow straits between Haiti and Cuba. We sat with a younger couple from North Carolina and shared stories with them of their coastal area, where we had spent many vacations.
MS 11267 and by Placido Zurla in II Mappamondo di Fra Mauro Camaldolese, 1806 in Venice (also now in the British Library), and later by Santarem in his facsimile Atlas of 1849. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappa mundi was oriented to the south. The four most noble kings of his dominions stand one at each corner of this carriage to escort it; and all the others walk ahead, with a large number of armed men both before and behind. Taking up information given by Marco Polo, he says such peoples are those of the kingdom of Tenduch and surrounding territories, which are inhabited by the legendary Gog and Magog. The names for these populations are, however, not very useful because they change from language to language, from period to period and from interpreter to interpreter - as well as being subject to the mistakes made by copyists. Founder of the Brigittines (Ordo Sanctissimi Salvatoris) at Vasteras, she visited Rome and her Revelationes would be read widely throughout Europe. They live up in the mountains, where the inhabitants - or, at least, most of them - work iron and make weapons and all that is necessary for the military art.
When we look at the representations of Europe on these two world maps, the idea of an imagined European superiority and dominion over the rest of the world disappears. He also tried as far as he could, for instance in his depiction of India which was not to be reached by the Portuguese until 1498, to include information from Claudius Ptolemya€™s Geographia.
CortesA?o that, in pursuance of their ambition to hold a monopoly of the trade of West Africa, successive kings of Portugal decided on the suppression of all information calculated to excite the interest and jealousy of other powers.A  This Portuguese colonial policy in the a€?conspiracy of silencea€™, as it has been called,A  reached formality with John II (reigned 1481-1495), using his energies to prevent leakages of the news of discoveries at a time when foreigners were seeking by every means to acquire it.
In a footnote Mauro says that he drew the cities of Asia so large because there was simply more room on the map there than in Europe.A A  According to some critics, having enlarged Asia in relation to Europe, our cosmographer has not put the additional space to very good use. Be determined based on the existing rate of the deposit account into which the funds were transferred.
The formula for calculating monthly for insurance premiums how do they calculate the monthly payment mortgage insurance premium became.
Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction.
It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others.
The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side. At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic. The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis.
The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough.
If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean. Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies.
The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map. A glass of cabernet, shrimp and scallops appetizer, crab soup, Mahi Mahi entree and a chocolate cake al a orange made for another exquisite repast. How you could eat a fourth meal, after consuming about 4,000 calories earlier in the day was a mystery to us.
Our Guide, a€? Germona€? introduced himself to us and gave us labels with his name on them for wearing on the tour. If you made eye contact or responded to them in any way they were on you like flies on doo doo, Ignore them and walk eyes straight ahead no matter how much they pester you.


Narrow tunnels traversed the fortress walls where powder and shot monkeys carried the cannon fodder. It was hot and humid out and we enjoyed the shade and cool of the stone buildings for a brief respite.
Colorfully dressed women in local garb, with bunches of bananas on their heads,demanded payment to have pictures taken with them.
No one should have to put up with this kind of intimidating and obnoxious harassment just for visiting. On either side of the canal, a 15 mile wide Canal Zone had been left natural and undeveloped.
They did horse trade, with bargaining offers for their goods, but never once were insistent or unpleasant.
It made for a melange of cultures and a gentler nature where all races and creeds are more readily accepted. Her Capital, San Jose lies in a mountain Valley in the center of the country at the 5,000 ft. The low slung stone building now houses a collection of gold, jewelry and many artifacts from the the areas past.
We sat with Richard and Ann Brown, from Brighton England, whom we had formerly met on the cruise.
Hundreds of her passengers and ours waved back and forth to the European chant of a€?Ole, Ole Ole,a€? It was a nice tradition of tour ships at departure. A Glass of cabernet was joined with oysters in a cheese sauce, crab bisque, seafood gumbo and a chocolate fudge cake.
The great ship pointed her nose at the anchorage, at at perpendicular angle, and then let her port side thrusters gently ease her sideways into her anchorage. We returned to our cabin to read fort a time and surrender to a late morning conversation with Ozzie Nelson. I guess the old goat Fidel still was paranoid that a bunch of tourists might invade his space.
We stood for 30 minutes while an agent talked with them The unlucky passengers in the line behind us grumbled loudly. We walked the stairs to the Baja Deck and found our stateroom ( B-415).A  It was clean and ready for us with a nice balcony facing out to sea. It was too windy to keep our balance so we walked down to the deck seven covered walkway and completed our laps for an hour. Fra Mauro, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons.
But given that those peoples are at the limit of the earth - something of which I have information that is certain - this explains why all the peoples I listed above know no more about them than we do. Such a note reveals Fra Mauroa€™s sharp awareness of problems relating to the communication - and communicability - of knowledge from one period to another or from one culture to another.
Let it not seem strange that I have shown the mountains as both the Caspian and the Caucasus, because those who live there claim this is a single chain of mountains, which changes name because of the diversity of languages of the people who live up there. A conceptualization and representation of Europe in both mid-15th century European culture and Korean-Chinese culture emerges from, and is also based upon, the existence of channels of communication and trade at a global level; the gathering of global information and the world circulation of knowledge and technology were a relevant part of the circulation of material culture from the 13th to the late 17th centuries between Europe and Asia. However, as Fra Mauro noted, modern discoveries had shown some of Ptolemya€™s information to be incorrect and had uncovered important places completely unknown to him.
In the reign of his successor, Manuel I, the vigilance of the government was even more intensified, especially after the return of Cabral from India. It is, for instance, extremely difficult to comprehend Mauroa€™s representation of southern Asia. Did your bank take a cut of the billions in bailout dollars authorized by congress last fall under the troubled assets relief program tarp. South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography.
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates.
The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron. The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business.
Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean. Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news.
Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century. The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south.
Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. It was the ships signal to a€?man the life boats.a€? The Crew explained emergency procedures to us and where we would board our lifeboats should the need arise. As we chatted for a bit with a couple from Chicago and enjoyed the chance encounter, the great ship let go her lines and began to mortor away from the dock.
Scores of tuxedo clad passengers, their wives in evening gowns drifted by the broad walkway outside the bar. We listened to the music for a time, enjoying the evening at sea off the South American Coast. We would also see several thousand smaller replicas of her for sale in the small shops we were to visit. Then, we walked along the shoreline to a stone plaza facing the ocean., The cool ocean breeze felt wonderful and there were no slumdogs here.
Then, three small gauge rail engines, on either side of the vessels, affix metal hausers to guide the ship through each lock.
The entire ship broke into cheers as one last young passenger sprinted to the gangway and made her way aboard, seconds before they shipped the gangway and sealed the doors. Hanging from their limbs, the banana bunches are encased in blue plastic bags to promote moisture retention and growth. I think the U.S, Customs could do a better job than this when 2300 passengers were all disembarking in a short period.
They would ferry her guests out to a private beach along the shore.A  This place is tres elegant.
Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the Venetian maritime commercial focus of Fra Mauroa€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the south. Hence I conclude that these peoples are very far from Mount Caspian and are, as I said, at the extreme limit of the world, between the north-east and the north, and they are enclosed by craggy mountains and ocean on three sides. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved citya€?. It is worth underlining that it is the very logic of a€?moderna€™ cartography within which Fra Mauro is working that requires him to consult and compare sources, and thus develop a critical approach that was certainly not the norm in the mappaemundi produced before this date. Alternate influences must have been absorbed through interaction along Asian routes of communication, such as the Silk Road and sea trade routes in the Indian Ocean, with the crucial intervening agency of Islamic traders. The Earthly Paradise, beautifully depicted by, perhaps, Leonardo Bellini, is exiled beyond the map to the bottom left where an inscription tries to establish its actual physical location. Sep do you want to buy a brand new computer get a computer on credit or notebook but you have a bad credit.
The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean. At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise. Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue.
His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484).
It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas.
To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature. We relaxed and enjoyed a memorable evening, drinking to the health of Terry and Suzie Landry who had sent us this thoughtful gift. We dressed for the day and walked topside, watching the dark mass of Columbia off to our port side. We viewed religious relics, a statues of the Virgin and even and ancient depiction of devil worship.
Some of the pre Colombian stone furniture and carvings were over 2,000 years old, bespeaking a sophisticated culture that had flourished here long before the Europeans arrived. We had been on theA  Dawn and Coral Princess ships before,A  so the layout was familiar to us. Another massive assault, by the English General Vernon in 1711, with 100 ships and 20,000 soldiers failed miserably due to inclement weather and tropical diseases.
Kimble makes it clear that they do not refer to a€?South Africaa€™, for the Mareb and Tagas Rivers with their affluents Mana, Lare and Abavi, can be none other than the Abyssinian rivers Mareb, Takkazye, Menna, Tellare and Abbai; while flumen Xebi and flumen Avasi are traced with such extraordinary fidelity that they can be readily identified with the Ghibie and Hawash Rivers of southern Abyssinia - a region not thoroughly explored until modern times, but such accuracy could have been the result of information received from an Ethiopian mission to Florence in 1441. The upper course of the Quiam [the Yangtse Kiang], the greatest river in the world, is brought too far south; but the Hwang ho has its great upper bend clearly drawn.
They are to the north of the kingdom of Tenduch and are called the Ung and the Mongul, which people know as Gog and Magog and believe that they will emerge at the time of the Antichrist.
This passage is also very clear on the importance of knowledge regarding the transformation of toponyms if one is to preserve and transmit correct geographical information; such an awareness would only find full expression more than a century later, when Giacomo Gastaldi drew up his concordance tables of place-names for his editions of Ptolemy and his three large maps of the different areas of the world.
No monstrous races are depicted in Africa since, Fra Mauro tells us, none have ever been seen, with the exception of the Dog Heads (Cynocephali).
Beyond Tarna, India is broken into two very stumpy peninsulas, resulting in the confusion of relative positions in the interior, and in the placing of C. The notes attached to some of the islands, giving their direction in relation to others, as in the case of the Maldives already quoted, support this probability.A  Certainly the whole southern outline of the continent as depicted here could scarcely have been taken directly from a chart drawn by a practical navigator. Encourage you to set up bi weekly payment schedules with them on your thirty year mortgage.
This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved. Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489.
The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south. The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. When the ship is completely within the lock, two large gate way doors swing shut from recessed niches in the canal walls. A taxi cab ferried us the short few miles to the Spring Hill Suites where we had left our car.
According to some accounts, the Portuguese are stated to have reached the meridian of Tunis (10 degrees East) and perhaps even that of Alexandria.
But certainly this mistake is due to the way some force the Sacred Scriptures to mean what they want them to mean. Augustine in De Civitate Dei: a€?For these nations which he names Gog and Magog are not to be understood of some barbarous nations in some part of the world, whether the Getae and Massagetae, as some conclude from the initial letters, or some other foreign nations not under the Roman government.
Indeed figures of any sort are missing though the map does depict cities, buildings, ships and fish. The company is headquartered in west trenton, new jersey, and operates branch offices in show entire job listing, credit collections, dining services. The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti. His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying. Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map. According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it. Water is then pumped into the cement lock raising the ship 26 feet at a time to the level of the next lock. To the haunting strains of an Andrea Boccelli aria, the ship slid from her ways and began to exit the harbor.
The woman is well educated and a veritable font of cultural, geographic and social information on Costa Rica and her peoples. In each pod, were rows of tiny lady finger bananas that would mature in different stages for a year round harvest. For John marks that they are spread over the whole earth, when he says, a€?The nations which are in the four corners of the earth,a€? and he added that these are Gog and Magoga€?, and by Nicholas of Lyra in his Postillae sive Commentaria brevia in omnia Biblia.
On the whole, however, a fair knowledge of China is displayed; the mid-19th century certainly knew less of the interior of Central Africa than 15th century Europe did of the interior of China. And it is also said there are many new kinds of animals, especially huge white bears and other savage animals. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India.
Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone.
When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend.
We sat there with our bright orange cork vests complete with light and whistle and thought about what we would do should the need ever arise. Container ships and all manner of commercial cargo vessels were stacked up along the horizon awaiting their turn to transit the canal. Augustine, who in his De Civitate Dei rejects all the opinions of those who claim that Gog and Magog are the peoples that will support the Antichrist.
The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world. Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise. From the Persian Gulf eastwards, he appears to have taken the Ptolemaic outline, but exaggerated the principal gulfs and capes, and to this outline he has fitted the contemporary nomenclature. And Nicholas of Lyra agrees with this claim, explaining the two names by their Hebrew origin.
Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall. Mortgage rates, reverse mortgage, fha mortgage, home equity loans, interest only loans, bad credit loans. Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus. Michele at Murano we are told that Diab is a great province in parts of which there is an abundance of very good things, its principal town being called Mogadis, which can be none other than Magadoxo of the Somali coast. The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources.
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Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506. Demographcs Of People Who Use Paycheck AdvanceYou will want the peace of mind of a superior rated company when it comes time to manage and pay the claim You are entitled to use whomever you wish your loan, both your lender and your realtor will be there. Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489.
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