Learning approach psychology edexcel gcse,textpad block mode,bbc get inspired table tennis - You Shoud Know

26.06.2014
This is a Web Quest about the Three Learning Theories: Behavioral Learning Theory, Cognitive Learning Theory, and Social Learning Theory. Each component of this Web Quest contains an Introduction section, Task section, Process section, Resources section, Evaluation section, and Conclusion section.
This knowledge base is about understanding learning and instruction and how they are related. When we started this course, we were asked to develop a concept map of the three learning theories. After developing this knowledge base, I have revised my thoughts here as per the many resources we discussed. Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation. Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. In many ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that people do not ultimately achieve. For Rogers, fully functioning people are well adjusted, well balanced and interesting to know.
A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences of the person.
According to Rogers, we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. All students will prepare an annotated bibliography on a subject of interest in the field of Psychology.
The York University grading system, including the generic letter grade definitions used in the system and in the course, is described in the University Calendar. Students who will be more than three hours driving time from York on the date of any of the examinations can arrange with the Distance Education staff to take the exam at an off-site location. The earliest approach to the study of leadership sought to identify a set of traits that distinguished leaders from nonleaders. General mental ability, which psychologists refer to as a€?ga€? and which is often called IQ in everyday language, has been related to a persona€™s emerging as a leader within a group. Psychologists have proposed various systems for categorizing the characteristics that make up an individuala€™s unique personality; one of the most widely accepted is the Big Five model, which rates an individual according to openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
Self-esteem is not one of the Big Five personality traits, but it is an important aspect of onea€™s personality.
Research also shows that people who are effective as leaders tend to have a moral compass and demonstrate honesty and integrity.[440] Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their trustworthiness, and they hurt their companya€™s business along the way. Condoleezza Rice had different responsibilities as the provost of Stanford University compared with her role as secretary of state for the United States.
There are also some traits that are negatively related to emerging as a leader and being successful as a leader. Many studies searched for a limited set of personal attributes, or traits, which would make someone be viewed as a leader and be successful as a leader.
It is wrong to think of this as an end or completion of lifea€™s journey; rather it is a process of always becoming and changing. A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image. The course emphasizes the historical and cultural origins of the constructs, methods and purposes associated with contemporary Psychology.


Each week students must read the material assigned for the given week, listen to the recorded commentaries associated with this material, and complete a set of exercises that involve participation in discussion of the course material on the web-based Dialogue Forum. The project will be completed in stages, and details about the project components will be provided in the early weeks of the course. What were the personality characteristics and physical and psychological attributes of people who are viewed as leaders? Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment.[434] We should caution, though, that intelligence is a positive but modest predictor of leadership.
Several of the Big Five personality traits have been related to leadership emergence (whether someone is viewed as a leader by others) and leadership effectiveness.
For example, to celebrate Microsofta€™s 25th anniversary, Ballmer enthusiastically popped out of the anniversary cake to surprise the audience. Conscientious people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate persistence in their endeavors. The degree to which people are at peace with themselves and have an overall positive assessment of their self-worth and capabilities seems to be relevant to whether they will be viewed as a leader.
For example, agreeable people who are modest, good natured, and avoid conflict are less likely to be perceived as leaders.[442] The key to benefiting from the findings of trait researchers is to be aware that not all traits are equally effective in predicting leadership potential across all circumstances. Some traits are consistently related to leadership, such as intelligence (both mental ability and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be self-actualize, and that is not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence mechanisms).2. Incongruence is "a discrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the self-picture of the individual insofar as it represents that experience.
Numerous divisions exist among psychologists concerning the appropriate purposes of Psychology and concerning the appropriate constructs and methods to adopt in order to achieve these purposes. I record comments on the readings and post these on the website throughout the week in which they are assigned, typically on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings. The principle purposes of the project are first to learn to use the PsycINFO database to locate appropriate materials for study of a psychological issue, and second to gain some facility in reading, summarizing and evaluating primary sources in the psychological literature.
Because of the problems in measurement of personality traits at the time, different studies used different measures. In addition to having high IQ, effective leaders tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ). Leaders with high self-esteem support their subordinates more, and when punishment needs to be administered, they punish more effectively.[438] It is possible that those with high self-esteem have greater levels of self-confidence and this affects their image in the eyes of their followers.
Some organizational situations allow leader traits to make a greater difference.[443] For example, in small, entrepreneurial organizations where leaders have a lot of leeway to determine their own behavior, the type of traits leaders have may make a difference in leadership potential. The main limitation of the trait approach was that it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred.
This means that the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing. Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. In other cultures, such as Eastern cultures, the achievement of the group is valued more highly than the achievement of any one person. Where a person’s ideal self and actual experience are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. The most important division we consider In the course is that associated with those who favour a natural science approach to the study of psychological phenomena versus those who favour a human science approach. Each student will be assigned to an online group composed of 25 students for discussion of various aspects of the readings and my comments on them. People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills.


Because they are both dominant and sociable in their environment, they emerge as leaders in a wide variety of situations. Finally, people who have openness to experiencea€”those who demonstrate originality, creativity, and are open to trying new thingsa€”tend to emerge as leaders and tend to be effective as leaders.
Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between some physical attributes and emerging as a leader.
In large, bureaucratic, and rule-bound organizations, such as the government and the military, a leadera€™s traits may have less to do with how the person behaves and whether the person is a successful leader.[444] Moreover, some traits become relevant in specific circumstances. Therefore, it is more useful to specify the conditions under which different traits are needed. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future (i.e. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people experience a certain amount of incongruence.
In recent years, though, after advances in personality literature such as the development of the Big Five personality framework, researchers have had more success in identifying traits that predict leadership.[432] Most importantly, charismatic leadership, which is among the contemporary approaches to leadership, may be viewed as an example of a trait approach. The psychologist who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it matters for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, it no longer helps leaders because most leaders already have high IQ.
Out of all personality traits, extraversion has the strongest relationship to both leader emergence and leader effectiveness.
For example, research shows a strong relationship between height and being viewed as a leader (as well as onea€™s career success over life). For example, bravery is likely to be a key characteristic in military leaders but not necessarily in business leaders.
The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: Preliminary test of a theoretical model. A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. I typically refer to the online discussion site as the Dialogue Forum, and it can be found by clicking on that term in the sidebar of the course website. And in our examination of competing purposes we look to a variety of conceptions of Psychology, including Psychology as a basic science, Psychology as a healing technology, and Psychology as a discipline organized around the resolution of social problems (poverty and racism, for example). This is not to say that all effective leaders are extraverts, but you are more likely to find extraverts in leadership positions. Individual attributes and leadership style: Predicting the use of punishment and its effects.
Peoplea€™s own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.4. Individual differences in leadership emergence: Integrating meta-analytic findings and behavioral genetics estimates.
To use psychological terms, it is not a state of drive-reduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis" (Rogers, 1967, p. Self-esteem: Relationship with leader behavior perceptions as moderated by the duration of the superior-subordinate dyad association, Personality and Social Psychology Buletin, 10, 51a€“59. Fulfilled life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures.



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