Free young money rise of an empire download chip,how to make lots of money in gta 5 online youtube,online numbers to receive text messages verizon - Easy Way

The visual was shot at a bar in Pacoima, Los Angeles, California on May 28th and the song was produced by Detail.
Click here to check out some behind the scenes photos and footage from the “Brown Sugar” video shoot! You can view 2 more photos, as well as check out some behind the scenes footage from on set of the video shoot after the jump below.
The date of when this footage was filmed is currently unknown, so we don’t know if this studio session was for a previous Weezy and Drizzy collaboration, or a new song that has not yet been released.
Appearances in the clip above that was filmed by Derick G can also be seen by Colin Tilley, Chanel West Coast, Detail, Mack Maine, Santi Cargo Rubirosa, and YoYo. The visual, which was directed by Colin Tilley, includes cameos from YMCMB members Chanel West Coast, Christina Milian, Cortez Bryant, Detail, Flow, Gudda Gudda, Jae Millz, Lil Twist, Mack Maine, PJ Morton, Shanell, Santi Cargo Rubirosa, as well as Braydon Szafranski, Compton Menace, Theotis Beasley, and YoYo. This S-X-produced track will appear on the forthcoming Young Money: Rise Of An Empire album, due to be released on March 11th. These are some of the images that we found within the public domain for your "Ac Rogue Re Master" keyword.
We have provided the original source link for you to also credit the image(s) owner as we have done here.
Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts. Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them.
A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials.
Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view.
Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found.
Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them. By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys. The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys. The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework. The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia.
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.
We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust.
The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros.
These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth.
Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe.
Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography.
The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied.
Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
Featuring our latest innovations, Crown Princess is one of the largest Princess ships, with room for 3,080 passengers. After lunch, we walked the streets, stretching our legs and dodging the kamikaze double-decker buses careening by. We hadna€™t much time as we wandered through the various state rooms of this wonderful palace. Outside of the state rooms we could look across the fenced courtyard to the Queena€™s residence and the ornate chapel, all buildings that had been added to the castle complex over the last thousand years. The Castle was already crowded as we made our way back to the train station and the bus area. The mystery lies in how these huge stones could have been quarried and then erected by these ancient peoples. We walked the one mile over to one of the citya€™s more venerable commercial sites, Covent Gardens. The Tower and the nearby eye catching expanse of the Tower Bridge, with its twin towers and suspension cables, are among the more scenic areas for tourists in London. The guide informed us that much of London had burned to the ground during the great fire of 1666. From the National Gallery, we walked into Trafalgar Square and joined thousands of other who sat basking in the 70 degree sunshine of a beautiful summer day.
It was early afternoon and the cafes along the periphery of the gardens were loaded with tourists, eating and sipping beverages. At Southampton, we got off at the cruise ship station and hailed a cab for a quick ride to the docks and the berth of the Crown Princess.
We checked in with the shipa€™s shore personnel and were assigned Cabin #306 on the Baja Deck.
Late in the afternoon, we mustered for an all handa€™s lifeboat drill in the Deck #7 Explorera€™s Lounge. The Explorera€™s lounge, on deck number seven, was the rally point for four separate tours that morning. A crew member led our tour group to the gangway, as we walked ashore to board our huge double-decker bus for the three hour run into Paris.
Karin gave us a warning about miscreants which we saw played out several times during the next few hours.
We made it across the busy Place De La Concorde, headed for a museum that hadna€™t been here twenty years ago, La€™Orangerie.
The main hallway of the small Museum offered a series of beautiful Renoir's that we had not yet enjoyed. Ascending to the domed tower, we were treated to two rooms sporting enormous murals by Monet.
It was breezy and warm out as we wandered down the Tulleries to that most famous of museums, The Louvre. Peia€™s famous glass Pyramids framed through a much older stone arch as we approached this a€?u shapeda€? French palace, built in the French Empire style.You would think that the glass pyramids would contrast with the dark stone of the Palacea€™s style, but they oddly enough compliment the entire structure. The colorful cafes, with all manner of interesting people taking their ease on a Sunday morning in central Paris, are always interesting.
We sat for a time, outside the Petit Palace, and watched the colorful panoply of tourists flow by us. In the decks 5-7 promenade areas, the aisles were aswarm with passengers browsing the shops and looking for things to do. Later that afternoon, we enjoyed a drink on the balcony, watching the rolling sea, something I could do forever. After dinner, we walked the gangways along deck seven enjoying the spectacle of so many well dressed people taking their ease on a great ship. We didna€™t feel like late night entertainment so we made our way back to our cabin to read for a time and then retire. The ship was tendering its passengers ashore today, utilizing its fleet of small lifeboats. Famous historical figures like Alexander Graham Bell, Joseph Lister, Robert Louis Stevenson and Sir Walter Scott all hail from this neck of the woods.
Inside the castle, the cobbled path ascends in a spiral that takes you to the very top of the ramparts of the castle.
Next to this building sits the a€?Great Hall.a€? Inside, the walls are lined with those wonderful Claymores, Scottish broadswords, pikes and other weaponry. Across the courtyard, in what had been the main chapel of the castle, is now a moving memorial to the Scots who lost their lives in W.W.
We stopped briefly in the castle's a€?Redcoat Cafea€? and had scones with jam and clotted cream and cappuccino.
At the small pier on the Firth, we boarded a large ferry that was carrying Princess passengers to the ship. Early this morning, the ship had entered and berthed in Cromarty Firth in the far North of Scotland. We idled on the deck promenades and whiled away a quiet morning in the firth, reading for a time on our balcony and enjoying the cool air and beautiful surroundings.
We traversed several local hills and dove up along Dornoch Firth, enjoying the scenic and nearly empty countryside.
Edith showed us a patch of a€?tattiesa€? (potatoes.) I think it was the first time I have actually seen the fabled tuber in the raw fields, though I have eaten it all of my life. These lower highlands are composed of sandy soil that is still water laden, creating a a€?highlands boga€? of sorts. The dispossessed Scots had emigrated, in starving thousands, to Canada, Australia and the United States.
The flowers hanging from many of the buildings in the village, are eye-catching and restful to look at.
As a last bit of cultural information, Edith talked about the horrendous taxes here in Scotland. Crab meat and asparagus appetizers, Caesar salads, a red snapper filet and cherries jubilee made for another memorable repast. Thursday, July 21, 2011- Aboard the Crown Princess in the North Sea, headed south for Belfast, Northern Ireland. After dinner, we retired to our cabin to read and enjoy the waning light of this Northern climb. Beneath us, along the watera€™s edge, we could see the thin rope bridge that led out to a small island.
Causeway.a€? A good sized Inn sits atop a rise of green land that is about two hundred feet above the sea below. Tourists were scrambling all over the various rock formations with cameras snapping all around us. A miniature amusement park, above the beach, offered rides and games for the smaller people. The fortress-like edifice of the main police station, with its fifteen- foot fencing, is one of the sole reminders of the a€?troubles.a€? I had seen this building on television for years. The bus carted us back through the Harland and Wood shipyards and other repair facilities to our dockside berth.
In the 1700a€™s, Glasgow had been one of the chief importers of tobacco, grown in the Americas and distributed to the British and European markets. In the square, between these buildings, we looked up and saw a sign with the Citya€™s unique seal. In curious modern juxtaposition, and hanging out over the atrium, is an array of painted face masks that startles you. Aboard ship, we had lunch with a couple from 1,000 Oaks, California and chatted amiably about our tour and theirs.
The ship was pulling away from the dock as we sat on our cabin balcony and watched Scotland drift behind us. The Horizona€™s breakfast area was abuzz with chatter from the passengers about the incident. From the Beatlea€™s experience museum, we drove a few blocks over to the restored site of a€?The Cavern.a€? It is a performance club in a basement at 10 Mathew St.
Near the restored waterfront we could see the sparkling new exterior of the Liverpool Museum. The driver narrated the long history of the Beatles, their origins and meteoric rise to stardom. From the suburban comfort of the Beatlesa€™ homes, we drove back to Liverpool, passing the enormous Anglican Cathedral there.
We had a last drink in the Sky Lounge on deck # 18 before returning to the cabin to read and retire.
From the Deck seven Explorera€™s Lounge, we walked down the gangway onto the shores of Eire. A series of fifteen bridges crosses the Liffey here and splits the city into two discernible communities, one considerably better off economically than the other. We stood in line, outside of the Library wherein sat the Book of Kells, for about an hour awaiting our turn to enter.
Started in the 800a€™s by Irish Monks, the two sections of the Book of Kells and the Book of Armagh and Book of Dornoch narrate the four gospels of the new testament of the Bible.
From the crypt, we climbed up the stairs to the Collegea€™s a€?Long Library.a€? Two stories of those wonderful old a€?stacks,a€? with wooden moveable ladders to reach the higher volumes, were piled with texts from the last few hundred years.
Drizzy Drake also shows that he can throw a American football into a basketball hoop with no problem at all! Click here to view some behind the scenes photos from the “We Alright” video shoot!
It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.
Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors.
Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography. In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213.
The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.
Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars. The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed.
Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast. The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one.
It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge. Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207).
The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance.
This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps.
The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ.
That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps.
To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge.
Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries.
A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. From her nearly 900 balconies, you can enjoy sweeping views of romantic landscapes across the world. Like most Americans, we automatically looked to our right when crossing the street when actually the traffic was coming from the left. You can only absorb viewing so many artifacts, however attractive or significant, before they become just another glass cabinet that you walk by. We got an early tour of central London as the buses, taxis and cars all made their way to the start of a new work day. There was always considerable jostling and hurrying among passengers to get the best seats for viewing on board the various buses.
William the Conqueror triumphantly arrived in England in 1066, after defeating Saxon King Harold of Essex.
I find the orderly continuity of the last millennium on display here an attraction, as we wandered amidst the various eras of British history. The small town beneath the castle was awash with tourists who were having lunch or an early pint or shopping in one of the colorful botiques. The guide informed us that Hitler had ordered Bath bombed in 1942, to strike terror into the populace.

Off hallways surrounding the large pool are several smaller bathing pools and galleries where the Romans could enjoy a sauna and take their ease. Construction was first started by ancient Britons, called a€?Beaker People,a€? about 4,500 B.C. For $44 each, we would get an open air tour of central London on one of those delightful double decked buses. From 1193 until 1783 the area had been the site of public executions in London, from the a€?Tyburn Tree.a€? It was then a public spectacle that attracted the mobs.
Brits like to joke that the Americans, who had bought the old London bridge and reassembled it in Arizona, had thought they were buying the Tower Bridge.
We had it in mind to visit the National Gallery of Art there and so headed in that direction.
Street performers were entertaining the crowds and the vendors were doing a brisk business selling everything.
We had determined that we were not leaving London without having fish and chips in one of the many colorful pubs.
The Crown Princess, registered in Bermuda, is one of the largest Princess ships, with room for 3,080 passengers and another 3,000 crew. The seas were rough in the channel and the boat was rocking back and forth, even using her side-thruster stabilizers. It was a little claustrophobic on the top deck, but we had a great view of the wet and green French countryside. Young gypsy women would approach you with a clipboard and motion you to sign for some cause.
Karin dropped us all off on the Coeur De La Reine, a few hundred yards from the Place de la Concorde.
The characteristic deep blue velvet and blacks were absent in these red tinted portraits of young women and a very young Renoir. We well remembered the fantastic array of Charlemagnea€™s sword, the French Royal jewels, the headless statue of Samonthrace and many other iconic objectsa€™ da€™art. We browsed the shop windows and the art stores as we made our way back toward the Seine and the Pont Alexander Trois. We snagged a table for two and enjoyed some wonderful escargot, pumpkin soup, pasta in lobster sauce and a sinful chocolate pudding. The seas were rough in the Bay of Biscay as the great ship set sail for Edinburgh on the northeast coast of the U.K.
It was too crowded for us, so we made our way back to the cabin and picked a book to read for the afternoon.
It harbors five million residents and is noted for the production of Scotch Whiskey, woolen products and various agricultural goods. Tales of Robert The Bruce, first King of Scotland and defeater of the English King Edward II, still live in their minds. Whatever problems the Scottish economy is undergoing, didna€™t detract from the beauty of the countryside. Here, the Scots hold a€?Tattoos.a€? They are fife, pipers and drum competitions that draw thousands of spectators.
Ancient, black metal cannon stand guard even still over the landscape, which stretches out for miles before you. Different suits of armor and other medieval bric a brac line the walls of this stately and comfortable ceremonial hall. As we walked down the slippery cobbles stoned paths, throngs of other tourist were making their way in.
We drifted in this sea of people and eventually sat at a bus stop waiting for our grand chariot.
It is fully equipped and helps you feel less guilty for the enormous quantities of food you are inhaling. A talented pianist, by the name of Kyle Esplin a native Scot, much entertained us in the musical style of Jerry Lee Lewis. Our tour wasna€™t scheduled until this afternoon, so we had the morning to goof off shipboard. Crew members led us down to the disembarkation ramp and we exited the ship and mounted up our bus. Ross and Sutherland Counties, in the far North of Scotland, are a a€?protected Zone.a€? Dolphins, seals and many species of birds are protected from all hunters but natural ones. Tatties and a€?Haggis,a€? a sheepa€™s stomach, lined with oatmeal and other delectables, are the local favorites for dinner.
Like their Irish Cousins after them, the Scottish peasants had been a€?displaceda€? by the Duke of Sutherland in the 1700s.
It is a three-story, Georgian-style manor of brown sandstone, with 365 windows looking out from the venerable home. We wandered the town for a brief few minutes, stopping in a small store for a fifth of Glenfiddich. Back in the cabin, I opened up the GlenFiddich and drank a hearty toast to an estimable land of people from whom some of my own had sprung. She is a nurse and chatted amiably about her lovely city and the culture and mores of her people. The Kindles are wonderful in that they store dozens of books in the small plastic wafer that weighs but a few ounces. Emily briefly explained the evolution of Northern Ireland and the partition of its six counties in 1922 from the 26 counties of Eire to the South. The fishermen use it and the tourists love to walk out on its shaky expanse and be photographed there. We enjoyed the visage of a very blue Irish sea and the dark expanse of Scotland just at the horizon.
The actual formation, that is called the Gianta€™s Causeway, is a series of basalt columns that had been pushed from an ancient volcano into the sea. Along the way we were treated to the very blue ocean crashing upon these dark volcanic rocks. We sat along the wayside at intervals, to enjoy the crashing surf on the dark rocks below us. Emily directed the bus a few miles down the picturesque coast road to the small seaside town of Port Rush.
Along with iron and steel production and ship building, tobacco had given the area its economic base. The ornate Victorian architecture and the charm of the red sandstone buildings from the 19th century, are captivating to the eye.
Statues of a very young and equestrian Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, after whom Policemen had been called a€?Bobbies,a€? James Watt, the developer of the Steam Engine and other worthies are memorialized here. The University of Glasgow, with all of its charming, red sandstone and ivied buildings, sprawls across the district and enhanced by the picturesque KelvinGrove Park.
We repaired to the first floor cafe and enjoyed some good coffee and those delightful scones with clotted cream and jam.
This too is one of the more attractive features of cruising, sharing a meal and touring experiences with interesting people. It is a small marina surrounded by a restored rectangle of factories that hover above a first floor level of shops, boutiques and cafes. Like a complacent herd of sheep we wandered in a pack, stopping at each site to listen to the audio accompaniment of that particular site.
He detailed the young groupa€™s emergence from the obscurity of Hamburg, Germany clubs and their meteoric rise to superstardom. It had just opened a few days before and was crowded with Liverpoola€™s finest enjoying their new attraction. Using Boy Scout skills, we navigated our way back to the ship on the Mersey and climbed aboard. We were headed for Trinity College to see a€?The Book of Kells.a€? Trinity College had been founded in 1592, by Queen Elizabeth I, as a means of educating good Protestant lads and keeping them away from the a€?Popish a€? influence in foreign schools. They are elaborately illustrated with pictograms of birds and animals and people in vividly bright colors. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?.
The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material.
Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships.
But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large. In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries.
The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. After experiencing the relaxed comfort of our intimate onboard venues, however, you may not want to explore the beauty ashore!
We got ready for the day, finished packing and then weighed our luggage to make sure it was under the 50 pound limit. It was getting late in the day and we hadna€™t slept for what seemed like a very long time. We wandered along the marble halls enjoying the jewels, cultural exhibits and historical potpourris from across the globe.
We slept fitfully, as you always do with a big time change and a new hotel, but were glad to be here. We were deposited at Victoria Station and asked to stand in one of several lines, all clearly marked with the various destinations for the day. The train station stopped here at this level, amidst a large collection os shops, cafes and boutiques that service the large daily crowds of visitors.
Off in the distance we could see the fabled playing fields of Eton and the building and grounds of that venerable school. Portraits of British Royalty vied with suits of armor, battle flags, broad swords and many other eye-catching items displayed artfully. The imposing statue of Queen Victoria, high on a pedestal, looked over the town square reminding us of where we were.
A mixup with the room cleaning engendered another delay before we finally settled in for the night. The tour bus allows you to get off at any of the stops along the way and continue your journey with the next bus. Condemned men had been taken here in carts from the Old Bailey to have their sentences carried out. To the Brits, the actual bell in the tower is a€?Big Ben.a€? To the rest of the world it is the entire tower and bell.
We were tiring with the day, so we walked back toward our Bloomsbury Hotel and stopped for a Cappuccino on Oxford Place, watching the people traffic flow by us.
She weighs in at 113,000 gross tons, is 952 feet in length and soars 18 decks above the waterline. Then we watched a little of the shipa€™s television, read our books (The Ridge- Michael Koryta) and caught a nap. We stood in line for a bit and then were assigned a table, sharing it with Jim and Ann from Oxford, England and Susan and John from New Jersey. Pascal was our driver and Karin our guide .She had an uncharacteristically well developed sense of humor for a French woman.
Its original purpose had been to grow oranges and fruit for the French Royals, hence its name. All transactions and instructions transpired in French, which we dredged up from our memory banks. We climbed the gangway, made it through the electronic security and stopped by our cabin to write up my notes and enjoy a martini.
Usually, the scene topside on a liner is a portrait of hundreds of sunbathers crowding every available deck chair and filling the swimming pool. It was an occasion when most of the shipa€™s male passengers wore tuxedos or dark suits and ties and the women formal gowns to dinner. Between them, a pair of left foot shoes arrived in the next thirty minutes, one of which matched the shoe that I had been given. The lands around the inlet are shades of green and tan, reflecting crops we later learned of barley and wheat, supplies for the whiskey making production prominent in the area.
A band of native pipers, in full Scottish regalia, welcomed us with lively tunes even at this early hour.
Most of its population lives around the two major cities, that of Glasgow, and around Edinburgh, Scotlanda€™s capital. Sheep, with their colorfully painted spots, crops of wheat, barley and the green grass of a wet climate offered a portrait of rural beauty to us, as we made our way into the Capital. The black stone beneath its foundation forms a significant mound upon which a castle has been placed for as long as anyone remembers.
When we left the castle, a few hours later, the line to buy tickets and enter was over an houra€™s wait. The line to enter the castle snaked through the stadium and down the lane of the Royal Mile. The odd visage of a large movie screen playing a film to no audience was another effect worthy of a science fiction movie. Calamari, black bean soup, Red Snapper filet and Rocky Road Iced Cream did a good job in reversing the effects of our gym visit. We hit the gym, for an hour of weights and stationary bikes, to help stem the caloric tide. We were headed up into what the tour called the a€?highlandsa€? and the locally famous a€?Falls of Shin.a€? Conversations with local residents later told us that this area has but minor hills.
Edith also solved another riddle for us, that of the a€?painted sheep.a€? The shepherds apparently paint the underbelly of the male rams.
The natives call them a€?floating roadsa€? because of their tendency to rise and fall with differing weights traversing them and climactic conditions. It was a mass exodus to clear the land and make it more suitable for large scale agriculture. In curious juxtaposition of historical eras, the current local point of pride is that pop star Madonna had had her son Rocco christened here. Although both charming and pleasant, her thick Scottish burr made half of her speech unintelligible to me. Then, we watched that magical movie a€?Avatar.a€? I much enjoyed the segue into the future after walking so much through the past these last few weeks.
The area had been a war zone for much of my lifetime, until the early 1990a€™s peace accords. A recent plebiscite had shown that 60% of the voters in Northern Ireland still favored allegiance to the Crown over unification with Eire to the South. She and her colleagues had a name for the chatter, a€?MMBAa€™sa€? (mindless minutiae of bugger all.a€?) Still, it kept our interest up.
The cool seawater had fractured the basalt mass of rock into a tight collection of octagonal columns that looks like a man made causeway extending out into the sea. We didna€™t get to see a€?bogsidea€? the Catholic enclave, but I could see the Irish tricolor flying above a tall building in the distance. Sylvia, an English woman and her husband, whose name I never got because of all the chatter, joined us.
Hanging baskets of flowers and green lawns mark the Square as a wonderful gathering point for all of Glasgow. I am sure we were told the meaning of this quaint seal, but it is lost to me in the retelling. We saw and enjoyed Claymore Broadswords, suits of armor from several counties, interspersed with a stuffed elephant and other wild creatures.
The Glasgow Rangers were playing this afternoon and the city loved its a€?Football Teams.a€? (soccer to Americans) We drove along the Clyde. We were struggling mightily with the caloric battle, but determined to at least wage the battle. The Shipa€™s Captain came on the intercom, throughout the entire ship, reassuring passengers that everything was okay. Recordings of each of the Beatle's, their managers and all thing pertaining to them were of interest to the dedicated fan. The Liverpool merchants had a strong relationship with Shanghai going back to the 1870a€™s. The a€?streaky bacona€? appearance of the White Star Shipping lines building is a local attraction. We read for a time and then enjoyed some of that lovely Glenfiddich while sitting on the balcony. We were enjoying the great vocals of a group called a€?Indigo.a€? The lead singer is from Cork, Eire.
Britaina€™s King Henry IV had come in 1169 and stayed until the Brits were asked to leave in 1922. It is made of gray granite stones and sprawls across a considerable expanse of Dublin, with its very green commons and leafy surroundings. The first section of the exhibit is a print and picture diorama, on paste boards, that detail the inception, construction and interpretation of the four Books on exhibit.
Each of the lines of script is immaculately inscribed with flourishes and curley cues that needs help in translating the ancient Latin script. Like everyone else, we crowded around the small table and studied the books in the dimly lit room. The original central keep had been constructed in 1204 by Englanda€™s King John, of Magna Cart fame.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved.
The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns.
They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on.
The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?.
The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed.
The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu. By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained.
Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. At Victoria station, a nexus of the London tube and the British rail system, the crowds were even larger. The Bloomsbury, a Radisson Hotel, is just a block over from the British Museum and only a few blocks from The University of London. Still, we were here in one of the more exciting cities on the planet and time was of the essence.
We got ready for the day, made some coffee in the room and appeared in the hotel lobby for the shuttle from a€?Golden Tours.a€? For $141 ea. Walking up the ramps to the castle area, we viewed a detachment of the storybook British soldiers in their colorful red coats and black balaclava fur hats. We were headed for the medieval Town of Bath and the ruins of the fabled Roman baths there. I could imagine the various Roman functionaries coming here late in the day to take their ease.
We walked along the pedestrian mall and watched the various street performers acting for throngs of young tourists. I would think on a rainy day, or in the rising mist of the morning or failing light of the day, they would inspire an eerier feeling. I wrote up my notes and we crashed, tired but with visions of castles, huge altar stones and Roman baths in our heads. In the center of the square sits Nelsona€™s Column, with a statue of the Naval hero Lord Nelson atop the column.
It helped to know that the ship has both space and procedure to evacuate us in an emergency. When the vessel leaves port, we get a glass of cabernet and stand topside watching the land drift behind us and feeling the fresh sea breeze on our faces. She admonished us to a€?be Frencha€? for the day and assume an arrogant posture to gypsies and other vagrants who approached us bent on mischief. Sure enough, when we first got off the bus at the Place De la Concorde, two of these miscreants approached us.
Throngs of tourist wandered the Tulleries and around the two glass pyramids in the courtyard of the Louvre palace. But, a long line snaked out into the courtyard for tourists whose intent was to walk briefly through the church to see for themselves the wonderful architecture. We could see most of the Eiffel Tower just down the Boulevard from the Pont Alexander and the stylized roof dome of Napoleona€™s tomb just down another Blvd.
We walked on to the Champs Elysee and again admired the waving French Tricolors hung along the storied Blvd. We had noticed that however enjoyable good company is at dinner, you lose your attention to the wonderful food when you are gabbing away with others.
Mary did a load of whites in one of the laundry rooms and we then drifted off to an afternoon nap, one of my favorite past times. Not bad, considering the complexity of activities and things to do that the crew already had been assigned.
We chatted amiably while munching on crab quiche, asparagus soup, filet of halibut with green beans and new potatoes and a chocolate confection for dessert, accompanied with a Mondavi cabernet. The approach to the castle, from Holly Rood, is called the a€?Royal Mile.a€? It is a series of boutiques, pubs, shops and Inns flanking a cobbled stone street that runs for a mile, gently rising up to the castlea€™s main gate, which is protected by a drawbridge and a moat. In one of the four buildings, we got in line to view the a€?Scottish Crown Jewels.a€? Like the Scots themselves, they are a parsimonious offering.
Underneath the hall, a series of steps winds down a few levels to a basement complex where German prisoners of war from W.W.
These fine lads are remembered here, with the names and colors of their regiments, for younger Scots to come and remember. We passed again through the pastoral countryside, pregnant with wheat, and oats and barley. PIpers were trilling their mournful sounds on the dock as we said good bye to Edinburgh and all of its history. From the top deck, we looked out on the pastoral beauty of the Scottish Country side all around us and were glad we had come to this wet and beautiful land. The production of Scotch Whiskey, at the large Glenmorangie distillery, also provides many local jobs. When the rams mount the females, they leave a painted spot on the ewea€™s back, indicating that the animal has been a€?serviced,a€? an important component of animal husbandry.

There is also a fierce little bug called the a€?Michiea€? that causes much aggravation to residents during rainy seasons. The ancestral Duke of Sutherland had owned much of this area of Northern Scotland and been among the wealthiest gentry in Europe at the time. We had come upon many such colorful settlements in Nova Scotia, Canada and in the Western Carolinas of the U.S. All of the UK was finding that their very generous social and medical programs come with a precipitous cost and societal effects that troubled the average working citizen. A talented pianist, by the name of Ray Cousins, was playing a a€?tribute to Frank Sinatra.a€? Ray had apparently worked for Sinatra, in Las Vegas years back.
Everyone would dress in their finest to parade the main promenades in a floating version of the a€?Easter Parade.a€? Confident that I had two shoes this time, we dressed and headed out for the evening. They hailed from the far North of Quebec, near the border of Nova Scotia and the mouth of the St. Patches of potatoes, both queens and reds, reminded us that this is after all Ireland with its green green grass, sheep and friendly people. The surrounding cliffs are craggy and erose with that dark volcanic appearance that is eerie at sunset and in the early morning.
A procession of other pilgrims was walking in both directions, enjoying the sun and sea of a beautiful day oceanside.
It is easy to see how the early inhabitants made up so many stories about a giant walking across these stones to Scotland after an old enemy.
We found a small cafe named a€?Morellia€™sa€? and sat down for some good coffee and those delightful scones with clotted cream and jam.
We had a mushroom tort, oyster soup, filet of salmon and some Bavarian Chocolate cake, washed down with a Mondavi Cabernet. The great ship was making her way up the Firth of Clyde on her way to Greenock, the ocean port for Glasgow.
Scottish pipers, in kilts and full regalia, were playing to entertain the cruise ship passengers.
The curators had laid out their exhibits in an eclectic array that both startled and amused us. It is a tidal river and at low tide, the only navigable channel is the one that had been dredged through its center. She must have been a formidable woman to leave here for a far America and a hoped for future. We found out later that a local pilot, in steering the great ship into the approach for Liverpool, had cut a corner a little too swiftly, causing the ship to list precipitously.
It is a first floor museum with a collection of posters, Beatle's memorabilia, acoustical recordings and everything you ever wanted to know about the Beatle's. Posters of the Yellow Submarine, Sergeant Peppera€™s album and other bric a brac brought back for us the colorful history of these four Liverpool lads. The huge and ornate Chinese gate that spans the entrance to China Town, is weirdly beautiful. Only a few pages are actually on display, but we each in turn marveled at the fine detail, ornate drawings and splendor of a work created some 1200 years ago by a small band of Celtic Monks in an era that we call the Dark Ages.
Medical paraphernalia, musical scores and all manner of records from a few hundred years stand ready to interest the casual observer. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments. There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe.
Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade.
90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
After an houra€™s wait in line, the the interview was perfunctory and we were soon cleared to the main terminal. The verbal waft of a dozen languages drifted around us as we made our way through the throngs to a taxi stand outside of the terminal. Pedestrian traffic here is heavy amidst the cafes pubs and small businesses that dot the streetscape. We settled in for some tasty Salad Nicoise and cappuccino while watching the busy pedestrians flow by us. The Formal Reception Hall and The Waterloo Room are festooned with banners and ceremonial flags.
The principal attraction of course is the Roman Temple complex and its series of ornate public baths dating from the 4th century. The elaborate plumbing system could deliver heated water to the various bathing complexes where slaves would tend to their Roman Masters. Over the centuries, the area had served as a fruit and vegetable market and other commercial enterprises. It had been erected to commemorate the English naval Victory at Trafalgar over the French and Spanish fleets in the early 1800a€™s. We were all wearing our gaudy orange life vests with whistle and blinking lights as we listened to ships personnel explain emergency evacuation procedures.
We stood at the shipa€™s rail and watched the mighty nautical leviathan maneuver her way through a series of canals on her way out into the English Channel. A lobster pate appetizer was followed by a tasty mushroom soup, a bowl of crawfish chowder and and some sinful chocolate cake, washed down with a Mondavi Cabernet. There were slews of tours headed for Paris, the Normandy Beaches and all points in between.
We sat for a time there and watched the ebb and flow of people visiting from all across the globe. We had visited here on another occasion and lit candles for a family member who had recently passed. It looked decidedly strange, viewing the barren decks, like a scene from a movie where everyone has already been evacuated from the ship, only they forgot to tell you.
University educations are free to native Scots, but jobs are scarce and in the cities, people struggle to get by. The North Sea Oil boom, supplying its rigs and workers, had provided a brief economic spurt for the area. They are traversed by what they call a€?class B & Ca€? roads, not really suitable for huge landcruisers of the touristsa€™ groups.
It features a large caravan park (camping area) and a tourist outpost that sells food, all manner of tourist baubles and bric a brac. Trisha€™s cousin and room mate had unexpectedly bailed out on her in Edinburgh, heading home for California, homesick. We were 1,000 miles north of Southampton, as the ship made its way through the Oriskany Islands.
We stopped in the very crowded a€?Croonera€™s Loungea€? and enjoyed a drink amidst the other nicely decked out passengers. We repaired to our cabin where I sampled another dram of Bushmlls, just to make sure I had the taste down. The Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth ocean liners are among many others that had been built in the 30 odd ship builders here along the river. Suffice it to say Lizzie, you are remembered this day by one of your own who came back to commemorate you. Cabin stewards made the rounds asking if anyone needed help and cleaning up any mess created by the sudden shift. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge.
Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world.
There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making.
See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic.
Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps.
There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
There, we boarded one of those delightful, lumbering black cabs that London is so famous for. It had been twenty years since last we had visited the museum and we were anxious to again see their fabled collection of Egyptian antiquities.
We checked into a smallish but clean room on the first floor.(L180 per night) In Europe, of course, the first floor is really the second and there is no thirteenth. Knightsbridge shops, Harroda€™s Department Store and the Buckingham Palace area were all abustle with activity as we sailed by in our huge land cruiser.
These werena€™t toy soldiers, but elite combat troops who had drawn the ceremonial duty of guarding her majesty when she was in residence at the castle for two months of each year.
Paintings by Colbein, Rembrandt, Da Vinci and Reubens decorate the walls in a colorful array of ceremonial decor that catches the eye.
The column is flanked by four stone Lions and surrounded by sitting areas and fountains where throngs gather daily to enjoy the summer weather. He would be told by the warder that the man was a€?On the wagona€? and not permitted any more. Martins in the field, a church of the royals, passed by in stately manner, as we drove along the Thames.
Renoir, Van Gogh, Cezanne, Turner, Tintoretto, Cannoletto and scores of other great masters adorn the walls. She also said that if we wanted to see all of the art work that the French had stolen during military conquests over the centuries, we should head for the Louvre. The other scam, which we saw later in the day, involved a young girl finding a golden ring on the ground and asking tourists if it was theirs.
From the Louvre, we walked up the Rue Da€™Rivoli along the Seine and crossed over to the Isle de la Cite' at the Pont Neuf. Surrounding it are a multi media presentation of Scottish history and all of its major figures. Maybe it is the ambiance of sitting 18 decks high over the ocean and surrounding countryside that entices a longer and leisurely breakfast. Wheat, oats and barley, grown in local fields, are the main ingredients for this much desired nectar. The scenic venues, from the movie a€?Braveheart,a€? would have to remain something we would imagine in the far away hills.
The main attraction, after descending a series of steep and slippery steps, is a small falls area in the local stream. It really is nice to see people dress up after being in a€?pools scruffa€? or traveling gear all day. In that we live on the border of Canada, we had a lot in common and were able to talk with them about Canadian politics and the relative merits of their parliamentary system versus the U.S.
Since ancient times, fishermen and other merchants had traded across the sea with their Gaelic cousins. The bus made good time and Emily decided to give us a brief glimpse of the City of Belfast. Great paintings by Dutch and Italian masters wait for you in the upper galleries, along with works by Monet, Millet and Titian. I thought then of a€?Mother Marya€? and you begin to understand why these tunes had so much emotive power. It was featuring an exhibit of a wonderful surrealist named Renea€™ Magritte, whom I much admired. It is named a a€?Hard Daya€™s Night.a€? Along the first floor exterior facade are four life sized statues of the fab four. As the great ship eased away from her berth, hundreds of local citizens waved at us like we were old friends that were leaving forever. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. We wandered through the Kinga€™s ornate bedroom and other colorfully decorated official rooms, enjoying the full panoply of the British Raj.It reminded me of Versailles, only the decor here is both more subdued and tasteful.
The castle and bustling town of Windsor deserve a day or more to spend and appreciate all that is here.
Across the Square, we could see the Greek Classical facade of the British National Gallery.
In order of our line of march, we saw first Buckingham Palace with the gilded Victoria monument in front or back of the palace, depending upon whom you asked. The saying came to be associated with those who couldna€™t or wouldna€™t have another drop of ale. We passed by Parliament Square, the seat of the United Kingdoma€™s government and circled the fabled Tower of London. As big as the Crown Princess is, you soon realize that she is a small ship in a mighty sea. These accidental meetings, for meals on a cruise, are among the most interesting features of the voyage. Napoleon had ordered it built after viewing the Arch of Constantine in Rome, when he carried off much of the loot to the Louvre. During the salmon run, whole schools of the red fish a€?climb the laddera€? of the Falls here, in their journey to lay their eggs upstream. A poor serving girl, with the undistinguished name of Elizabeth Smith, there was little chance of tracking down her origins when we visited there. We saw and said hello to John and Susan from New Jersey and then walked the cliff path, enjoying the view.
The ocean temps were but sixty degrees, but people were swimming and wading in the cool surf. The ship had left her berth during dinner and was headed across the Irish Sea to Greenock, the port of Glasgow, Scotland. The Ed Sullivan show featured them playing a€?I want to hold your hand.a€? Teenagers screamed and carried on in excitement.
Nearby, we again found Mathew Street and the entrance to the fabled a€?Cavern.a€? Once again we descended the several flights of stairs to the dingy interior of the fabled mecca of rock and roll in Britain. We settled into the Davinci Dining Room to enjoy some good conversation with them and a couple from New York City. Some drew the script, some painted the illustrations and others completed the fine details of the page. It is a quadrangle of stone, turreted walls that surrounds a cobbled stone courtyard which is used for military formations. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. Over the centuries various local inhabitants had even borrowed some of the stones to use in other construction projects. We had visited this 1,000 year old fortress on a previous trip and enjoyed viewing the British Crown Jewels, Traitora€™s gate and the colorfully dressed Beefeater guards.
We did for a time and then had a cappuccino and croissant in the comfortable cafe in the basement of the museum. Crowds of people, speaking a dozen languages, walked hither and yon, most laden with luggage of some sort.. And I just know that everyone was looking towards the beflry of the church and imagining Quasimoto swinging back and forth on the bells. We met John and Susan, from New Jersey, there and sat down to a breakfast of eggs and fruit. We were headed for a small firth at the top of Scotland, Invergordon, just north of Inverness. A Crab pastry appetizer, gazpacho, salmon filet, and chocolate pie, washed down with Mondavi Cabernet, made for a great meal. At the Albert Docka€™s complex, we found and sat down in a small cafe, to enjoy some of those wonderful scones with clotted cream and jam. The place was aswarm with young and old, several enjoying pints and everyone taking all manner of pictures. The Eggplant Parmigiana, pasta fagiola, shrimp and Tiramisu were all wonderful, washed down with a glass of Mondavi Cabernet. A detailed index of the elaborately drawn letters, and what each means, is necessary to read the finely crafted Latin script. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
We chatted with him about the coming Olympics in London next year and visiting Disneyland in Florida, as he barreled through the massively automobile-clogged streets of central London. During later centuries, the Brits would excavate the baths so that these splendid reminders of ancient Rome were preserved for modern people to admire. Double decked buses and cabs clogged the circle and ground traffic to a standstill that would exist until the wee hours of the early morning.
Two of Britaina€™s monarchs had been executed here and a few royal nephews were reportedly dispatched in one of the towers. On a previous visit, we had stopped at Honfleur on the coast just across the seine from La€™Havre.
In these Halls, Joseph Lister had tested and perfected his theories about germs and antiseptic treatments. All of the aging passengers were singing along, memories from decades past, careening through their psyches. It is an experience in and of itself just to sit here and think of the many famous musicians who had performed here over the years. The Harry Potter movies could have filmed any number of scenes from this quaint old Library. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
We were headed for the Salisbury Plain and the fabled rocks of Stonehenge, about a 75 minute drive from Bath on our way back to London.
I wrote up my notes, settled in with a martini and soon drifted off into the arms of Morpheus. The rest of us stood looking at the small falls and wondering what we were doing here and if we were really that gullible to come this far to stand around a small falls in a river and pretend that is a momentous natural attraction. The specter of a bus load of sixty and seventy year olds singing a€?Yellow submarinea€? and other iconic tunes would be comical to watch had we not all looked like we enjoyed it so much.
Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. Our next area of view was the Hyde Park Speakers Corner, where every Sunday ordinary people orate on their topic of choice.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. And if it is raining or on a misty day, your mind will supply you with a much more interesting picture of what they are and what they might have been used for. The solid bulk of Wellingtona€™s Arch and the stately Adsley house former homes of Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington who had beaten Napoleon at Waterloo, lent a stately elegance to the area. We settled in across from a Spanish couple and watched the very green and very wet countryside flow by us. We found a vendor stand and ordered Mary a tasty hot dog, with cheese on a baguette, and a tuna on a baguette for me. They heralded from Scandinavia originally and had laid down this historic site on the French Coast.
The train stopped frequently, so we watched with interest the various scramblings at each stop.
I didna€™t find out until 20 minutes before dinner, on the first cruise formal night, that I had been given two right shoes. With bottles of water, we walked about the quarter eating our sandwiches like the French do. We sat at a small table and enjoyed a glass of Chianti, then a salad and pasta salmone for L 28. I chatted with the owner in my limited Italian and wished him a Buona Note on our departure.

How to attract a girl into your life
Easy way to get money in gta 5 ps4
How to make money online from home 2014 giveaway

Comments to «Free young money rise of an empire download chip»

  1. QaQaSh_099 writes:
    Sexual Attraction Well, look no additional than these.
    Pursuing the one lady who's not.
  3. PRINS_666 writes:
    Methods to texts girls and sends a woman a misguided textual.