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The Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN) is a group of 16 donor countries that have joined forces to assess the performance of the major multilateral organisations which they fund. In 2011, an evaluative report was disseminated by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) regarding its performance leading up to the global financial and economic crisis. The Center for Effective Philanthropy developed a conceptual framework for assessing the performance of foundations. A number of models or frameworks for conducting an organisational performance assessment exist. One of the most comprehensive frameworks for Organisational Performance Assessment (OPA) is the Institutional and Organisational Assessment Model (IOA Model) elaborated by Universalia and the International Development Resource Centre (IDRC). Key resource: As highlighted above, the Reflect and Learn website presents a range of frameworks for conducting organisational performance assessments.
There are different theories of emotion to explain what emotions are and how they operate.
Theories of emotion can be categorized in terms of the context within which the explanation is developed. Emotion is one type of affect, other types being mood, temperament and sensation (for example, pain). The early part of the process is typically taken to include an evaluation of the stimulus, which means that the occurrence of an emotion depends on how the individual understands or "sees" the stimulus. The sutures in the skulls of young mammals have been advanced as a beautiful adaptation for aiding parturition [that is, live birth], and no doubt they facilitate, or may be indispensable for this act; but as sutures occur in the skulls of young birds and reptiles, which have only to escape from a broken egg, we may infer that this structure has arisen from the laws of growth, and has been taken advantage of in the parturition of the higher animals (p. In this case, the evidence from non-mammals indicates that this trait was not selected because it aids live birth, although it later became useful for this task. In order to know that a trait is an adaptation, we have to be familiar with the circumstances under which the selection occurred (Brandon, 1990; Richardson, 1996).
Nevertheless, this has not prevented the development of theories that explain emotions as adaptations.
Three different ways in which the evolutionary position has been developed will be discussed in the following sections.
The theories in the first group claim that the emotions were selected for in early hominids. These emotions, it is suggested, have been selected to deal with the types of problems indicated. For example, Cosmides and Tooby suggest that sexual jealousy is an adaptation that occurred in "our hunger-gatherer ancestors" (2000, p. Cosmides and Tooby, and others who have similar theories, stress that these emotions are responses that enhanced fitness when the selection occurred—whenever that was in the past. In contrast to theories that claim that the emotions are the result of natural selection that occurred in early hominids, another position is that the selection occurred much earlier, and so the adaptations are shared by a wider collection of species today.
Although the trend when explaining emotions from a historical point of view is to focus on adaptations, an alternative is simply to identify the traits that are present in a certain range of species because of their shared ancestry.
Griffiths' idea is that these emotions are basically the same as other traits that are studied and classified by evolutionary biology. Griffiths suggests that this method of classification will identify the emotions that are carried out by similar mechanisms in different species. The second main approach to explaining the emotions begins with the idea that emotions are social constructions. This section will discuss some of the motivations for adopting this approach to explaining the emotions.
The people of Ifaluk, a small island in the Pacific, have an emotion that they refer to as fago. Rom Harre also points out that language, social practices, and other elements of an individual's culture have a significant role in the formation of emotions.
As an example of how specific and recognizable these norms, values, and expectations sometimes are, one can consider "emotion rules" that Americans often follow. A person has the right (duty) to become angry at intentional wrongdoing or at unintentional misdeeds if those misdeeds are correctable (for example, due to negligence, carelessness, or oversight). Anger should be directed only at persons and, by extension, other entities (one's self, human institutions) that can be held responsible for their actions.
Anger should not be displaced on an innocent third party, nor should it be directed at the target for reasons other than the instigation.
The angry response should be proportional to the instigation; that is, it should not exceed what is necessary to correct the situation, restore equity, or prevent the instigation from happening again. Anger should follow closely the provocation and not endure longer than is needed to correct the situation (typically a few hours or days, at most) (pp. Once these rules are specified by society (either implicitly or explicitly), they become, Averill says, "part of our 'second nature'" (1993, p. Claire Armon-Jones goes further and says that the purpose of the emotions is to reinforce society's norms and values (1986b, see also 1985, 1986a).
Of course, there are times when emotion responses do not adhere well to what one may think of as moral rules or values, for instance, taking pleasure in creating graffiti or taking pride in hurting people. Many theories have been developed from the social perspective, but one that has been particularly significant is James Averill's, which will be reviewed in this section (1980, 1982, 1986). Averill employs the notion of a syndrome to indicate that each emotion (like fear, anger or embarrassment), covers a variety of elements. Bringing these parts together into one coherent whole are the mental constructs that allow an individual to construe all of these various elements as grief. The idea of emotions as transitory social roles is distinct from the notion of a syndrome, but characterizes the same phenomena, in particular, the eliciting conditions and the responses for an emotion. The transitory social roles are rule governed ways of performing a social role, and so individuals adopt a role that is consistent with what a given situation calls for.
Summarizing these different resources from Averill's theory, the syndromes are used to classify emotions and demarcate them from each other. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself.
Most of the theories that will be considered in this section focus on the early part of the emotion process because—according to these theories—the specific emotion that occurs is determined during this part of the process. The cognitive theories contend that the early part of the emotion process includes the manipulation of information and so should be understood as a cognitive process. Cognitive theories account for these two observations by proposing that the way in which the individual evaluates the stimulus determines the emotion that is elicited.
Judgment theories are the version of the cognitive position that have been developed by philosophers.
Taking anger as an example, in Solomon's theory, "What constitutes the anger is my judging that I have been insulted and offended" (1977, p.
Elaborating upon her example, Nussbaum points out how the different beliefs are related to the emotion. Judging is the central idea in these theories because it is something that the agent actively does, rather than something that happens to the individual.
There usually will be bodily sensations and changes involved in grieving, but if we discovered that my blood pressure was quite low during this whole episode, or that my pulse rate never went above sixty, there would not, I think, be the slightest reason to conclude that I was not grieving.
Some judgment theorists are, however, more accommodating and allow that the bodily response is properly considered part of the emotion, an effect of the judgments that are made.
In theory such as Lyons', the bodily response is considered part of the emotion process and the emotion is determined by the cognitive activity—the judgment or evaluation—that occurs (Lyons 1980, pp. Cognitive appraisal theories are the cognitive theories that have been developed by psychologists. This section will focus on Ira Roseman's theory (1984), which was one of the first cognitive appraisal theories. Roseman's model, which is described in Table 3, has five appraisal components that can produce 14 discrete emotions. For example, for joy, the situational state must be appraised as motive-consistent, the motivational state as appetitive, agency must be circumstance-caused, probability must be certain, and power can be either weak or strong. The motivational state appraisal distinguishes between states that the individual views as desirable (appetitive) and states that are viewed as undesirable (aversive). The situational state component determines whether the desirable or undesirable quality of the event is present or absent.
The probability component evaluates whether an event is definite (certain), only possible (uncertain), or of an unknown probability. The evaluation of power is the individual's perception of his or her strength or weakness in a situation.
Just like the judgment theorists, Roseman and the other appraisal theorists say that these appraisals do not have to be deliberate, or even something of which the individual is consciously aware.
Unlike some of the judgment theorists, all of the cognitive appraisal theorists agree that the appraisals are followed by a bodily response, which is properly consider part of the emotion process.
Non-cognitive theories are those that defend the claim that judgments or appraisals are not part of the emotion process.
The non-cognitive theories are in many ways a development of the folk psychological view of emotion. With respect to the non-cognitive theories themselves, there are two different approaches. Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process (1977), and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman's account into his own theory of the emotions (1997).
Ekman's model is composed of two mechanisms that directly interface with each other: an automatic appraisal mechanism and an affect programme. The automatic appraisal mechanism is able to detect certain stimuli, which Ekman calls elicitors. Related to Ekman's notion of an elicitor, Griffiths suggests that this system includes a "biased learning mechanism," which allows it to easily learn some things, but makes it difficult for it to learn others. The second mechanism that Ekman describes, what he calls the affect programme, governs the various elements of the emotion response: the skeletal muscle response, facial response, vocal response, and central and autonomic nervous system responses (1977, p.
Griffiths also points out that the affect programs (recall that, in Griffiths' parlance, affect program refers to the whole system) have several of the features that Fodor (1983) identified for modular processes.
Ekman and Griffiths both believe that this system accounts for a significant number of the emotions that humans experience, but neither think that it describes all emotions. In her "exclusively non-cognitive" theory, Robinson claims that any cognitive processes that occur in an emotion-causing situation are in addition to the core process, which is non-cognitive. This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. Robinson also suggests that the non-cognitive process may be followed by cognitive activity that labels an emotion response in ways that reflect the individual's thoughts and beliefs. The theories discussed in this section have varied in the importance that they place on the bodily changes that typically during the emotion process.
However, the cognitive theories all maintain that it is the cognitive activity that determines the specific emotion that is produced (that is, sadness, anger, fear, and so forth.) and the non-cognitive position is not very different in this regard. The further question is whether there is a unique set of bodily changes for each emotion. The somatic feedback theorists differ from the cognitive and non-cognitive positions by claiming that the bodily responses are unique for each emotion and that it is in virtue of the unique patterns of somatic activity that the emotions are differentiated. William James (1884) was the first to develop a somatic feedback theory, and recently James' model has been revived and expanded by Antonio Damasio (1994, 2001) and Jesse Prinz (2004a, 2004b). If we fancy some strong emotion, and then try to abstract from our consciousness of it all the feelings of its characteristic bodily symptoms, we find we have nothing left behind, no "mind-stuff" out of which the emotion can be constituted, and that a cold and neutral state of intellectual perception is all that remains (1884, p. Like James, Prinz suggests that the bodily response is primarily the result of a non-cognitive process.
The advantage that Prinz's theory has over James' is that it incorporates a plausible account of the intentionality of emotions into a somatic feedback theory. The third theorist in this group, Antonio Damasio, is also able to account for the intentionality of the mental state that is caused by feedback from the body.
In Damasio's theory, a typical case begins with thoughts and evaluations about the stimulus, and this mental activity triggers a bodily response—this process Damasio calls "the emotion." A mental representation of the bodily activity is then generated in the brain's somatosensory cortices—this is the feeling according to Damasio (1994, p.
According to Damasio, these feelings are crucial in helping us make decisions and choose our actions (see Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, 1994, 1996). Another important feature of Damasio's account (and one that Prinz has adopted) is the idea that there is an as-if loop in the brain—as in 'as-if the body were active.' According to Damasio, the mental representations that constitute feelings can occur in the way just described, or the brain areas that evaluate the stimulus (the amygdala and the prefrontal cortices) can directly signal the somatosensory cortices instead of triggering bodily activity.
This article has outlined the basic approaches to explaining the emotions, it has reviewed a number of important theories, and it has discussed many of the features that emotions are believed to have.
The empirical evidence that exists and continues to be collected is one topic that has not been discussed in this article.
Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view.
Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102).
It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance.
The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.
We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands.
European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros.
These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece.
In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life.
Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone. China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China.
According to David Icke, we are only capable of seeing a limited range of colors and we are unable to see the frequency range beyond visible light. Through Near Death Experiences, we have heard numerous times about people who temporarily passed on to the other side and upon their return, have stated that they saw various indescribable colors that we are unable to see within our current light frequency. Many people believe that dogs can only see in black and white, but  the truth is, they can see limited colors as they only have approximately 20% of the cone photoreceptor cells that humans have. The colors of your aura reflect the same colors as your chakras.  For example, if your aura is red, orange or yellow, it shows that there are some physical, mental or sexual areas in your life that need addressing. For more on what each aura color means, please see: How to Read Auras: What is the Meaning of Each Color? The colors you use in every day life, whether they are in the clothes you’re wearing right now, the color of your car or even the color you painted your walls, can tell a lot about you. The viable threshold id composed of the colors Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and violet-in that order thru any Prism.NDE has been explained as the brain shutting down. The photons (and the electrons that cause them to be emitted) are themselves actually absolute jet black. But I know that they’re just really optical illusions and the only thing that really exist is blackness.
Don’t you just love Electronics?) This rant covers the Spritual nature of RESISTANCE. I forgot to add, their maybe a fourth line, one of Silver(10% out up or down) or Gold(5%) and if none, as much as 20% inaccurate in either direction. Christina Sarich – Top military contractors are hiding at least 12 antigravity projects. Vic Bishop – The stark contrast between manufactured reality and truth is clearly visible in Rio.
Christina Sarich – I’m not constantly aware of the projections, but I’m working on it.
Alex Pietrowski – Big Agra and Big Food companies aim to keep their practices secret.
Christina Sarich – How can we activate the same technology that the cabal so perniciously covets? It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times.
It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts.
Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them. By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys.
The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys. The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework. The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture. In Germany and Austria today there are signs of the seriousness with which geopathic stress is taken.
If you find time, this geopathic stress documentary is extremely interesting and compliments the work I have been doing over the last 12 years and 30 years my father before me with the same conclusions. Please scroll down the articles on this page for a more scientific understanding of geopathic stress. There is also an interesting piece of research at the end of the page about the credibility of Vega testing for geopathic stress.
The most useful research document is below under the heading a€?Vienna Reporta€™ Read my summary and then either open up the original research document in German or the Poor English translation after the summary.
The first studies that proved a link between cancer and geopathic stress were carried out in the early 20th century in Austria and Germany but, so far geopathic stress has been largely ignored in the UK. A A A  Long term exposure in combination with other types of energy such as Hartman lines, high electromagnetic fields or geological faults can give rise to optimistic abnormal cell growth and cancer.
Germany has long been the seat of research in to the biological effects that pathogenic locations can have on both human and plant biochemistry. Historic roots of the investigation are built on claims that pathogenic zones exist at certain locations and that sleeping or spending long periods of time above them are linked to cancer, debilitating diseases of the central nervous system, chronic fatigue and general ill health.
The research was conducted by a team of distinguished professors, doctors, engineers, scientists and dowsers. To test this hypothesis the research team used the services of three dowsers known for there expertise in locating earth energies.
At present, these so called a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ can only be indicated by dowsers, with its presence being then verified with scientific instrumentation.
The Project a€?The project involved the testing of 24 different biological parameters involving 985 trial volunteers in 6,943 investigations using 462, 421 individual measurements. Decoder Analysis of the Total Bioelectric Status a€?This investigation was significant and was carried out on a number of patients from a country medical practice.
Heart Frequency Reaction (HFR) a€?In these investigations measurements from an electrocardiogram (ECG) were used in both sitting and lying down positions. Akrale Re-warming Time a€?The temperature measurement at the finger tips revealed that after standardized cooling on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the Rewarming time is delayed significantly. Optical Flicker Fusion Frequency a€?This test measures the psycho sensory capabilities of the person. Coordinative Vegetative Rhythm a€?Passive rhythms such as breath and pulse frequency operate in balanced Coordinative rhythms especially when at rest.
Muscle Frequency Analysis a€?Significant location variations in the distribution of the muscle action frequencies were found in areas of electric muscle potential. Calcium and Potassium a€?On a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ potassium levels increased with a rising significance and calcium increased significantly. Serotonin a€?Decreased by a factor of 6 on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ whilst increasing its metabolism to advance Tryptophan in compensation.
The a€?Location Effecta€™ of the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ on regulatory systems of the human organism is proved without doubt and raises the question of which substratum, subsystem or system the location dependent powers primarily attack.
The test results were lined up by Biometric Significance and are valued with the Serotonin and the Blood Corpuscle Decline Speed (BSG) in lead position.
Serotonin a€?Serotonin is diminished on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ and its metabolism advances the tendency for Tryptophan to be increased. The research team concluded that there was no evidence to relate a€?Location Loada€™ to a specific illness but should be rather determined as a risk factor that can reinforce the effect of different pathogenic factors.
Only rudimental evidence is available today, if such zones could be measured using accepted physical apparatus. One of the reasons why an incontrovertible physical measurement of the assumedly existing electromagnetic fields appears to be impossible at present could be that these are very variable, broad-banded and at the same time only present in very low power strengths, a€?hiddena€? in the surrounding electromagnetic noise.
One can assume that there are many origins for the effects of different locations on humans, animals and plants.
Low energy, broad-banded and dynamically changing EMFs, creating resonance with structures of the human organism, may well be part of the geopathy phenomenon. In addition, the dipolar nature of H2O-molecules can also be part of the origin of such fields. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals and certain ceramic materials to generate electrical and magnetic signals in response to applied mechanical stress.
Inside an ideal quartz crystal, the electrical charge of the elements silicon and oxygen cancel each other out. Another well known use of piezoelectricity is found in lighters using piezoelectric ignition: There, sudden mechanical pressure onto a synthetic quartz crystal block (containing high amounts of exactly aligned synthetic lattice crystal cells) leads to the generation of high voltage. Another aspect of the geopathy phenomenon, which appears to be largely underestimated in its importance, could be found in the presence of a€?longitudinal scalar wavesa€? (5).
The existence of longitudinal wave proportions, as also present in the near field of a dipol antenna, could already be shown experimentally by Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) (16-16). Proteins and most other bio-molecules are not at all a€?nonrigida€? structures; in order to fulfill their functions, they possess the ability to dynamically change their shapes within certain limits.
Huge amounts of very tiny magnetic crystals (magnetite crystals) have been found in the brain, and these could react very sensitively to the slightest changes in magnetic fields (20). Even though in today's popular media, pseudo-scientific and quasi-medical reports on the topic of geopathy are presented to the public, no a€?peer revieweda€? medical journal indexed in MedLine had published statistically firm and sound provable evidence of geopathic effects on humans until most recently.
Our first concepts how to address the geopathy phenomenon were based on the descriptions and personal discussions with the late Otto Bergsmann (a€  2004) and Alois Stacher (medical doctors, both from Vienna, Austria) and carried out in close co-operation with Adolf Wiebecke and his team (Salzburg and Oberalm, Austria). For detection geopathic stress, we have followed the design of a randomized, double-blinded non-clinical trial (54-44), following the ethical guidelines of the expanded Helsinki Declaration (56). During the experiments, the complete GDV system was mounted on a trolley, in order to measure the effects of the two different zones in the laboratory room directly a€?on sitea€? without moving the test person to another place.
To gain reliable data, we paid careful attention to a number of issues influencing stability, reproducibility and safety (24, 30, 37, 45): Throughout the whole study, the very same GDV system was used.
As overlaying technical fields possibly influencing the results may have been present, we used sophisticated calibrated equipment to scan and record low and high frequency EMFs, potential acoustic noxae or vibrations during the whole study period, as well as a variety of additional physical parameters.
Further analyses were carried out for complementary medical parameters included in the GDV software package.
Those people who are already in the beginning stages of poor health may sense an added sensitivity for diseases of different kinds when staying longer on geopathic locations, as well as notice that healing processes may take longer than usual. As there are no reliable measuring instruments available so far, presently it makes sense to take advice from an experienced dowser. If constructional arrangements are not possible before erecting a building or before starting a reconstruction, which is supposedly the case in most instances, there are also other practical possibilities: provided that there is a will to do so, it should be possible to move beds or desk seats, in order to get them out of interference zones. Everyone can do something to prevent negative influences by sources that cause stress: anything that lowers stress in general also helps one deal with specific stress factors, and zones, from any origin.
Furthermore, many studies confirm that people who are a€?living healthilya€? a€“ who manage their weight, refrain from smoking, enjoy the outdoors, participate in sports, etc., - have stronger immune systems and feel definitely less stress than their a€?unhealthy livinga€? fellow men. For those who cannot (or do not want to) adopt many of the above mentioned choices, due to illness, age, or some other reasons, things could become more difficult.
Our studies show that it does matter on which location you stay for a longer period of time.
What is the relevance of our findings for hospitals, convalescent homes and rehabilitation centers?
The term a€?wellnessa€?, which is composed of the ideals a€?well-beinga€? and a€?fitnessa€? as well as a€?life-stylea€? and a€?happinessa€?, to a modern point of view denotes a holistic concept of health.
In a pilot study (unpublished findings), we have found indications of more aggressive behavior by children living or working on geopathic locations. Naturally, the negative effects of geopathic stress zones also have considerable commercial impact. The follow-up costs associated with longer a€?chronica€? stays on geopathic interference zones are probably enormous: As said before, geopathy is a matter of a€?burdened work placesa€? leading to decreased ability of the employees to concentrate and to increased probability of employees' illnesses. So far, the present scientific evidence of effects of geopathic zones on humans has been mainly found using complementary medical methods, with the exception of the GDV a€?area-of-glowa€? parameter. At the same time, we have already started experiments above different geological zones to test such key parameters contained in saliva, using biochemical assaying well accepted by orthodox medicine: various hormones, neuropeptides and immunological relevant substances are going to be tested a€?non-invasivelya€?. The authors extend thanks for their great help in conducting the quoted research and its essential components to this manuscript.
For their innovative and far-seeing pioneering work and active scientific exchange in the field of geopathy we thank Univ.-Doz. When it comes to the topic of earth radiation, water veins and earth dislocations a€“ the so-called geological disturbances a€“ the layperson will usually associate this with hocus-pocus concepts such as a€?Dowsers,a€? often a man with large whiskers and an ironic smile. Many people do not believe the dowsera€™s tale, and associate it with occult illusion a€“ even if successes have been reported simply by moving a bed to a different area of the room.
The most common reason for the prejudice of the person listening -- who generally considers himself to be moderna€?and intelligent -- is the fact that nowhere do we find soa€?many absurdities, contradictions and a€?silly thingsa€? as in this area.
Ten allegedly qualified dowsers generally come to ten different conclusions in the same apartment or building. I am sickened when I am told how people play tricks with the fears and hopes of seriously ill individuals. I hope to make a contribution in this area so that we may have an objective discussion of this subject. For years, sensitive electronic measuring devices have verified the old knowledge about earth radiations.
You can actually measure the natural radioactive radiation from the earth, all over the globe.
We are born amid these natural manifold-radiating processes and there is no doubt that they are appropriate, important, healthy, and life protecting.
But there are also zones (areas) where radiation intensities are noticeably different from the norm. I might measure a level of radiation along a long-line, for example, and often the intensity will change suddenly, giving me an entirely different value. Sometimes these higher intensity zones area€?frequent and can be detected every other yarda€?or so. It is interesting to note that gifted dowsers will show swinging of rods or pendulums exactly where you would measure these significant anomalies too. I do not like to define, prematurely, every swing of a rod by a gifted dowser or every measured peculiarity as a a€?water veina€? or a a€?dislocation.a€? I have never dug into the ground to find the object which I assumed to be in existence while I was measuring on top of the ground.
It is the task of science to connect one thing with another, and to analyze these connections. My practical experience is sufficient for me to know that concentrations of terrestrial radiation can be measured, and the findings will show noticeable differences from natural points of reference in the natural environment.
What do we really measure, with our sensitive electronic instruments, if the objects are earth radiation, geological disturbances, water veins and dislocations?
I refer to my own personal experiences, with different measuring approaches, and do not pretend exclusiveness. That means: when you are above geological disturbances you can measure the distortion of the terrestrial magnetic field, similarly to that of magnetic steel.
Here the compass is not the appropriate device because the declinations are so small that they cannot generate any substantial swing. This measurement approach is not appropriate for house and bedroom examinations, however, because the artificial distortions coming from steel used in construction, materials, metal fixtures, and even the bed itself, can cause a blur in the measurement or make a reading entirely impossible. I think the argument is exaggerated; that these anomalies of terrestrial magnetic fields above geological disturbances are sufficient to cause biological problems. Conclusion: Though you can measure geological peculiarities, the application a€“ in rooms a€“ is rarely reliable.
A second peculiarity, as far as earth radiation is concerned, is that air ions often change. Ion measurements are extremely difficult and ambiguous since many factors in your house mix up the air ions even more than the terrestrial radiation is capable of. This measurement is just impossible under the influence of an electrically radiating wall, or an electrostatically loaded curtain. I have discovered that a plastic bag, within a five-yard distance of the measurement, can change the environment of the air ions more radically than what could be possible from the geological subsoil. Measurements of the VHF field strength often show a drop in the measurement curve when taken above disturbances. Within buildings, however, evaluations are almost impossible as the measurements within walls are highly unreliable. One has to be very critical and attentive so as not to be taken in by too rash and incorrect conclusions. Many manuals say that locating geological disturbances by using the VHF field strength is childa€™s play. The geo-rhythmogram measures the skin resistance of a person from hand to hand with simple electrodes and a fitting ohm-meter. When the skin resistance of a test person is normal, at 40 kilo ohm (Aschoff), the values can go up to 100, 200, or even higher when you are above zones of disturbance.
Even when all pre-conditions are fulfilled some problems remain: All stimuli towards the test person will be included into the measurement. Only with enough experience can you relate anomalies of the skin resistance to geological stimuli, and totally exclude that they are not produced from radio alarms or a spring mattress. If you can do that, then the physical measurement can be reproduced and give a reliable result. Particularly interesting is the fifth possible approach to measuring terrestrial radiation.
That means: As I measure the natural radioactive radiation with a sensitive radiometer, I will get values of 100 percent or more if the measure is above a so-called disturbance zone.
Though the natural basic radioactivity of the earth has some local differences due to climate and the earth level, the base level is generally consistent. From my experience, regular and reproducible increases in radioactivity above geological stimuli areas, in the range of up to 100 percent, are profound and are significant.
If you can sleep for the next 20 years with only half the amount of radioactive disintegrations -- after a change of the bedroom position a€“ then, as a matter of caution, I see no reason to stay in the area that is doubly charged.
I think it is greatly exaggerated to speak rashly of a€?cancer zonesa€? if you are referring to terrestrial radiation and other corresponding peculiarities.
According to my own personal experience, and the findings of innumerable research and test reports, the healing successes after moving the bed cannot be discounted merely as psychological reaction placebo or coincidence. During a meeting in Seattle, USA, I detected this phenomenon in a 22 floor hotel, on six different levels: in the underground garage, at the first floor near the reception, and on the roof -- always the same high values, down below and at the top, on the same premises. As you know, I have found houses in which the radioactive radiation was higher than that which could be found in playgrounds and public swimming pools near the Chernobyl accident. The reason for this is radioactive construction materials: cinders, ashes, chemical gypsum, tiles, pumice and metallurgical stones -- all sorts of possible and impossible industry waste.
Additionally, certain antiques, minerals and glazes a€“ in direct range of your body a€“ can radiate so strongly that biological risks can become immense. While visiting three patients with brain tumors, I found just beside the head of one person a very old alarm clock that was radiating radioactivity; with another, a dark green glazed image of St.
For measuring terrestrial radiation, I use my most expensive instruments: highly sensitive scintillation counters. My experiences with measurements of radioactivity soon led to the decision to build a measuring device especially well-suited for building, biological, and geo-biological work, and one that was constructed to my own specifications.
The very high sensitivity of the third prototype convinced me: more than 250 impulses per second in a normal radiation background, and more than 500 impulses per second on geologically disturbed surfaces. Besides its extreme measuring preciseness, the scintillation counter has the particular advantage of being extremely sensitive to gamma rays. With his super-sensitive measuring device (of more than 1,000 impulses per second!), he has shown that you can find water from the ground surface - guaranteed.
More than 35 years of experience makes it possible for Stangle to define, with his measurements, the exact depth, the amount a€“ to the very gallon -- the mineralization, and the temperature of the localized water.
The Daimler-Benz company made five expensive unsuccessful drillings before they called Jakob Stangle with his scintillation counter. In 1972 Jakob Stangle walked through Vilsbiburg with his scintillation counter and totally confirmed the work of his sensitive predecessor by exact measurements, in two absolute blind tests. An architect intended to buy and renovate a large villa at the Baldeney Lake in Essen, Germany. Another time, a doctor recommended to the manager of a concert agency to have her home examined by me.
She also looked into the geological maps and found the disturbance was mapped by the Krefeld agency.
After these results, I bought several geological maps from North Rhine Westfalia, Germany, and checked ten plotted geological disturbances with my measuring devices.
GAPP provides training and facilitation in social and emotional resilience programs to children, youth and adults in schools, not for profit and corporate organisations. Programs are based on Social Learning Theory and provide for skill development in self-awareness, self-management, responsible decision-making and relationship skills, at age appropriate levels. Interactive program providing adults with scientific-based skills to cope effectively with life's challenging situations. GAPP Programs are now located in KidsMatter Programs Guide - Social and Emotional Learning.
This framework provides a way for a foundation to infer the social benefit created by its activities relative to the resources it invests, and aims to allow its leaders to understand the performance of their organisation over time and in relation to other foundations. The choice of which framework (or combination of frameworks) to use depends on the nature of the organisation, on the purpose of the assessment, and on the context in which the assessed organisation operates. The site also introduces the process and management of OPAs and provides a database of concrete tools that organisations can use to carry out assessments. The early part of the emotion process is the interval between the perception of the stimulus and the triggering of the bodily response.
For example, one person may respond to being laid-off from a job with anger, while another person responds with joy—it depends on how the individual evaluates this event. An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory. Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past.
However, often the historical evidence is not available to establish that a new trait replaced a previous one because the new trait increased fitness.
The first is based on the claim that emotions are the result of natural selection that occurred in early hominids. In Randolph Nesse's words, "The emotions are specialized modes of operation shaped by natural selection to adjust the physiological, psychological, and behavioral parameters of the organism in ways that increase its capacity and tendency to respond adaptively to the threats and opportunities characteristic of specific kinds of situations" (1990, p.
Although these emotions are still present in humans today, they may no longer be useful, and may even be counterproductive, as Cosmides and Tooby's description of the more violent aspects of sexual jealousy illustrates. Other emotions, he says, are either combinations of two or three of these basic emotions, or one of these eight emotions experienced at a greater or a milder intensity. According to Paul Griffiths, some emotions should be identified and then classified in this way (1997, 2004). An affect program emotion is, "no different from a trait like the human arm, which has unique features but can be homologized more or less broadly with everything from a chimpanzee arm to a cetacean fin" (1997, p. For example, "threat displays in chimps look very different from anger in humans, but when their superficial appearance is analyzed to reveal the specific muscles whose movement produces the expression and the order in which those muscles move, it becomes clear that they are homologues of one another. That is, emotions are the products of societies and cultures, and are acquired or learned by individuals through experience. A number of anthropological studies have found discrepancies among the emotion words used in different languages.
Emotions typically occur in social settings and during interpersonal transactions—many, if not most, emotions are caused by other people and social relationships. Interpersonal factors are typically the main causes of emotion, and emotions lead people to engage in certain kinds of social encounter or withdraw from such interpersonal contact. Allowing that emotions may also serve other purposes, some of the functions that they have are "the regulation of socially undesirable behavior and the promotion of attitudes which reflect and endorse the interrelated religious, political, moral, aesthetic and social practices of a society" (1986b, p. For these cases, Armon-Jones suggests that the emotion has still been learned by the individual, just not in a way that is consistent with what the larger portion of the society would endorse. A syndrome is a collection of all of the appropriate responses of a particular emotion, any of which may at certain times constitute an emotion response, but none of which are essential or necessary for that emotion syndrome. Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: shock, crying, refusing to cry (that is, keeping a stiff upper lip), declining to eat, neglecting basic responsibilities, and so on.
An individual labels both his response at a funeral and his response to his favorite baseball team losing as grief, even if the two responses have nothing in common. In Averill's theory, transitory social roles are the roles that individuals adopt when they choose to play a particular part in a situation as it unfolds.
For example, a grief response is appropriate at a funeral, but different grief responses are appropriate at the burial and at the service before the burial.

The transitory social roles are useful for explaining how the emotion responses relate to the society as well as the specific social context. Generally speaking, the emotion process begins with the perception of a stimulus, although in some cases the "stimulus" may be internal, for example, a thought or a memory. There is, however, disagreement about how simple or complex the early part of the emotion process might be, which has lead to competing cognitive and non-cognitive theories. This is in contrast to theories that state that the generation of the emotion response is a direct and automatic result of perceiving the stimulus—these non-cognitive theories are discussed below. None of these events share any physical feature or property, but all of them can cause the same response. These examples pose problems for theories claiming that emotions are unconditioned responses to evolutionary specified stimulus events or are learned via generalization or association (2001, p.
Every individual has beliefs, as well as goals, personal tendencies, and desires in place before the emotion causing event is encountered. The basic idea, as Robert Solomon puts it, is that an emotion is "a basic judgment about our Selves and our place in our world, the projection of the values and ideals, structures and mythologies, according to which we live and through which we experience our lives" (1993, p.
She notes that, "each element of this set of beliefs is necessary in order for anger to be present: if I should discover that not x but y had done the damage, or that it was not done willingly, or that it was not serious, we could expect my anger to modify itself accordingly or recede" (2004, p.
This in turn reflects the judgment theorists' claim that in order to have an emotion the individual must judge (evaluate, acknowledge) that events are a certain way. One might call such judgments 'spontaneous' as long as 'spontaneity' isn't confused with 'passivity'" (1977, p. If my hands and feet were cold or warm, sweaty or dry, again this would be of no critical value (2004, p. The causal order is important, emotion is a psychosomatic state, a bodily state caused by an attitude, in this case an evaluative attitude (1980, pp. Like the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories emphasize the idea that the way in which an individual evaluates or appraises the stimulus determines the emotion. As an early contribution, Roseman's theory is in some ways simpler than more recent cognitive appraisal theories and so will serve as a good introduction. The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state (appetitive, aversive), situational state (motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent), probability (certain, uncertain, unknown), power (strong, weak), and agency (self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused).
The different appraisal components in Roseman's theory are motivational state, situational state, probability, power, and agency. Notice also that the different emotions all use the same appraisal components, and many emotions take the same values for several of the components. The appraisal that something desirable is present and the appraisal that something undesirable is absent are both motive-consistent.
For this component, an outcome of uncertainty contributes to hope instead of joy or relief, which both involve an appraisal that the event is certain (that is, the outcome of the event has been determined).
An evaluation is made about whether the event was caused by the individual, caused by some other person, or is merely a result of the situation (that is, the event is perceived as lacking an agent).
To illustrate this, consider someone accidentally spilling a glass of water on you versus intentionally throwing the glass of water on you.
Roseman suggests that once the appraisals have been made, a response that has the following parts is set in motion: (1) "the thoughts, images, and subjective 'feeling' associated with each discrete emotion," (2) "the patterns of bodily response," (3) the "facial expressions, vocal signals, and postural cues that communicate to others which emotion one is feeling," (4) a "behavioral component [that] comprises actions, such as running or fighting, which are often associated with particular emotions," and (5) "goals to which particular emotions give rise, such as avoiding some situation (when frightened) or inflicting harm upon some person (when angered)" (1984, pp. Hence, the disagreement between the cognitive and the non-cognitive positions primarily entails the early part of the emotion process. This is the idea that emotions are separate from the rational or cognitive operations of the mind: cognitive operations are cold and logical, whereas emotions are hot, irrational, and largely uncontrollable responses to certain events. This section will review the way in which Ekman and Griffiths describe the non-cognitive process. Griffiths adopts a slightly different way of describing the model; he treats Ekman's two mechanisms as a single system, which he calls the affect program. Since the interval between stimulus and emotional response is sometimes extraordinarily short, the appraisal mechanism must be capable of operating with great speed.
For example, it is easier for humans to acquire a fear of snakes than a fear flowers (Griffiths, 1997, pp.
In particular, when the appropriate stimulus is presented to the system the triggering of the response is mandatory, meaning that once it begins it cannot be interfered with or stopped. Ekman says that the automatic appraisal mechanism is one kind of appraisal mechanism, but he also believes that cognitive appraisals are sometimes utilized. That is, a system like the one described by Ekman and Griffiths accounts for all occurrences of emotion. She acknowledges that in some cases, an emotion might be caused by cognitive activity, but this is explained as cognitive activity that precedes the non-cognitive emotion process.
This aspect of her theory can also be used to explain how an individual can be cognitively aware that he or she has been unjustly treated, or been unexpectedly rewarded, but not experience any emotion (for example, anger, or sadness, or happiness)—a situation which does seem to occur sometimes.
The non-cognitive process might generate an anger response, but then subsequent cognitive monitoring of the response and the situation causes the emotion to be labeled as jealousy. The judgment theorist Martha Nussbaum is dismissive of the bodily changes, whereas the cognitive appraisal theorists (that is, the psychologists) hold that the bodily response is a legitimate part of the process and has to be included in any complete description of the emotions.
Ekman's automatic appraisal mechanism and Robinson's affective appraisals are both supposed to determine which emotion is generated. The cognitive appraisal theorist Klaus Scherer claims that each appraisal component directs specific bodily changes, and so his answer to this question is affirmative (2001); Griffiths says that is likely that each affect program emotion has a unique bodily response profile (1997, pp. Thus, according to these theories, there is one set of bodily changes for sadness, one set for anger, one for happiness, and so on. Somatic feedback theories suggest that once the bodily response has been generated (that is, a change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, and so forth), the mind registers these bodily activities, and this mental state (the one caused by the bodily changes) is the emotion. For Prinz, as for James, the emotion is the mental state that is caused by the feedback from the body. In Prinz's example in Figure 1, there is no mental evaluation or appraisal that the snake is dangerous, rather the perception of the snake triggers the bodily changes.
In Prinz's theory, the mental state (the emotion) is caused by bodily activity, but, rather than being about the bodily activity, the emotion is about something else, namely these simple pieces of information that the mental state represents. As an illustration of this, let us say that Bill's brother-in-law has just offered to let him in on a risky, but possibly lucrative business venture. One tentative conclusion that can now be drawn is that it is unlikely that any single theory will prevail anytime soon, especially since not all of these theories are in direct competition with each other. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.
Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period.
Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained.
The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance.
This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps.
The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves.
Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge.
Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries.
A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era.
Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works.
It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
Icke believes that certain races of extraterrestrial beings called Reptilians operate on a different frequency outside visible light and manipulate our current reality through Illuminati families.
When lit, the color of the Himalayan Salt Lamp strongly resonates with your sacral and solar plexus chakras. It’s okay to republish it anywhere as long as attribution bio is included and all links remain intact. But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors.
Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars. The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed. Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast. The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one.
It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge.
Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. If you continue to stay in these areas especially during sleep, then in the long term the stresses on our bodies will emerge as more serious conditions such as, diseases of the central nervous system, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), miscarriages, and cancer. Not only are the public more generally aware, but their governments funds aid and continuing research in to the matter. Geopathic Stress is only one of them and it is becoming more difficult to gauge especially when the natural energy field is constantly changed and amplified by man-made electromagnetic fields. The phenomenon has been linked to insomnia, migraine, headaches, loss of balance, short -term memory loss, joint pain, cot death, infertility, miscarriages, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) and cancer. It has been known for a long time that when there is flowing water under a dwelling the inhabitants always feel more tired, are prone to premature aging and have a loss of vitality than those who sleep above neutral ground. I have the original 134 page research document in German and a badly translated version in English.
These pathogenic locations defined in the report as, a€?earth radiation's evoked by a discontinuity of the normal physical parameters on the surface of the earth,a€™ and shortened to a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ are the subject of the research.
Such locations have been termed in China and many European countries as either a€?curseda€™ or a€?cancera€™ houses. The functioning hypothesis of the research was that geophysical characteristics of the surface of the earth are not uniform and that location dependent influences exist that can have a detrimental effect on both human and plant biochemical systems.
They were enlisted to independently dowse eight different locations and submit reports and diagrams of the strongest a€?Disturbed Zonesa€™ found, together with a a€?Neutral Zonea€™ at the same location to enable them to carryout double blind experiments with volunteers at each selected location. Technology does not yet exist to do this the other way round; the dowser does not yet appear to be replaceable with scientific instrumentation. However because of the high standard of the research only significant results were accepted.
The stereotypical result on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ was deterioration of the electro-biological functioning in the sense of depression or blockage of bioelectric functions. In the 15 minute time exposure on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™ the results remained under the significance barrier. An apparatus able to discriminate such low energy broadband EMFs from noise apparently is not yet available.
Both, technical and biological systems can be influenced by EMFs, whereby numerous questions are still open, such as the concerning limits and the nature of physical interference fields (5). As an extremely dielectric medium, water favors the formation of potential vortices, which immediately after their formation contract swiftly. In nature, piezoelectrical dischargings can occur in some areas of geological a€?warpsa€? containing quartz sand particles, and may be another plausible cause of geopathic stress effects (14).
When a crystal lattice cell is compressed by mechanical pressure, an imbalance is the result, manifesting itself in the development of a tiny electrical voltage (Fig. In spite of the fact that scalar waves in the field theory of Maxwell are usually neglected and set to zero, numerous experiments can lead to the conclusion that they do really exist and influence the human organism (5). The presence of pure physical interactions and in addition also of a€?physiologic sensorsa€? located inside the body can be assumed. Physical resonance is defined as a synchronization of two sources which vibrate with the same pulse frequency but with contrary polarity. Internal protein dynamics can potentially affect protein function through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are tautological or obvious in nature while others are subtle and remain to be fully explored and appreciated (18). Black dots on magnetic resonance imaging pictures (MRI) of human brain tissue led researches to the idea that these could be magnetic particles. Evidence that these microscopically small magnetite particles would function for some kind of sensory perception in humans could not yet been confirmed. Previously described effects and descriptions of the pioneers (1, 3 and others) in this area unfortunately arena€™t available in the standardized, scientifically acceptable nor reproducible format required for peer-reviewed medical journals, but rather as monographs. Because of the lack of a€?directa€? physical measurement techniques for the doubtlessly existing a€zenergy fieldsa€? at least partly originating in the ground, we decided to use the human body as an indicator.
Being fascinated by its highly sensitive ability to detect stress effects, and also by the fact that this method is being used world-widely for manifold applications combining a€?pure physicsa€? with complimentary evaluation of apparently high accuracy, we could reproducibly show using this method that different zones above ground do exhibit different effects on the human organism. In addition to the promising data presented in numerous publications before, including our own, we are presently in the middle of an evaluation targeting a validation of GDV mean area-of-glow as a reliable measure of certain aspects of stress. All test persons had been informed about the GDV system and related safety issues, and about the fact that they may feel a slight a€?crawlinga€? in their finger tips. In practice, to capture one a€?static GDV imagea€?, a very stable high voltage (10 kV, 1.024 Hz, square pulses) is pulsed on and off every 10 ms for a duration of 0,5 s. For each test person and test phase, 50 single static measurements were performed (each finger tip was measured 5 times for 0,5 s). Before use, the GDV camera (kept inside the laboratory at constant room temperature) was switched on at least 30 minutes prior to measurement, and careful calibrations were performed. In addition to the calculation of descriptive data (mean, median, standard deviation etc.), we carried out Gaussian normality tests and subsequently used the paired two-sample t-test for dependent variables to determine whether there are significant differences between the 4 experimental sub-period results.
The two measurement areas in the laboratory used for the experiments turned out to be indistinguishable from the aspect of technical fields and acoustic background noise, and the field strength and loudness levels present were far below existing (safety) guidelines.
Statistical significance again was enormously high (p < 0,0001) when compared to the results on those zones without the a€?Wavea€? device (24).
In later stages, it my not be impossible though that chronic stress caused by geopathic locations may finally even forward the development of malignant disease.
However, according to the Munich barn-experiments (66-68) and other independent investigations, only a low percentage of the people claiming to be successful dowsers are actually capable of making reproducible and reliable conclusions. This includes methods of stress-management and relaxation techniques, such as meditation, tai chi, guided imaginative journeying, and also certain hypnotherapeutic approaches (69-73).
Para-scientific reports about sleeplessness or higher rates of occurrence of different diseases have been with us for many years. In hospitals, observant physicians and nurses sometimes know from experience that there appear to be locations of sickbeds where, remarkably, many patients have a delayed recovery, or in especially blatant cases they may not recover at all. Wellness enhancing methods and applications aim to increase physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Individual performance on a€?interference reduceda€? zones increases, and all sides - superintendents, managers and employees - would possibly benefit.
This can produce enormous costs for our social and health systems, and the hidden costs we can only suspect today. As preliminarily presented in this book, we have already obtained data underlining the validity of GSV as a reliable instrument for measuring stress, provided that all pre-cautions are taken into account and that well-trained and experienced persons use it. Adolf WIEBECKE (Oberalm bei Salzburg), whom we want to congratulate for his most promising invention of the a€?Wavea€? device, for the possibility of doing experimental research using his device. Seidel P, Schmidl F, Becker C, Springborn U, Biering S, Grosse V, FA¶rster T, Lorenz P, Bechstein R: Planar high-temperature superconducting dc-SQUID gradiometers for different applications. Hong R, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Weng EQ: Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on DNA of testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure in mice. Chen P, Yang YQ, Tao HH, Yang HC: Effects of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies on proliferation and DNA damage of gallbladder cancer cells.
Nylund R, Leszczynski D: Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent. Grassi C, Da€™Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB: Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Hecker R: Emission elektrischer und magnetischer Signale von Gestein infolge A¤uAYerer mechanischer Belastungen. Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL: Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes.
Mathie A, Kennard LE, Veale EL: Neuronal ion channels and their sensitivity to extremely low frequency weak electric field effects. Dobson P, Oa€™Keefe E: Investigations into stress and its management using the gas discharge visualization technique. Russo M, Choudhri AF, Whitworth G, Weinberg AD, Bickel W, Oz MC: Quantitative analysis of reproducible changes in high-voltage electrophotography. Bascom R, Buyantseva L, Zhegmin Q, Dolina M, Korotkov K: Gas discharge visualization (GDV)- bioelectrography. Korotkov KG, Popechitelev EP: Method for gas discharge visualization and automation of the system of realizing it in clinical practice. Treugut H, Gorner C, Ludtke R, Schmid P, Fuss R: Reliabilitat der Energetischen Terminalpunktdiagnose (ETD) nach Mandel bei Kranken. Medvedev SN, Mala€™tseva AS, Popkova AM, Serov VV, Igonina NP, Tkacheva OI, Kozin AN: Possibilities of the use of Korean acupuncture Su Jok in the clinical practice. Kato M, Honma K, Shigemitsu T, Shiga Y: Circularly polarized 50-Hz magnetic field exposure reduces pineal gland and blood melatonin concentrations of Long-Evans rats.
Burch JB, Reif JS, Yost MG: Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans.
Jajte J, Zmyslony M: The role of melatonin in the molecular mechanism of weak, static and extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields (ELF). Torpy DJ, Chrousos GP: The three-way interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and gonadal axes and the immune system. This often results in the purchase of expensive screening and de-jamming devices, for which only the unreliable producer and distributor gets any profit. We all know that the earth a€“ in fact, all of life a€“ a€?radiatesa€? as a natural process.a€?There exists a strong terrestrial magnetic field, which guarantees that the top of a compass is always drawn to the north, no matter where you are in the world. It has been known for a long time that underground watercourses and geological dislocation produce spectacular radiation intensities. Sensitive magnetometers can, however, easily make these distortions visible and can be defined as biologically effective by experts. This method is only justified when you know that artificial fields, from say a€“ magnetic steel, are not in the area.
That is hardly possible because the magnetic field of some spring mattresses equals more than a hundred water veins. The importance of these findings to the area above the disturbance is very much in dispute. The results of these unqualified statements are that credulous laymen go over their bedrooms with a 30 dollar portable radio and assume there are water veins (and other phenomena of terrestrial radiation) whenever NBC or ABC gets bad reception, or a song by Elvis is jammed by noise.
The much more exact electro- geobioscopy measures the skin resistance between one hand and acupuncture points on the other hand. You should consider however, that every response of a human being to the stimuli of his environment is a specific one, ita€™s individual, and cannot be easily transferred to others. This radioactive electromagnetic radiation is considered the most penetrating, strongest and biologically most hazardous kind of all of the known radioactive rays.
But no onea€?can deny that an avoidable risk exists undera€?long-term influence, such as sleeping every nighta€?for eight hours in the same physical position, and doing that for many years.
Regardless of the kind of radiation, no sensible scientist dares to contradict this opinion. For measuring construction material, I use proportional and Geiger-Muller-counter tubes, and xenon-large-area detectors. The rays are converted into light flashes, boosted as electrical impulses via a photo-multiplier and then calculated and displayed by sophisticated electronics. Wust had already reported about measurements of gamma rays at a€?geopathic zones.a€? The scientists, physicists and doctors Williams, Weber, Cody, Lorenz and Bickel (the last one from California) had made similar successful experiments. He, more than anybody else, has shown that there is a relationship between subterraneous water sources and ionizing radioactive radiation. All bells rang when the drilling machine cut the granite crack 500 yards below a€“ out of which the curative water came. There turns out to be significant relationships between these zones and cancer patients of the town, as they were sleeping exactly above these zones. My measurement of the radioactivity, with the scintillation counter, showed a 12-yard wide disturbance that could be detected in the whole house, outside the building, and in the nearby yard. He found there was indeed a water-bearing dislocation, which was officially plotted on two geological maps made in 1911 and in 1980. In all cases, my scintillation counter showed, for hundreds of yards, values that were well above average. Collectively, GAPP has over 30 years experience in working with children, youth, families and professionals.
An Australian Primary Schools Mental Health Initiative in collaboration with the Commonwealth Government, Department of Health and Ageing, Beyondblue and The Australian Psychological Society. To better understand what they can or should change to improve their ability to perform, organisations can conduct organisational assessments. The Reflect and Learn website presents details on the rationale and particularities of various frameworks.
The framework also posits that organisational performance should be examined in relation to the organisation’s motivation, capacity and external environment.
When understood as a state (like being angry or afraid), an emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors. The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus. It is also generally agreed that emotions have intentional content, which is to say that they are about something, often the stimulus itself.
This is especially true for psychological traits because there is no fossil record to examine.
Since all humans have emotions and most non-human animals display emotion-like responses, it is likely that emotions (or emotion-like behaviors) were present in a common ancestor. Some examples of the problems that early hominids may have encountered, and the emotions that may have been selected in response to these problems, are listed in Table 1. As they explain it, sexual jealousy was selected to deal with a group of related problems. This classification creates a psychological category, which Griffiths terms the affect program emotions: surprise, anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust.
The same is almost certainly true of the neural mechanisms that control those movements" (Griffiths, 2004, p. Virtually everyone who defends this position acknowledges that emotions are to some degree, natural phenomena. In particular, there are emotion words in other languages that do not correspond directly or even closely to emotion words in English. Thus, in many cases emotions may be best understood as interactions between people, rather than simply as one individual's response to a particular stimulus (Parkinson, 1996).
These norms and values influence what the appropriate objects of emotion are (that is, what events should make a person angry, happy, jealous, and so on), and they also influence how emotions should be expressed. Rather, the individual has acquired the emotion from some sub-population of society or a peer-group that the individual identifies with (1986b).
It also consists of beliefs about the nature of the eliciting stimuli and perhaps some natural (that is, non-social) elements. Further, the conditions that the individual understands should elicit grief are also part of this syndrome: the death of a loved one, the loss of a valuable object, a setback at work, rainy days, and so forth. Additionally, with an understanding of the grief syndrome an individual can judge when others are experiencing grief and whether another individual's grief is genuine, severe, mild, and so on. That being said, although the individual chooses the role, Averill stresses that the emotional responses are interpreted by the agent as passive responses to particular situations, not as active choices. In order to have an emotion response that is consistent with social norms and expectations, the individual must understand what the role they are adopting means in the context in which it is used. Considering an emotion as a syndrome, the individual has a variety of choices for the emotion response. The early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily response (that is, the emotion response), and the later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: changes in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, skin conductivity, and so forth. While these theories acknowledge that in many cases various bodily responses will accompany the emotion, many do not consider the bodily response an integral part of the emotion process.
But unlike the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories do not rely on the resources of folk psychology (beliefs, judgments, and so forth).
Similar models are offered by Roseman, Antoniou, and Jose [1996], Roseman [2001], Lazarus [1991], and Scherer [1993, 2001]. The basic idea is that when a stimulus is encountered it is appraised along these five dimensions. For example, in Roseman's model, anger and regret take the same values for all of the appraisals except for the agency component; for that appraisal, regret takes the value self-caused and anger takes other-caused. On the other hand, the appraisal that something desirable is absent or something undesirable is present is motive-inconsistent. The possibility that the event can be appraised as having an unknown probability was added by Roseman in order to account for surprise, which is often considered a basic emotion (for example, Izard, 1977; Ekman, 1992). According to Roseman's theory, in the first case, the agency appraisal would most likely be circumstance-caused. The concern is what intervenes between the perception of a stimulus and the emotion response. The non-cognitive position has also been motivated by skepticism about the cognitive theories. The next section will examine a theory that holds that all emotions are non-cognitive, a position that Ekman and Griffiths do not defend. Often the appraisal is not only quick but it happens without awareness, so I must postulate that the appraisal mechanism is able to operate automatically. On a more general level, however, there are similarities among the elicitors for each emotion.
One of the common characteristics of some of the elicitors of happiness is release from accumulated pressure, tension, discomfort, etc. The affect programs are also encapsulated, or cut off from other mental processes (1997, pp. For example, sometimes an individual's fear is in response to cognitively complex information such as the value of one's investments suddenly dropping. For example, the cognitive appraisal may indicate that the individual has been unjustly treated, but the affective appraisal will not evaluate this as worthy of an emotion response. Thus, the individual will take him or herself to be experiencing jealousy, even though the actual emotion process was the one specific to anger (2004, 2005). Meanwhile, all of the non-cognitive theorists agree that bodily changes are part of the emotion process.
79–84); and Robinson is skeptical that different emotions can be distinguished by any of the features of the bodily response, except perhaps the facial expression (2005, pp.
In this case, Prinz says that the bodily changes that occur in response to perceiving a snake can be explained as an adaptation. In this example, fear is the mental state caused by feedback from the body (that is, the perception of the bodily changes). This feeling occurs "in juxtaposition" to the thoughts and evaluations about the stimulus that triggered the bodily changes in the first place. Although Bill realizes that there are many aspects of the situation to consider, the thought of losing a lot of money causes a bodily response. This will generate a feeling more quickly and efficiently, although it may not feel the same as a genuine bodily response (1994, p. Some of them are compatible, for instance, an evolutionary theory and a theory that describes the emotion process can easily complement each other; Griffiths' theory of the affect program emotions demonstrates that these two perspectives can be employed in a single theory.
In the past forty years, a vast amount of data has been collected by cognitive and social psychologists, neuroscientists, anthropologists, and ethologists.
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships.
But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive.
The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra.
Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps.
Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions.
When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered.
The rest of your post is so ridiculous that it is embarrassing for me to try to explain what your hallucinations are.
They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity. Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large. In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world. While we are asleep our body should be resting so it can repair body cells, fight infections and absorb nutrients from food. In some schools children are moved at frequent intervals to avoid possible harmful effects. If geopathic stress is suspected, it makes sense to move away from the source or to think about dealing with the threat. Women are more likely to be at risk from geopathic stress because their hormonal systems are more susceptible. While water running beneath a domestic dwelling should be avoided, a stream situated nearby and open to the sky will favourably discharge its negative energies harmlessly into the atmosphere.
The aim of the report is to establish whether these a€?Disturbed Sitesa€™ can produce statistically significant results to support the high degree of topicality the phenomenon is having in both main stream and alternative medical practices. A number of these were rejected when illnesses (circulation interference and infections) were discovered. Three silver electrodes were used placed on the forehead, palms and soles; a microprocessor based unit automatically produced the results. All measured parameters gave reference to location dependence with the integral rake size for Systolic ventricle work showing significantly different behaviour. It was thought however, that if the experiment allowed further time exposure the investigation may have achieved a significant result. The Biometric analysis showed that on the a€?Indifferent Zonea€™ the pulse-breath quotient remained in balance but was significantly affected on the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™.
One of the main functions of Serotonin is to act as a neurotransmitter in the parasympathetic system which controls energy provision. Gernot PAUSER: University Clinic for Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and General Intensive Care, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria. A recent technological innovation can now aid us in this quest, allowing a sophisticated physical measurability of deviations of the earth's magnetic field: the SQUIDa€“technology. In addition to the discussed weak, broadband transversal electromagnetic and magnetic fields assumed to be originated in the ground, other forms of a€?energiesa€? might exist, such as the often controversially discussed longitudinal scalar waves (5). There is growing experimental evidence that EMFs - at least those of technical origin a€“ can have significant effects on cells and the entire organism. If you turn a water molecule with its electric charge distribution, then from the moving charge a magnetic field results.
The effect was already discovered in 1824 by David Brewster and then experimentally elaborated by Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880. According to Professor Konstantin Meyl (Furtwangen University, Germany), to a measurement technician scalar waves experimentally manifest as (antenna-)noise, a mixture of frequencies and wavelengths. However, an extensive discussion of the origin and effects of radioactivity from the ground would go far beyond the scope of this manuscript. In the case of resonance, information is being exchanged, energies are transmitted and, in fact, a component of balance between the sources is being formed (from personal communication, A.
Certain processes of proteins as parts of their 3-D conformation have the ability to oscillate or rotate. From post mortem brains, magnetite crystals of a size of 50 nm could be isolated, and their magnetic field could be measured. However, speculations are that the presence of magnetite crystals in brain might be understood as proof of a a€?submerged magnetic sensora€?, similar to that of carrier pigeons or whales, theoretically easing human orientation and direction a€“ thus a kind of a€?relict of evolutiona€?. Nevertheless, this doesna€™t lower their importance and relevance: Those pioneers in research on the geopathy phenomenon neither had the scientific-medical verifiability methods that are available today, nor was the time mature for such publications in the kind of medical journals we know today.
In our first approaches, we utilized methods from complementary medicine (bio-resonance, kinesiology, heart-rate variability, etc.).

Petersburg, Russia), as used in that work, delivers a number of sensitive and reproducible parameters (25-46). Although not yet completed, our tests appear to show that this is indeed the case: Parallel measurements of the diurnal time courses of GDV mean area of glow and of biochemical parameters collected from saliva (50-53) indicate that the diurnal curve progressions of GDV image areas and the levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) go parallel, whilst another accepted parameter of stress, saliva alpha-amylase, progresses just the opposite to IgA and GDV.
Fifty-two voluntary test persons were measured at two locations, one of which has been identified by a group of six distinguished dowsers as being a a€?geopathic zonea€? and the other a a€?neutral zonea€?. The electric field produces a visible gas discharge glow around the fingertip (Kirlian image), and such corona discharges have been recorded from each of the 10 fingertips of the test person repeatedly. In addition, we have recorded dynamic GDV images from both ring fingers, repeated 3 times during each test period. Each test person was asked to thoroughly wash their hands using a pH neutral laboratory soap (without re-fattening properties), followed by wiping the fingertips with alcohol. From the results of our studies it can be concluded that geopathic zones do cause stress in nearly all of the persons tested.
Such zones might cause distress (a€?malignant stressa€?) even when present for a short time, but there are also reports that (not scientifically proven) energetically stimulating zones (a€?positive energy zonesa€?) might exist, often also referred to as a€?power placesa€?. During the planning stage in construction of new buildings, the geopathy phenomenon should be taken into account, so as to consciously design and construct buildings and rooms in a manner that, in areas where people will stay for longer periods of time, geopathic exposure should be as low as possible.
Therefore it makes sense to consult with a competent building environment engineer who has experience, skill and expertise in these matters.
Interestingly, these positive lifestyle choices may also show up indirectly and in the subconscious: even technically derived EMFs seem to have much less of a negative effect with people who prefer such an a€?awarea€? way of life. It is clear that the accumulation of different factors stress can have strong effects on humans, animals and even plants. One of the tests, taken in a care center for children displaying behavioral problems, additionally showed, among other changes, that the incidence of bedwetting [nocturnal enuresis] definitely decreased when the a€?Wavea€? was present, and that the learning ability and the quality of sleep changed for the better (unpublished findings).
A serious athlete who doesna€™t sleep well before a competition is far from being as able-bodied as someone who has had a€?a good night's resta€?. When individuals feel better, they will perform better, and be healthier and happier at work too a€“ facts that would also have economic consequences. Parameters measured in saliva in parallel to GDV, such as IgA, alpha-amylase and cortisol, appear to change in level in direct relationship to the GDV mean area of glow.
From an extended vortex and field theory to a technical, biological and historical use of longitudinal waves. Their findings usually provide shockingly different interpretations of the biological effects of natural conditions. Once I move past this zone, the striking radiation intensity can decrease, giving me a a€?normala€™ value again. In all three cases, the radioactivity coming from these items were several times higher than the law allows for workers in nuclear power plants a€“ and for a short period of time only.
Some of the well- known mineral waters exist only because he found their origin deep in the earth.
They found water, which had the prophesied 17 degree hardness, and which flowed abundantly. In another sense, however, human emotions seem to be very similar to (if not the same as) the responses that other animals display. This description is sufficient to begin an analysis of the emotions, although it does leave out some aspects of the process such as the subjective awareness of the emotion and behavior that is often part of the emotion response (for example, fighting, running away, hugging another person). In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli. Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus. Change to a trait can occur because of natural selection, chance, genetic drift, or because the trait is genetically linked with some other trait.
Moreover, emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter. The main one is that a mate is having sex with someone else, but other problems include the harm that has been done to the victim's status and reputation, the possibility that the unfaithful mate has conceived with the rival, and the likelihood that the victim of the infidelity has been deceived about a wide variety of other matters (2000, p.
In Griffiths' theory, the other emotions belong to different categories—the higher-cognitive emotions and the socially constructed emotions—and in some cases a single vernacular term, for example, anger, will have instances that belong to different categories. For example, sadness, one of Griffiths' affect program emotions, occurs in all humans and in other related species. Nonetheless, the central claim made in these theories is that the social influence is so significant that emotions are best understood from this perspective. Given that individuals experience the emotions that they have terms for (and vice versa), the claim that follows from these findings is that people in different cultures have and experience different emotions. This is similar to the feeling that children have towards their mothers, but it is experienced by adults. For example, an individual's envy of someone who is successful (or his guilt over having cheated someone) are both emotions that have been prescribed by the individual's society so that the individual will take the appropriate attitude towards success and cheating. All of these various components are linked together for an individual by principles of organization. The transitory social role imposes rules that dictate which response is appropriate for the situation. For example, different emotions will occur depending on whether an individual evaluates being laid-off as consistent with her current goals or inconsistent with them.
Judging in this context is the mental ability that individuals use when they acknowledge a particular experience or the existence of a particular state of the world; what Martha Nussbaum calls "assent[ing] to an appearance" (2004, p. Thus, a change in an individual's beliefs—in his or her way of seeing the world—entails a different emotion, or none at all. For example, the judgment that the wall is red, or the judgment that the icy road is dangerous. For example, the judgment that I have been insulted and offended does not necessarily require any conscious mental effort on my part. Each appraisal component is assigned one of its possible values, and together these values determine which emotion response will be generated. For this appraisal, unknown differs from uncertain in that unknown is the value that is assigned when the distinction between motive-consistent versus motive-inconsistent cannot be made.
Making this evaluation sometimes requires a subtle understanding of what the emotion-causing stimulus is.
The non-cognitive position is that the emotion response directly follows the perception of a relevant stimulus.
The non-cognitive theorists deny that propositional attitudes and the conceptual knowledge that they require (for example, anger is the judgment that I have been wronged) are necessary for emotions. It must be constructed so that it quickly attends to some stimuli, determining not only that they pertain to emotion, but to which emotion, and then activating the appropriate part of the affect programme (1977, p. Loss of something to which one is intimately attached might be a common characteristic of sadness elicitors. Furthermore, this system "would have some form of memory, storing information about classes of stimuli previously assessed as meriting emotional response" (1997, p. According to Ekman, this is a mechanism that "stores the patterns for these complex organized responses, and which when set off directs their occurrence" (1977, p. It is also similar to the theories developed by William James (1884) and, more recently, Jesse Prinz (2004a), which are discussed in the next section. In this case, a cognitive process will determine that the current situation is dangerous, and then what Robinson calls an affective appraisal will be made of this specific information and a fear response will be triggered. In any case, it is the feedback that the mind (or brain) gets from the body that makes the event an emotion. Note that James' theory overlaps with the non-cognitive theories insofar as James suggests that when the stimulus is perceived, a bodily response is triggered automatically or reflexively (1884, p.
Our bodies respond in the way that they do to the perception of a snake because snakes are dangerous, and so danger is what the mental state is representing (2004a, p. This mental state registers the bodily changes, but represents meaningful, albeit simple, information. The feedback from Bill's body is then juxtaposed with the thought of being tangled up in a losing venture with his brother-in-law. On the other hand, some of the theories are simply inconsistent, like the cognitive and non-cognitive theories, and so the natural expectation is that one of these positions will eventually be eliminated. A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on.
The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art.
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained.
Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean.
Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt.
Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. Perception is a brain function, and to prove your point that we are being controlled, you show a snippet from Plan 9 from Outer Space.I could go into detail.
Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation.
Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?. The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed. The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu.
By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all its energy just to keep its vital organs going. Reports from other countries such as Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Scandinavia indicate that they too have been taking notice. Geopathic stress - or harmful earth rays - is natural radiation that rises up through the earth and is distorted by weak electromagnetic fields created by underground streams, certain mineral concentrations and fault lines. Foresight, the pre-conception care organisation, even suggests that couples trying for a baby should get their homes checked for geopathic stress and ensure that electrical equipment is not located under their beds as this can cause electromagnetic stress and deplete the immune system.a€?For many of us who fall sick and seek the help of a doctor a few minutes is spent discussing symptoms and lifestyle quickly followed by the doctor scribbling on a proscription pad. In order to rule out possible influences of man made electromagnetic or microwave disturbances at each location an independent report from an electromechanical engineer was requested for each chosen site. Other participants were also used from the Outpatients Department for Physical Therapy in the Rehabilitation Centre, Grobming and from the Surgery of Dr.
This deterioration of the HFR was thought to be due to a€?Location loada€™ from the a€?Disturbed Zonea€™. Hacker: Head, IGGMB - Research Institute for Frontier Questions of Medicine and Biotechnology, Landeskrankenhaus Salzburg, University Clinics of the Paracelsus Private Medical University, Salzburg Federal Clinics (SALK), Salzburg, Austria.
In recent years, the expressions a€?geopathic stressa€? and a€?geopathic interference zonesa€? have been accepted internationally to describe the phenomenon.
At present, for most aspects contained herein, only hypotheses can be formed - and there are many of them.
With Super-Conducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID), it is possible to quantify variations of one ten billionth [American English] of the earth's magnetic field. Certain ions and metals moved by water can a€“ depending on concentration, composition and flow rate a€“ can indeed lead to geoelectricity.
If thus in a pipe a hydrodynamic flow vortex is produced, an electric and a magnetic vortex, the potential vortex and the eddy current, are the result (5). Although also present in tourmaline, topaz, cane sugar and Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate), the effect became particularly known for quartz. Vice versa, quartz can be triggered to oscillate by applying a voltage to it (a€?quartz oscillator crystala€?; in use for example in crystal controlled clocks). In the case of plasma waves, they are charged particles, and in the case of sound waves, they are air particles. Inside our body, there are the a€?intrinsica€? (internal) structures and molecules of the organism, which are either a€?resonatinga€? because of their physical nature (as with stringed instruments: compare the vibration of the string alone versus string with resonator sound box), or create a certain frequency themselves.
Such only a few nanometers sized processes have been discussed as possible sites of resonance induced by external EMFs, acting as a€?protein-antennasa€? (19). The research was done in a special laboratory room that was completely shielded from the natural magnetic field of the earth by tons of steel. But, if it would really be a relict, those particles would not exist in such a high quantity anymore. Nonetheless, what these people achieved, and their courage, as well as of the publishers who rightly published their works, deserve high credits. Although successful in some areas addressed, the effects found had not the high statistical significance required, and the methodology used was not a generally accepted one, guaranteeing medical relevance and reproducibility.
For us, the mean a€?area-of-glowa€? was the best possible means for sensitively indicate stress. In other words, a higher GDV mean area of glow value corresponds to a higher IgA level (to be understood as an sign for lower stress or relaxation), and a lower GDV mean area of glow value can be understood as an indication for higher levels of alpha-amylase, i.e.
In the specific setup for the static GDV images used in our study, the overall GDV image area values calculated are to be understood as mean values of 50 single finger GDV images in total, per test period.
A number of further statistical analyses were performed, also including distribution-independent tests. Such areas have been dowsed within some churches and other buildings constructed centuries or often thousands of years ago.
Mental components are just as important: the more someone lives consciously, and even optimistically, in a state of positive thought, the less external stress factors can influence the person somatically. Possibilities to minimize the effects of geopathy on our organism in general have already been discussed above. Thus, for this practical reason it may be worth considering installing a device that has a balancing effect here. The results of our research are of great relevance for a€?wellness-centersa€? too: sustainable success in relaxation and stress management methods is essentially dependent upon the particular location of sleeping and of therapy beds. The number of staff on sick leave will probably decrease in the long run, when all employees work at geopathically (and otherwise also) more balanced work places. Soon, we shall have completed those experiments testing a number of test persons sufficiently high for good-practice statistical examination. Petersburg Division of the Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing Unit a€?Kulturaa€™, Petersburg, pp 58a€“83 (1999).
After hundreds of tests, I can say: With special ion meters (electronic instruments that measure the number of small ions in the air) you can detect increased measurement values above the area of a disturbance a€“ particularly in the range of positive air ions. My electro-geobioscopic measurements use test devices that are well tested in medicine: Aschoff, MORA, and Vega. The book Organisational Assessment: A Framework for Improving Performance by Lusthaus et al. Further, the emotions that we have and how we express them reflect our social environment, but it also seems likely that emotions were shaped by natural selection over time. The emotions that appear in humans are more complex than what are found in lower species, "but the basic functional patterns remain invariant in all animals, up to and including humans" (1980, p. Rather than simply focusing on the functions of the emotions, this kind of analysis is more useful for psychology and neuropsychology because these sciences are interested in identifying the mechanisms that drive behavior (Griffiths, 2004). The following are some of the examples that are often used to illustrate the variability of emotion terms.
These principles are what allow the various elements to be construed coherently as one particular emotion (1982). For example, the possible responses for anger may include pouting, yelling, hitting, or perhaps no overt behavior at all. In some contexts, Nussbaum treats judgments and beliefs interchangeably and it is sometimes the case that a series of judgments constitute the emotion. One way to distinguish the judgments that are emotions from those that are not is to suggest (like Nussbaum) that the judgment must be based on a certain set of beliefs. Thus, instead of any sort of evaluation or judgment about the stimulus, the early part of the emotion process is thought to be reflex-like.
Advocates of the non-cognitive position stress that a theory of emotion should apply to infants and non-human animals, which presumably do not have the cognitive capabilities that are described in the judgment theories or the cognitive appraisal theories. Interference with ongoing activity might be characteristic of some anger elicitors (1977, pp. Ekman appears to have been aware of the modular nature of this system when he wrote, "The difficulty experienced when trying to interfere with the operation of the affect programme, the speed of its operation, its capability to initiate responses that are hard to halt voluntarily, is what is meant by out-of-control quality to the subjective experiences of some emotions" (1977, p. As Robinson describes this part of her theory, "My suggestion is that there is a set of inbuilt affective appraisal mechanisms, which in more primitive species and in neonates are automatically attuned to particular stimuli, but which, as human beings learn and develop, can also take as input more complex stimuli, including complex 'judgments' or thoughts" (2004, p.
Nevertheless, although answering this question is important for a complete understanding of the emotions, it does not greatly affect the theories mentioned here, which are largely based on what occurs in the early part of the emotion process. Since (B) and (D) co-occur, the feeling will be accompanied by the information that triggered the bodily response. It is this negative feeling that informs Bill's choice of behavior, and he declines the offer without ever pondering all of the costs and benefits.
In any case, the consequence is that there can be a feeling even if the body is not involved.
Many of the theories, however, fall somewhere in between, agreeing about some features of emotion, while disagreeing about others. A problem that remains for the theorist of emotion is accounting for all of the available empirical evidence. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od.
Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on.
The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition.
The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C.
Perception (visual) begins with signals picked up by receptor cells in the eyes, and then splits in two. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors. But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it has difficulty in absorbing nutrients or fighting off infections as efficiently as it should.
Claims and counter claims abound regarding devises to achieve this, leaving the public in total confusion. The wave lengths of the disturbed natural radiation can seriously affect our health, causing cancer, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME) infertility and miscarriage. It may surprise you therefore, that in many European countries, Germany and Austria in particular, one ofA  the first questions the doctor may ask is about theA  location of your bed and how long have you been sleeping there. Most explanations tried concentrate on the existence of natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs) present at particular locations, a€?interferinga€? with the organisms. Overlapping, or a a€?build upa€? of resonance effects are also part of the geopathic phenomenon. With a proportion of 12 % of the upper eartha€™s crust, quartz is the most frequent mineral after feldspar. In the case of resonance, both sources attract each other, which can be explained and calculated by the occurrence of field changes during that process (5).
When experimentally irradiated by EMFs of frequencies in between about 1-2 GHz, they displayed a changing of conformation, respectively changing in their manner of oscillation, even when only very low field strengths had been applied (19). Magnetic particles in the brain could turn out to be one of the reasons why dowsing can work. Furthermore, one can acquire a€?corona diagramsa€? in the manner of complementary medicine from the individual allocation of the a€?coronaa€? gas discharge from the different fingertips, following the principles of the energya€“meridian theory and of acupuncture. The exact test design, as well as the way how dowsers independently labeled the different zones in the laboratory test room, have been described in detail (24). The glass plate surface of the GDV camera was cleaned using alcohol frequently, and it was taken care that none of the test persons had wet hands. The corona diagrams directed into a weakening of the energies of the immune system and the pineal organ (which might be understood as an indication of possible changes of the melatonin production) (compare to: 57-60), the cardiovascular and the urinary system in many of the test persons. The a€?Wavea€? device investigated in our study could therefore, by its balancing effect, not only aid in lowering of stress, but also be understood as a tool for disease prevention.
Concerning the a€?Wavea€? device especially interesting is the fact, that it substantially reduces stress in people on a€?neutral zonesa€? too, a finding which indicates that there is no real a€?neutral zonea€? existing. In the following, we will briefly show what addressing geopathy do affect health care facilities, public places, and economy. By inference, if these results are applied to public facilities in general, the a€?Wavea€? could probably have a number of desirable effects in schools, offices, banks, supermarkets, etc. Contrarily, at a€?highly burdeneda€? workplaces, performance will decrease, discontentment grows, and the vulnerability to diseases and the resulting rise of employees' illnesses will be greater.
Ursula DEMARMELS-HACKER, for her love and support, and for abandoning many evenings and weekends of togetherness to find time for investigation and creation of this manuscript. These and other conflicting features of the emotions make constructing a theory difficult and have led to the creation of a variety of different theories.
And a trait is the result of natural selection only when "its prevalence is due to the fact that it conferred a greater fitness" (Richardson, 1996, p. In a particular situation, say a baseball game, a player may adopt a social role that includes pushing the umpire as an anger response.
If those beliefs are present, then the emotion will occur; if they are not, then it won't. If the individual focuses on the gift and having just received it (the general state of affairs), his emotion is joy. The way in which he describes this process is just as central to the non-cognitive theories as it is to his own: "the nervous system of every living thing is but a bundle of predispositions to react in particular ways upon the contact of particular features of the environment. Bill could have considered the situation more thoroughly, but acting on this kind of feeling is, according to Damasio, often the way in which actions are chosen. Patterns of hearing loss and psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients attending a hearing clinic.
Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions.
By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer.
Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. One branch excites the Limbic System,while the other goes through memories to see if the limbic system should be shut down. All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world.
There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world. From an incredible range of gadgets offered there are many tales about their ineffectiveness or of making the receiver feel much worse. These questions are routinely asked not only by several thousand doctors, but also many cancer specialist hospitals will recommend a Geopathic Surveyor or Geobiologist as they are often called to investigate your home before deciding on a course of therapy or reaching for the prescription pad. It was reckoned with over 95 a€“ percentile certainty that there is a location influence on the governing system of the circulation. Many a€?specialistsa€? presume that the origin to be in the ground a€“ below the earth surface. Furthermore, technically generated EMFs are present on every place on earth; their likely influence on our health is presently the subject of intensive worldwide research. Whittaker already in 1904 showed mathematically that the known and accepted Laplace Wave Equation of the year 1787, besides indicating transversal electro-magnetic waves, also describes longitudinal scalar waves (15). The magnetite-particles could also be visualized and further analyzed using a high-definition transmission electron microscope.
In any case, magnetite crystals in the brain could possibly be a hint to explain how (certain qualities of) geopathic zones may affect the body: Magnetite reacts more than one million times stronger to an external magnetic field than every other biological material. Using that particular aspect, we were able to indicate which organ systems of the body might be affected by geopathic stress.
A third marker, saliva cortisol, although displaying its very own rhythmicity, also appears to fit into the concept that GDV could be reliably used for biophysical stress measurement (Hacker and Augner, unpublished results). Altogether, more than 137,000 individual fingertip GDV corona images were captured, interpreted by means of computer-aided image analysis and analyzed in detail using bio-statistics. For further calculations and analyses, the GDV Meridian Analysis and the GDV Diagram software (both with version no. The latter device had been mounted or de-mounted in another room at an upper floor, and neither the test persons nor the examiners could see if the device was present or not.
The test persons were advised to keep their fingers still and relaxed during measurements and not to apply undue pressure when putting their fingers onto the glass plate at an angle of approximately 30-degrees to the instrument axis (28).
If present for a prolonged time, however, eustress may soon turn to distress and thereby suppress the immune system. We would therefore suggest using a terminology towards a a€?more geopathica€? and a€?geologically more neutrala€? zone in this context. Johanns-Hospital, so far, more than 50 a€?Wavea€? devices have been installed to harmonize critical locations - especially in the intensive care unit and in the entire surgical ward), and at other major hospitals (e.g. Thus, especially in already existing establishments, the purposeful placement of a€?Wavea€? devices can be of great benefit.
The aggregate economic success of a company or institution can very well be in the balance; responsible (and visionary) managers should take heed of the results of our studies in their plans and act accordingly. Petersburg Division of Russian Ministry of Culture, State Editing and Publishing nit, a€?Kulturaa€™, pp 84a€“108 (1999).
Meanwhile, Enhancing Organisational Performance: A Toolbox for Self-Assessment by Lusthaus et al. Yelling at the umpire would have been another role the player could have adopted.  However, social norms and expectations dictate that pouting in this situation would not be an appropriate response.
If the individual focuses on the friend who has just given the gift (focuses on another person), the emotion is liking. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public.
The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. There are many products on the market that claim to cure some or all geopathic zones of its noxious energy. However, if we sleep in an area affected by geopathic stress, our body has to use all ita€™s energy just to keepA  vital organs going. The search, using both dowsing methods to locate geopathic energies and scientific instruments to detect man made electromagnetic energies willA  determine whether your illness is linked to geopathic stress electromagnetic stress or both.
Frequencies in between about 0,1 Hz up to the GHz-range are being suggested in public literature. The most exciting result of those experiments was that, most of the regions of the brain appear to contain about five million biogenous a€?single-domaina€? magnetite crystals per gram wet weight on average, and the meninges (pia and dura mater) contain even more than 100 million. Recently, in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, an article describes possible roles that magnetic ferrous amalgamations could play in neurological disease (21). The accordant calculations and projections were done interactively using specific software for analysis, based on the energy-emission-analysis according to Mandel (47-48), the Su-Jok-System of acupuncture (49) and clinical data of thousands of test persons from the St. In order to minimize chronobiologic influences to a sensible degree, the experiments were carried out only in forenoons, and also in that respect, phase randomization in time was an important prerequisite (24). As already stated above, technical fields and noxae [nocent influences] of different kinds are present everywhere on earth. In the workplace and in the home: this is only part of the whole picture, because a€?ready to goa€? or rested and productive employers and employees should also be able to benefit at peace and harmony at home.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example.
Most of these claims are quite dubious and do not stand up to the most rudimental scientific testing. As a result our immune system becomes weakened, which means it doesna€™t absorb nutrients or fight off infections effectively.
If so, you will be advised how to avoid or eliminate these harmful energies from your home so you stand a better chance of responding to any treatment given. In our following attempts at explanation, we will concentrate on natural sources possibly originating from the a€?grounda€?, i.e.
As we could show, the a€?Wavea€? device in fact can help, and its exceptional promise as a preventive measure is of great interest. Gerfried BRANDSTETTER (manager of the science department of the Salzburg federal government); Landeshauptfrau Mag. The judgments and objects that constitute our emotions are those which are especially important to us, meaningful to us, concerning matters in which we have invested our Selves" (1993, p.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography.
Science says that it is vibrating atoms, that would make no sense to you-so your brain makes patterns that you are familiar with. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Fortunately there are now a growing number of dowsers that are equipped with scientific monitoring instruments that can test such claims.
To locate geopathic stress dowsers visit land, offices and homes where theyA  seekA  the location of underground streams, geological faults or the eartha€™s natural grid lines. The neural machinery is but a hyphen between determinate arrangements of matter outside the body and determinate impulses to inhibition or discharge within its organs" (1884, p. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. However, for thousands of years people from all over the world have been finding underground water for wells and mineral deposits to mine by dowsing methods.
Hence, according to James, when the appropriate type of stimulus is perceived (that is a bear), this automatically causes a bodily response (trembling, raised heart rate, and so forth), and the individual's awareness of this bodily response is the fear. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Remember ita€™s the energy from the water and other artefacts that they first respond to as it rises from deep beneath the ground to the surface.

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