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In this paper,3 several of us involved in the development and evolution of the Internet share our views of its origins and history.
The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (or Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure. Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964.
In late 1966 Roberts went to DARPA to develop the computer network concept and quickly put together his plan for the "ARPAnet", publishing it in 1967.
In August 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA funded community had refined the overall structure and specifications for the ARPAnet, an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP's). Due to Kleinrock's early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design and measurement, his Network Measurement Center at UCLA was selected to be the first node on the ARPAnet. One month later, when SRI was connected to the ARPAnet, the first host-to-host message was sent from Kleinrock's laboratory to SRI. Computers were added quickly to the ARPAnet during the following years, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol and other network software.
In October 1972, Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPAnet at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). The idea of open-architecture networking was first introduced by Kahn shortly after having arrived at DARPA in 1972.
However, NCP did not have the ability to address networks (and machines) further downstream than a destination IMP on the ARPAnet and thus some change to NCP would also be required. Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.
Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. Algorithms to prevent lost packets from permanently disabling communications and enabling them to be successfully retransmitted from the source. Providing for host-to-host "pipelining" so that multiple packets could be enroute from source to destination at the discretion of the participating hosts, if the intermediate networks allowed it.
The need for end-end checksums, reassembly of packets from fragments and detection of duplicates, if any. There were also other concerns, such as implementation efficiency, internetwork performance, but these were secondary considerations at first.
Kahn began work on a communications-oriented set of operating system principles while at BBN and documented some of his early thoughts in an internal BBN memorandum entitled "Communications Principles for Operating Systems". The give and take was highly productive and the first written version7 of the resulting approach was distributed at a special meeting of the International Network Working Group (INWG) which had been set up at a conference at Sussex University in September 1973. Communication between two processes would logically consist of a very long stream of bytes (they called them octets). It was left open as to exactly how the source and destination would agree on the parameters of the windowing to be used. Although Ethernet was under development at Xerox PARC at that time, the proliferation of LANs were not envisioned at the time, much less PCs and workstations. A major initial motivation for both the ARPAnet and the Internet was resource sharing - for example allowing users on the packet radio networks to access the time sharing systems attached to the ARPAnet. There were other applications proposed in the early days of the Internet, including packet based voice communication (the precursor of Internet telephony), various models of file and disk sharing, and early "worm" programs that showed the concept of agents (and, of course, viruses). This was the beginning of long term experimentation and development to evolve and mature the Internet concepts and technology. The early implementations of TCP were done for large time sharing systems such as Tenex and TOPS 20.
Widespread development of LANS, PCs and workstations in the 1980s allowed the nascent Internet to flourish. A major shift occurred as a result of the increase in scale of the Internet and its associated management issues. As the Internet evolved, one of the major challenges was how to propagate the changes to the software, particularly the host software.
Thus, by 1985, Internet was already well established as a technology supporting a broad community of researchers and developers, and was beginning to be used by other communities for daily computer communications.
At the same time that the Internet technology was being experimentally validated and widely used amongst a subset of computer science researchers, other networks and networking technologies were being pursued. In 1985, Dennis Jennings came from Ireland to spend a year at NSF leading the NSFNET program. NSF also elected to support DARPA's existing Internet organizational infrastructure, hierarchically arranged under the (then) Internet Activities Board (IAB).
This sharing and cooperation between agencies on Internet-related issues had a long history. Subsequently, in a similar mode, the NSF encouraged its regional (initially academic) networks of the NSFnet to seek commercial, non-academic customers, expand their facilities to serve them, and exploit the resulting economies of scale to lower subscription costs for all. In 1988, a National Research Council committee, chaired by Kleinrock and with Kahn and Clark as members, produced a report commissioned by NSF titled "Towards a National Research Network".
In 1994, a National Research Council report, again chaired by Kleinrock (and with Kahn and Clark as members again), Entitled "Realizing The Information Future: The Internet and Beyond" was released. NSF's privatization policy culminated in April, 1995, with the defunding of the NSFnet Backbone. The backbone had made the transition from a network built from routers out of the research community (the "Fuzzball" routers from David Mills) to commercial equipment.
A key to the rapid growth of the Internet has been the free and open access to the basic documents, especially the specifications of the protocols. The beginnings of the ARPAnet and the Internet in the university research community promoted the academic tradition of open publication of ideas and results.
The effect of the RFCs was to create a positive feedback loop, with ideas or proposals presented in one RFC triggering another RFC with additional ideas, and so on. Over time, the RFCs have become more focused on protocol standards (the "official" specifications), though there are still informational RFCs that describe alternate approaches, or provide background information on protocols and engineering issues. The open access to the RFCs (for free, if you have any kind of a connection to the Internet) promotes the growth of the Internet because it allows the actual specifications to be used for examples in college classes and by entrepreneurs developing new systems. Email has been a significant factor in all areas of the Internet, and that is certainly true in the development of protocol specifications, technical standards, and Internet engineering.
The use of specialized email mailing lists has been long used in the development of protocol specifications, and continues to be an important tool.
As the current rapid expansion of the Internet is fueled by the realization of its capability to promote information sharing, we should understand that the network's first role in information sharing was sharing the information about its own design and operation through the RFC documents. The Internet is as much a collection of communities as a collection of technologies, and its success is largely attributable to both satisfying basic community needs as well as utilizing the community in an effective way to push the infrastructure forward. In the late 1970s, recognizing that the growth of the Internet was accompanied by a growth in the size of the interested research community and therefore an increased need for coordination mechanisms, Vint Cerf, then manager of the Internet Program at DARPA, formed several coordination bodies - an International Cooperation Board (ICB), chaired by Peter Kirstein of UCL, to coordinate activities with some cooperating European countries centered on Packet Satellite research, an Internet Research Group which was an inclusive group providing an environment for general exchange of information, and an Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB), chaired by Clark. In 1983, when Barry Leiner took over management of the Internet research program at DARPA, he and Clark recognized that the continuing growth of the Internet community demanded a restructuring of the coordination mechanisms. It of course was only a coincidence that the chairs of the Task Forces were the same people as the members of the old ICCB, and Dave Clark continued to act as chair. The growth in the commercial sector brought with it increased concern regarding the standards process itself.
The recent development and widespread deployment of the World Wide Web has brought with it a new community, as many of the people working on the WWW have not thought of themselves as primarily network researchers and developers. Thus, through the over two decades of Internet activity, we have seen a steady evolution of organizational structures designed to support and facilitate an ever-increasing community working collaboratively on Internet issues. Commercialization of the Internet involved not only the development of competitive, private network services, but also the development of commercial products implementing the Internet technology. Network management provides an example of the interplay between the research and commercial communities.
As the network grew larger, it became clear that the sometime ad hoc procedures used to manage the network would not scale. The most pressing question for the future of the Internet is not how the technology will change, but how the process of change and evolution itself will be managed.
We now see, in the debates over control of the domain name space and the form of the next generation IP addresses, a struggle to find the next social structure that will guide the Internet in the future.
The Internet Society is a leading advocate for a free and open Internet, promoting the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world. You no longer feel the need to squeal and brag about this fantastic book you’re writing, because, well, you’re not actually sure it is fantastic after all. Hazel Gaynor is the NYT and USA Today bestselling author of THE GIRL WHO CAME HOME and A MEMORY OF VIOLETS (HarperCollins). Hazel’s third novel, THE GIRL FROM THE SAVOY will be published in summer 2016 and she has also contributed to WW1 anthology, FALL OF POPPIES, which will be published in March 2016. Hazel was selected by US Library Journal as ‘Ten Big Breakout Authors’ for 2015 and was the recipient of the Cecil Day Lewis award in 2012. Hazel lives in Kildare with her husband and two children and is represented by Michelle Brower of Zachary Shuster Harmsworth, New York. A massive thanks to all our users who participated in the recent survey (we know they can be annoying). Writing.ie is the world's only national writing resources website, based in Ireland but designed for writers everywhere. There are lots of gifts like flowers, chocolates, e cards, friendship bands, books, perfumes, pendants etc.
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Much material currently exists about the Internet, covering history, technology, and usage.
Its history is complex and involves many aspects - technological, organizational, and community. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of the theoretical feasibility of communications using packets rather than circuits, which was a major step along the path towards computer networking. At the conference where he presented the paper, there was also a paper on a packet network concept from the UK by Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL. The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN).
All this came together in September 1969 when BBN installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected.
Internet was based on the idea that there would be multiple independent networks of rather arbitrary design, beginning with the ARPAnet as the pioneering packet switching network, but soon to include packet satellite networks, ground-based packet radio networks and other networks. This work was originally part of the packet radio program, but subsequently became a separate program in its own right. If a packet didn't make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.
There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes. This included interpreting IP headers for routing, handling interfaces, breaking packets into smaller pieces if necessary, etc.
At this point he realized it would be necessary to learn the implementation details of each operating system to have a chance to embed any new protocols in an efficient way. Cerf had been invited to chair this group and used the occasion to hold a meeting of INWG members who were heavily represented at the Sussex Conference. The destination could select when to acknowledge and each ack returned would be cumulative for all packets received to that point.
The original model was national level networks like ARPAnet of which only a relatively small number were expected to exist.
Kahn had intended that the TCP protocol support a range of transport services, from the totally reliable sequenced delivery of data (virtual circuit model) to a datagram service in which the application made direct use of the underlying network service, which might imply occasional lost, corrupted or reordered packets. Connecting the two together was far more economical that duplicating these very expensive computers.
A key concept of the Internet is that it was not designed for just one application, but as a general infrastructure on which new applications could be conceived, as illustrated later by the emergence of the World Wide Web. The Stanford team, led by Cerf, produced the detailed specification and within about a year there were three independent implementations of TCP that could interoperate. Beginning with the first three networks (ARPAnet, Packet Radio, and Packet Satellite) and their initial research communities, the experimental environment has grown to incorporate essentially every form of network and a very broad-based research and development community.
When desktop computers first appeared, it was thought by some that TCP was too big and complex to run on a personal computer. Ethernet technology, developed by Bob Metcalfe at Xerox PARC in 1973, is now probably the dominant network technology in the Internet and PCs and workstations the dominant computers.
To make it easy for people to use the network, hosts were assigned names, so that it was not necessary to remember the numeric addresses.


Originally, there was a single distributed algorithm for routing that was implemented uniformly by all the routers in the Internet.
This was a "flag-day" style transition, requiring all hosts to convert simultaneously or be left having to communicate via rather ad-hoc mechanisms.
This enabled defense to begin sharing in the DARPA Internet technology base and led directly to the eventual partitioning of the military and non- military communities. Electronic mail was being used broadly across several communities, often with different systems, but interconnection between different mail systems was demonstrating the utility of broad based electronic communications between people. The usefulness of computer networking - especially electronic mail - demonstrated by DARPA and Department of Defense contractors on the ARPAnet was not lost on other communities and disciplines, so that by the mid-1970s computer networks had begun to spring up wherever funding could be found for the purpose. The public declaration of this choice was the joint authorship by the IAB's Internet Engineering and Architecture Task Forces and by NSF's Network Technical Advisory Group of RFC 985 (Requirements for Internet Gateways ), which formally ensured interoperability of DARPA's and NSF's pieces of the Internet.
They also jointly supported "managed interconnection points" for interagency traffic; the Federal Internet Exchanges (FIX-E and FIX-W) built for this purpose served as models for the Network Access Points and "*IX" facilities that are prominent features of today's Internet architecture.
The FNC also cooperated with other international organizations, such as RARE in Europe, through the Coordinating Committee on Intercontinental Research Networking, CCIRN, to coordinate Internet support of the research community worldwide.
An unprecedented 1981 agreement between Farber, acting for CSnet and the NSF, and DARPA's Kahn, permitted CSnet traffic to share ARPAnet infrastructure on a statistical and no-metered-settlements basis.
This process of privately-financed augmentation for commercial uses was thrashed out starting in 1988 in a series of NSF-initiated conferences at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government on "The Commercialization and Privatization of the Internet" - and on the "com-priv" list on the net itself. This report was influential on then Senator Al Gore, and ushered in high speed networks that laid the networking foundation for the future information superhighway.
This report, commissioned by NSF, was the document in which a blueprint for the evolution of the information superhighway was articulated and which has had a lasting affect on the way to think about its evolution. The funds thereby recovered were (competitively) redistributed to regional networks to buy national-scale Internet connectivity from the now numerous, private, long-haul networks.
However, the normal cycle of traditional academic publication was too formal and too slow for the dynamic exchange of ideas essential to creating networks. When some consensus (or a least a consistent set of ideas) had come together a specification document would be prepared. The RFCs are now viewed as the "documents of record" in the Internet engineering and standards community. The very early RFCs often presented a set of ideas developed by the researchers at one location to the rest of the community. The IETF now has in excess of 75 working groups, each working on a different aspect of Internet engineering.
This unique method for evolving new capabilities in the network will continue to be critical to future evolution of the Internet. The ICCB was an invitational body to assist Cerf in managing the burgeoning Internet activity. The ICCB was disbanded and in its place a structure of Task Forces was formed, each focused on a particular area of the technology (e.g. After some changing membership on the IAB, Phill Gross became chair of a revitalized Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), at the time merely one of the IAB Task Forces. Starting in the early 1980's and continuing to this day, the Internet grew beyond its primarily research roots to include both a broad user community and increased commercial activity. In 1992, the Internet Activities Board was re-organized and re-named the Internet Architecture Board operating under the auspices of the Internet Society. The speakers came mostly from the DARPA research community who had both developed these protocols and used them in day-to-day work. Starting with a few hundred attendees mostly from academia and paid for by the government, these meetings now often exceed a thousand attendees, mostly from the vendor community and paid for by the attendees themselves. In the beginning of the Internet, the emphasis was on defining and implementing protocols that achieved interoperation.
Manual configuration of tables was replaced by distributed automated algorithms, and better tools were devised to isolate faults.
Originally, commercial efforts mainly comprised vendors providing the basic networking products, and service providers offering the connectivity and basic Internet services. This definition was developed in consultation with members of the internet and intellectual property rights communities.
It was conceived in the era of time-sharing, but has survived into the era of personal computers, client-server and peer-to-peer computing, and the network computer.
The Internet, although a network in name and geography, is a creature of the computer, not the traditional network of the telephone or television industry.
This evolution will bring us new applications - Internet telephone and, slightly further out, Internet television. As this paper describes, the architecture of the Internet has always been driven by a core group of designers, but the form of that group has changed as the number of interested parties has grown.
The form of that structure will be harder to find, given the large number of concerned stakeholders. For writing.ie she has interviewed authors such as Philippa Gregory, Sebastian Faulks, Kate Mosse and Cheryl Strayed, among others. We're about to redesign and upgrade Writing.ie (it will take a few weeks at least) as well as go mobile friendly, and wanted to get your thoughts.
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The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location. There is the technological evolution that began with early research on packet switching and the ARPAnet (and related technologies), and where current research continues to expand the horizons of the infrastructure along several dimensions, such as scale, performance, and higher-level functionality. And its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition, and community operations.
He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. Scantlebury told Roberts about the NPL work as well as that of Paul Baran and others at RAND. As the BBN team worked on the IMP's with Bob Kahn playing a major role in the overall ARPAnet architectural design, the network topology and economics were designed and optimized by Roberts working with Howard Frank and his team at Network Analysis Corporation, and the network measurement system was prepared by Kleinrock's team at UCLA. Doug Engelbart's project on "Augmentation of Human Intellect" (which included NLS, an early hypertext system) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node. These last two nodes incorporated application visualization projects, with Glen Culler and Burton Fried at UCSB investigating methods for display of mathematical functions using storage displays to deal with the problem of refresh over the net, and Robert Taylor and Ivan Sutherland at Utah investigating methods of 3-D representations over the net.
Crocker finished the initial ARPAnet Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). The Internet as we now know it embodies a key underlying technical idea, namely that of open architecture networking.
Each network can be designed in accordance with the specific environment and user requirements of that network. Thus, in the spring of 1973, after starting the internetting effort, he asked Vint Cerf (then at Stanford) to work with him on the detailed design of the protocol. Thus a 32 bit IP address was used of which the first 8 bits signified the network and the remaining 24 bits designated the host on that network. However, the initial effort to implement TCP resulted in a version that only allowed for virtual circuits.
However, while file transfer and remote login (Telnet) were very important applications, electronic mail has probably had the most significant impact of the innovations from that era.
It is the general purpose nature of the service provided by TCP and IP that makes this possible.
David Clark and his research group at MIT set out to show that a compact and simple implementation of TCP was possible.
This change from having a few networks with a modest number of time-shared hosts (the original ARPAnet model) to having many networks has resulted in a number of new concepts and changes to the underlying technology.
Originally, there were a fairly limited number of hosts, so it was feasible to maintain a single table of all the hosts and their associated names and addresses. As the number of networks in the Internet exploded, this initial design could not expand as necessary, so it was replaced by a hierarchical model of routing, with an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) used inside each region of the Internet, and an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) used to tie the regions together. By 1983, ARPAnet was being used by a significant number of defense R&D and operational organizations. NSFnet (1985) programs to explicitly announce their intent to serve the entire higher education community, regardless of discipline. When Steve Wolff took over the NSFnet program in 1986, he recognized the need for a wide area networking infrastructure to support the general academic and research community, along with the need to develop a strategy for establishing such infrastructure on a basis ultimately independent of direct federal funding. It anticipated the critical issues of intellectual property rights, ethics, pricing, education, architecture and regulation for the Internet. It had seen the Internet grow to over 50,000 networks on all seven continents and outer space, with approximately 29,000 networks in the United States.
These memos were intended to be an informal fast distribution way to share ideas with other network researchers. Such a specification would then be used as the base for implementations by the various research teams. After email came into use, the authorship pattern changed - RFCs were presented by joint authors with common view independent of their locations.
Each of these working groups has a mailing list to discuss one or more draft documents under development. The early ARPAnet researchers worked as a close-knit community to accomplish the initial demonstrations of packet switching technology described earlier. In addition to NSFnet and the various US and international government-funded activities, interest in the commercial sector was beginning to grow. A more "peer" relationship was defined between the new IAB and IESG, with the IETF and IESG taking a larger responsibility for the approval of standards.
Initially led from MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science by Tim Berners-Lee (the inventor of the WWW) and Al Vezza, W3C has taken on the responsibility for evolving the various protocols and standards associated with the Web. Unfortunately they lacked both real information about how the technology was supposed to work and how the customers planned on using this approach to networking. In 1987 it became clear that a protocol was needed that would permit the elements of the network, such as the routers, to be remotely managed in a uniform way. The Internet has now become almost a "commodity" service, and much of the latest attention has been on the use of this global information infrastructure for support of other commercial services.
RESOLUTION: The Federal Networking Council (FNC) agrees that the following language reflects our definition of the term "Internet".
It was designed before LANs existed, but has accommodated that new network technology, as well as the more recent ATM and frame switched services. It will, indeed it must, continue to change and evolve at the speed of the computer industry if it is to remain relevant.
It is evolving to permit more sophisticated forms of pricing and cost recovery, a perhaps painful requirement in this commercial world. With the success of the Internet has come a proliferation of stakeholders - stakeholders now with an economic as well as an intellectual investment in the network. At the same time, the industry struggles to find the economic rationale for the large investment needed for the future growth, for example to upgrade residential access to a more suitable technology.
The authors would like to express their appreciation to Andy Rosenbloom, CACM Senior Editor, for both instigating the writing of this article and his invaluable assistance in editing both this and the abbreviated version.4 The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) changed its name to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1971, then back to ARPA in 1993, and back to DARPA in 1996.
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There are varieties of chocolates like Milk, White, Dark, Sweet Dark, Semi-Sweet, Bittersweet, Couverture, Unsweetened chocolates available in the market. The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure.
There is the operations and management aspect of a global and complex operational infrastructure. To explore this, in 1965 working with Thomas Merrill, Roberts connected the TX-2 computer in Mass. The RAND group had written a paper on packet switching networks for secure voice in the military in 1964. SRI supported the Network Information Center, led by Elizabeth (Jake) Feinler and including functions such as maintaining tables of host name to address mapping as well as a directory of the RFC's.
Thus, by the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPAnet, and the budding Internet was off the ground.


As the ARPAnet sites completed implementing NCP during the period 1971-1972, the network users finally could begin to develop applications. In March Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPAnet developers for an easy coordination mechanism.
In this approach, the choice of any individual network technology was not dictated by a particular network architecture but rather could be selected freely by a provider and made to interwork with the other networks through a meta-level "Internetworking Architecture".
There are generally no constraints on the types of network that can be included or on their geographic scope, although certain pragmatic considerations will dictate what makes sense to offer. Key to making the packet radio system work was a reliable end-end protocol that could maintain effective communication in the face of jamming and other radio interference, or withstand intermittent blackout such as caused by being in a tunnel or blocked by the local terrain. If any packets were lost, the protocol (and presumably any applications it supported) would come to a grinding halt. Cerf had been intimately involved in the original NCP design and development and already had the knowledge about interfacing to existing operating systems. This assumption, that 256 networks would be sufficient for the foreseeable future, was clearly in need of reconsideration when LANs began to appear in the late 1970s.
This model worked fine for file transfer and remote login applications, but some of the early work on advanced network applications, in particular packet voice in the 1970s, made clear that in some cases packet losses should not be corrected by TCP, but should be left to the application to deal with. Email provided a new model of how people could communicate with each other, and changed the nature of collaboration, first in the building of the Internet itself (as is discussed below) and later for much of society.
They produced an implementation, first for the Xerox Alto (the early personal workstation developed at Xerox PARC) and then for the IBM PC. First, it resulted in the definition of three network classes (A, B, and C) to accommodate the range of networks. This design permitted different regions to use a different IGP, so that different requirements for cost, rapid reconfiguration, robustness and scale could be accommodated.
Much of the CS research community began to use Unix BSD for their day-to-day computing environment. Department of Energy (DoE) established MFENet for its researchers in Magnetic Fusion Energy, whereupon DoE's High Energy Physicists responded by building HEPNet. Likewise, the Packet Satellite, Packet Radio and several other DARPA computer science research programs were multi-contractor collaborative activities that heavily used whatever available mechanisms there were to coordinate their efforts, starting with electronic mail and adding file sharing, remote access, and eventually World Wide Web capabilities. This growth resulted in an explosion in the attendance at the IETF meetings, and Gross was compelled to create substructure to the IETF in the form of working groups.
Also in 1985, both Kahn and Leiner left DARPA and there was a significant decrease in Internet activity at DARPA.
The IAB recognized the increasing importance of the IETF, and restructured the standards process to explicitly recognize the IESG as the major review body for standards. This coupled with a recognized need for community support of the Internet eventually led to the formation of the Internet Society in 1991, under the auspices of Kahn's Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) and the leadership of Cerf, then with CNRI. Ultimately, a cooperative and mutually supportive relationship was formed between the IAB, IETF, and Internet Society, with the Internet Society taking on as a goal the provision of service and other measures which would facilitate the work of the IETF. Many saw it as a nuisance add-on that had to be glued on to their own proprietary networking solutions: SNA, DECNet, Netware, NetBios. The results were surprises on both sides: the vendors were amazed to find that the inventors were so open about the way things worked (and what still did not work) and the inventors were pleased to listen to new problems they had not considered, but were being discovered by the vendors in the field. 5,000 engineers from potential customer organizations came to see if it all did work as was promised.
The reason it is so useful is that it is composed of all stakeholders: researchers, end users and vendors. Several protocols for this purpose were proposed, including Simple Network Management Protocol or SNMP (designed, as its name would suggest, for simplicity, and derived from an earlier proposal called SGMP) , HEMS (a more complex design from the research community) and CMIP (from the OSI community). This has been tremendously accelerated by the widespread and rapid adoption of browsers and the World Wide Web technology, allowing users easy access to information linked throughout the globe. It was envisioned as supporting a range of functions from file sharing and remote login to resource sharing and collaboration, and has spawned electronic mail and more recently the World Wide Web. It is now changing to provide new services such as real time transport, in order to support, for example, audio and video streams.
It is changing to accommodate yet another generation of underlying network technologies with different characteristics and requirements, e.g. If the Internet stumbles, it will not be because we lack for technology, vision, or motivation. We refer throughout to DARPA, the current name.5 It was from the RAND study that the false rumor started claiming that the ARPAnet was somehow related to building a network resistant to nuclear war. Your idea is still brilliant, the plot is shaping up nicely and the word count is gobbling up those empty pages. You change the prologue and the ending and somehow, that tiny egg of a brilliant idea becomes a fully formed book.
Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology. There is the social aspect, which resulted in a broad community of Internauts working together to create and evolve the technology.
Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA,4 starting in October 1962. It happened that the work at MIT (1961-1967), at RAND (1962-1965), and at NPL (1964-1967) had all proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing about the other work. Even at this early stage, it should be noted that the networking research incorporated both work on the underlying network and work on how to utilize the network. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages.
Kahn first contemplated developing a protocol local only to the packet radio network, since that would avoid having to deal with the multitude of different operating systems, and continuing to use NCP. In this model NCP had no end-end host error control, since the ARPAnet was to be the only network in existence and it would be so reliable that no error control would be required on the part of the hosts. This led to a reorganization of the original TCP into two protocols, the simple IP which provided only for addressing and forwarding of individual packets, and the separate TCP, which was concerned with service features such as flow control and recovery from lost packets. That implementation was fully interoperable with other TCPs, but was tailored to the application suite and performance objectives of the personal computer, and showed that workstations, as well as large time-sharing systems, could be a part of the Internet. The DNS permitted a scalable distributed mechanism for resolving hierarchical host names (e.g. Not only the routing algorithm, but the size of the addressing tables, stressed the capacity of the routers. Looking back, the strategy of incorporating Internet protocols into a supported operating system for the research community was one of the key elements in the successful widespread adoption of the Internet.
NASA Space Physicists followed with SPAN, and Rick Adrion, David Farber, and Larry Landweber established CSNET for the (academic and industrial) Computer Science community with an initial grant from the U.S.
As the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) came into use, the RFCs were prepared as online files and accessed via FTP. Each of these programs formed a working group, starting with the ARPAnet Network Working Group.
As a result, the IAB was left without a primary sponsor and increasingly assumed the mantle of leadership. The IAB also restructured so that the rest of the Task Forces (other than the IETF) were combined into an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) chaired by Postel, with the old task forces renamed as research groups. A series of meeting led to the decisions that HEMS would be withdrawn as a candidate for standardization, in order to help resolve the contention, but that work on both SNMP and CMIP would go forward, with the idea that the SNMP could be a more near-term solution and CMIP a longer-term approach.
Products are available to facilitate the provisioning of that information and many of the latest developments in technology have been aimed at providing increasingly sophisticated information services on top of the basic Internet data communications. But most important, it started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a commercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment. This was never true of the ARPAnet, only the unrelated RAND study on secure voice considered nuclear war. No longer comprised of just words and ideas, this is starting to morph into something resembling an actual book. So, you print out the entire manuscript and lay it out on the floor in ‘parts’ or ‘chapters’ or descending piles of awfulness.
And there is the commercialization aspect, resulting in an extremely effective transition of research results into a broadly deployed and available information infrastructure. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G.
The result of this experiment was the realization that the time-shared computers could work well together, running programs and retrieving data as necessary on the remote machine, but that the circuit switched telephone system was totally inadequate for the job.
The word "packet" was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed to be used in the ARPAnet design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps.
This was the traditional circuit switching method where networks would interconnect at the circuit level, passing individual bits on a synchronous basis along a portion of an end-to-end circuit between a pair of end locations.
Thus, Kahn decided to develop a new version of the protocol which could meet the needs of an open-architecture network environment. For those applications that did not want the services of TCP, an alternative called the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) was added in order to provide direct access to the basic service of IP. New approaches for address aggregation, in particular classless inter-domain routing (CIDR), have recently been introduced to control the size of router tables. Now, of course, the RFCs are easily accessed via the World Wide Web at dozens of sites around the world. Because of the unique role that ARPAnet played as an infrastructure supporting the various research programs, as the Internet started to evolve, the Network Working Group evolved into Internet Working Group. New modes of access and new forms of service will spawn new applications, which in turn will drive further evolution of the net itself. However, the later work on Internetting did emphasize robustness and survivability, including the capability to withstand losses of large portions of the underlying networks.6 Including amongst others Vint Cerf, Steve Crocker, and Jon Postel.
And now you’re in a hurry, because you don’t want anyone else to write this book before you do.
Then you launch it into the world and off it goes, flitting along the bookshelves and night stands across the land, touching people’s hearts, bringing a brief moment of joy, fear or laughter. This was a harbinger of the kind of activity we see on the World Wide Web today, namely, the enormous growth of all kinds of "people-to-people" traffic. Recall that Kleinrock had shown in 1961 that packet switching was a more efficient switching method.
It included an emphasis on the complexity of protocols and the pitfalls they often introduce. AT&T's free-wheeling dissemination of the UNIX computer operating system spawned USENET, based on UNIX' built-in UUCP communication protocols, and in 1981 Ira Fuchs and Greydon Freeman devised BITNET, which linked academic mainframe computers in an "email as card images" paradigm.
Because the vendors worked extremely hard to ensure that everyone's products interoperated with all of the other products - even with those of their competitors. Joining them later were David Crocker who was to play an important role in documentation of electronic mail protocols, and Robert Braden, who developed the first NCP and then TCP for IBM mainframes and also was to play a long term role in the ICCB and IAB.7 This was subsequently published as V. Then you have to pick your kids up from school and when you get back you can’t remember what the various piles represented. Along with packet switching, special purpose interconnection arrangements between networks were another possibility. While NCP tended to act like a device driver, the new protocol would be more like a communications protocol.
This book was influential in spreading the lore of packet switching networks to a very wide community. Jon Postel acted as RFC Editor as well as managing the centralized administration of required protocol number assignments, roles that he continued to play until his death, October 16, 1998.
The Interop trade show has grown immensely since then and today it is held in 7 locations around the world each year to an audience of over 250,000 people who come to learn which products work with each other in a seamless manner, learn about the latest products, and discuss the latest technology. You tell everyone you meet that you have an amazing new idea for your next book – but of course you can’t actually tell them anything about the idea because they might STEAL it. You stop writing and bake lots of cakes or wash the car or rearrange the kitchen cupboards.
While there were other limited ways to interconnect different networks, they required that one be used as a component of the other, rather than acting as a peer of the other in offering end-to-end service.
Your fingertips may have actual frostbite from the polar vortex circulating around your ‘writing room’. 1972.Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Packet Communication Networks, Volume 66, No. Kleinrock, "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets", RLE Quarterly Progress Report, July 1961.L. Roberts, "Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication", ACM Gatlinburg Conf., October 1967.



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