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24.12.2014
In fatal cases, death comes fairly quickly — within a few days or a couple of weeks of getting sick.
To get Ebola, you need to have direct contact with the bodily fluids — such as vomit, urine, or blood — of someone who is already sick and has symptoms. But what, exactly, does that mean? 1) You can get the virus if you have "direct contact" with a range of bodily fluids from a sick person, including blood, saliva, breast milk, stool, sweat, semen, tears, vomit, and urine.
A burial team from the Liberian Ministry of Health unloads the bodies of Ebola victims onto a funeral pyre in Marshall, Liberia. 7) You could also get the virus by working in a biosafety-level-four lab that studies Ebola, touching lab specimens, and then putting your contaminated hands to your mouth or eyes or on a cut. 8) You can get Ebola by being pricked with a needle or syringe that has been contaminated with the virus.
THE CURRENT EBOLA EPIDEMIC IS OUTRUNNING OUR ABILITY TO STOP ITEbola first appeared in 1976 during twin outbreaks in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and South Sudan, likely spread by bats from nearby jungles. This year has, in many ways, changed people's notions of how Ebola can move through populations.
The usual methods for containing Ebola, like tracing patients' contacts, haven't scaled to outbreaks of this sizeBy October 2014, Senegal and Nigeria were declared virus-free, having stopped their small outbreaks. On May 9, 2015, Liberia was finally declared virus-free, but there are still cases in Guinea and Sierra Leone, "creating a high risk that infected people may cross into Liberia over the region's exceptionally porous borders," the WHO warned.The epidemic has dragged on in West Africa, in part because the usual methods for containing Ebola — like tracing patients' contacts — don't scaled to outbreaks of the size that Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone had to battle. But an epidemic is much harder to contain when suddenly many countries are dealing with hundreds or thousands of cases.
On September 30, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that Thomas Eric Duncan, a patient in Dallas, had Ebola — the first time the disease was diagnosed in the US.
While official estimates suggest there are already more than 25,000 cases of Ebola during 2014 and 2015, the real number is likely much, much higher.
Health workers sterilize a house and prepare a body for burial in Lango village, Kenema, Sierra Leone.
To understand how an Ebola case could be missed, you need to understand what it takes to actually find and count a case.Oftentimes, potential cases are communicated through dedicated hotlines, which citizens can call to report themselves or their neighbors. Actually tracking these people down isn't straightforward, especially in areas where the roads and communication infrastructure are poor. When they finally locate an Ebola victim, he or she may not always be lucid enough to talk or even still alive. Of this epidemic, the World Bank said Ebola may deal a "potentially catastrophic blow" to the West African countries reeling from the virus.
GDP growth estimates for 2014 have been revised sharply downward since pre-crisis estimates. People are going to suffer and die more from other diseases as the already scarce health resources in the region go to Ebola. One disturbing feature of the current epidemic is that so many health workers have lost their lives while caring for the sick or trying to spread public health messages about Ebola.This is partly because Ebola is transmitted through bodily fluids, and no one has more contact with the bodily fluids of an Ebola patient than his or her doctor and nurse. A hospital guard waits to greet patients, some suspected of suffering from the Ebola virus, in Monrovia. Even if they have protective gear, doctors and nurses may want to use their scarce supplies only when absolutely necessary, which brings us to another reason for the alarming loss of health workers: many doctors caring for Ebola patients in West Africa, particularly in the early days of the outbreak, had no idea they were seeing Ebola patients. Finally, the scale of this outbreak requires medical personnel that just weren't at the ready in West Africa. Poor literacy made it much harder for aid workers to mount a public health information campaign and explain to people how they can stop the spread of Ebola. A Liberian health worker interviews family members of a woman suspected of dying of the Ebola virus in Monrovia, Liberia.
Sadly, the world only seemed to wake up to Ebola after two American missionaries got infected.
In other desperate and unprecedented measures, the UN Security Council characterized the virus as a threat to international peace and security, holding its second disease-focused meeting ever and setting up a special UN mission to deal with the epidemic.
Even though people have known about Ebola for almost 40 years, vaccine and drug development for the disease has been slow at best. THE USUAL DRUG APPROVAL PROCESSES ARE BEING CONDENSED OR SKIPPEDThe news of vaccine development followed a decision by the World Health Organization to allow unproven and experimental treatments on people in this public health emergency — which means the usual drug approvals process will be condensed or phases of clinical testing potentially skipped, and that trials could be done amid the outbreak in Africa.One promising experimental Ebola drug is ZMapp, an antibody therapy that was used for the two American medical missionaries infected in Liberia. Kent Brantly, one of the American medical missionaries infected with Ebola, who received the experimental drug ZMapp. Another experimental therapy now being tried in humans is TKM-Ebola, developed by the Canadian pharmaceutical company Tekmira with the help of funding from the US Department of Defense. If Hillary Clinton wins the White House in November, it will be a historic moment, the smashing of the preeminent glass ceiling in American public life. A Clinton victory also promises to usher in four-to-eight years of the kind of down-and-dirty public misogyny you might expect from a stag party at Roger Ailes’s house. Wide stretches of southern Louisiana are once again flooded with more than two feet of water. The images coming from Baton Rouge and its surrounding low-lying areas, of submerged homes and streets turned into rivers, inevitably call to mind the tragic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The Louisiana floods, which the American Red Cross on Wednesday labeled “the worst natural disaster to strike the United States since Superstorm Sandy,” have not dominated cable news nor the front pages of newspapers. There are plenty of ways to celebrate victory at the Olympics: You can do the Lightning Bolt like Usain Bolt. Sam Buell, the government’s lead prosecutor in the Enron scandal, explains why convicting white-collar criminals isn’t as straightforward as most people think it should be. If hotheaded online commenters ran the Justice Department, would America's prisons be full of traders responsible for the financial crisis? But convicting bankers—or any other white-collar workers whose decisions at work have ostensibly damaged the economy—is difficult because while it is easy to identify systematic wrongdoing, it's much harder to pin blame, at least in the way a court might approve of, on an individual within that system. Sam Buell, a Duke law professor, argues in his recent book Capital Offenses: Business Crime and Punishment in America’s Corporate Age that this is no accident. Instead of forcing Hillary Clinton to generate enthusiasm for her candidacy, the Republican seems determined to motivate her coalition to vote against him. Donald Trump today just solved Hillary Clinton’s biggest strategic problem: how to ensure that minority voters show up for her in 2016 as they showed up for Barack Obama in 2012.
Post-Obama Democrats face a quandary: Their coalition is bigger than the Republican coalition, but also less committed to political participation.
Jared Leto’s turn in Suicide Squad is the latest reminder that the technique has become more about ego and marketing than good performances. Of all the stories surfacing about the new DC Comics film Suicide Squad—from the dismal reviews to the box-office reports—the most disconcerting are the ones that detail how Jared Leto got into his role as the Joker. Watching Leto tell one disturbing tale after another makes one thing abundantly clear: Method acting is over.
On August 21, more than 11,000 Olympic athletes will leave Rio, some carrying medals, others lugging the weight of falling short of expectations. This emotional drop, in its most acute form, might be called post-Olympic depression—or, to borrow a phrase from the sports psychologist Scott Goldman, the director of the Performance Psychology Center at the University of Michigan, an under-recovery. PALO ALTO, Calif.—A few minutes into the conservative policy seminar, the economist John Cochrane made a point of clarification. Shultz, the Republican elder statesman, former secretary of state, and veteran of the Nixon and Reagan administration, had spent the preceding months assembling a far-reaching book of policy recommendations on matters domestic and foreign on behalf of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. This week on the Rush Limbaugh program, amid monologues extolling Donald Trump and attacking Hillary Clinton, America’s most popular talk-radio host took time to answer a question from a caller: “You've been telling us for decades now, ‘Don't panic. He went on to explain why he’s optimistic that he and his listeners won’t “lose the country” for good.
On the surface, one would be hard-pressed to find many similarities between German chancellor Angela Merkel, Bangladeshi prime minister Sheikh Hasina, and Liberian president Ellen Johnson Sirleaf—except for the fact that they are all female leaders of nations. But despite the vastly different cultural and political contexts that these women arose in—and the roughly 20 other female heads-of-state around the world—is there something deeper that they share?  Answering that question could reveal not the fundamental, essential nature of female leadership, but how women in leadership are perceived around the world, and perhaps more importantly, the obstacles women continue to face in their quest for equal representation. In a StoryCorps animation, Patrick Haggerty remembers the remarkable advice he got from his dairy farmer dad. A documentary explores the promise and perils of the un-indexed internet—a space for hidden revolutions, drugs, terrorism, and child pornography.


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Survivors return to a normal life after a monthslong recovery that can include periods of hair loss, hearing loss and other sensory changes, weakness, extreme fatigue, headaches, and eye and liver inflammation.
Until last year, the total impact of these outbreaks included 2,357 cases and 1,548 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
And because Ebola is a rare disease, there are still many scientific avenues that need exploring. But go into a rainforest environment — ecologists haven't even given names to a lot of the insects there, and when it comes to mites and ticks, forget it.
They don't know why some folks with Ebola never show symptoms and can't spread the disease to anyone, while others are "super-shedders" with very high viral loads — and are therefore very contagious. Health officials didn't worry about it reaching epidemic proportions.And then Ebola went global.
Since then, there have been 20 other outbreaks, but they have usually occurred in isolated rural areas and died out quickly. In December, the virus is believed to have first turned up in the body of a 2-year-old boy in Gueckedou, a rainforest region in southeastern Guinea. Since West Africa had never seen Ebola, the virus had a three-month head start before health officials in the countries involved even realized they were harboring an outbreak.
He died nine days later.After that, two health workers who cared for him got sick, spreading fear and panic among the health-care community and the general population. But its medical setting did.It is true that the average West African has a lower life expectancy than the average American. Investigators can spend days chasing a rumor.These health teams also work under constant stress and uncertainty.
So the investigators need to interview friends, family, or community members to determine whether it's Ebola that struck — always keeping a distance.If this chase appears to have led to an Ebola patient, the health team notifies a dispatcher to have that person transported by ambulance to a nearby clinic or Ebola treatment center for testing and isolation.
David Fisman, an infectious-disease modeler working on Ebola, summed up: "A person needs to have recognized symptoms, seek care, be correctly diagnosed, get lab testing — if they're going to be a confirmed case — and have the clerical and bureaucratic apparatus actually transmit that information to the people doing surveillance.
The disease had never appeared in that part of Africa, and it can be difficult to diagnose, sometimes masquerading as malaria or the flu until symptoms worsen. The director of the WHO called this Ebola epidemic the "greatest peacetime challenge" the world has ever faced. Notably, most of the investment in Ebola cures has come from government agencies (such as the US Department of Defense) interested in researching potential biological terrorism weapons — not in helping patients.But the Ebola epidemic burning in West Africa has sparked unprecedented focus on finding an Ebola cure and speeding up the drug testing and approval process for current therapies being developed. The Ebola drug was developed by several stakeholders — Mapp Biopharmaceutical and LeafBio in San Diego, Defyrus from Toronto, the US government, and the Public Health Agency of Canada. As hyperpartisanship, grievance politics, and garden-variety rage shift from America’s first black commander-in-chief onto its first female one, so too will the focus of political bigotry.
Downpours have again damaged or ruined tens of thousands of homes, driving thousands into shelters and leaving many people homeless and some dead. President Obama, other than signing a disaster declaration, hasn’t bothered to interrupt his Martha’s Vineyard vacation of golf and fund-raisers to address the suffering residents of the Gulf. It is tempting to think so—that the lack of corporate prosecutions is due to a lack of will rather than a lack of way. The difficulties that government prosecutors face in cobbling together fraud cases against even the most nefarious executives illuminates the fact that, legally, corporations are big, fancy responsibility-diffusion mechanisms. When voter turnout drops, as it does in off-year elections like 2010 and 2014, Democrats lose. Black voter turnout in particular excelled: For the first time in American history, it surpassed white turnout.
Leto was reportedly so committed to the part that he gifted the cast and crew with a litany of horrible items: used condoms, a dead pig, a live rat. Not the technique itself, which has fueled many of cinema’s greatest performances and can be a useful way of approaching difficult roles.
Despite their varying degrees of success, many will have the same surprise waiting for them back home: a feeling that life suddenly seems ordinary.
He commissioned a decorated group of experts—men and women with gaudy constellations of letters after their names, generals and ambassadors and national-security experts—to pen chapters outlining their vision for such topics as health-care reform, banking legislation, counterterrorism strategy, and the U.S.
Merkel, for example, spent more than a decade as a chemist before going into politics, while Hasina, the daughter of Bangladesh’s first president, attended college at the same time that she served as her father’s political liaison, and Johnson Sirleaf was Liberia’s minister of finance and worked at multiple financial institutions outside her country before running for vice president in 1985. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois). In a phenomenon now dubbed "post-Ebola syndrome," Ebola, scientists have learned, can continue to live in other parts of the body or bodily fluids, including the eyeballs or semen of survivors, for months after the blood is declared virus-free. The sick person also has to be far enough along in the illness — with enough virus in the bloodstream — to transmit the disease. But unless you're an Ebola health worker or sharing needles with Ebola victims, this isn't likely. This is an infection that requires very close contact."YOU CAN'T GET EBOLA FROM MOSQUITOES3) You can't get Ebola from mosquitoes.
Compare this situation with West Africa, which had to deal with more than 25,000 cases in a completely broken and underfunded health system. They are still learning about the long-term side effects of Ebola, and whether survivors have lifelong immunity to the virus (meaning they can't get it more than once). The countries involved — DRC, Gabon, Sudan — have experience in stamping out the virus before it spreads. Because the disease isn't very contagious and spreads slowly, they just needed to find all those infected, quarantine them, and identify everyone they'd been in contact with.
It didn't help that the international community was very slow to bring aid to the region, only declaring a public health emergency in August, five months after the first international spread. First, on October 12, Nina Pham — one of Duncan's nurses — tested positive for the disease.
And a much smaller number of Americans have so far contracted — and been treated for — Ebola. These reports are forwarded to local surveillance-response teams.All these cases need to be followed up on and verified to be counted. If the person is already dead, they notify a burial team, which arrives in full personal-protective gear. In that county alone, nearly 170 farmers and their family members have died from Ebola," the World Health Organization director warned.
Joanne Liu, international president of Doctors Without Borders, said, "Mounting numbers are dying of other diseases, like malaria, because health systems have collapsed."In a 2015 study in the journal Science, researchers focused on measles — the most contagious virus recorded — and applied statistical models to quantify the likelihood of an epidemic in the three countries worst hit by the virus.
So doctors and nurses weren't always protecting themselves as they would from a deadly virus.A third reason for the outsize health-worker death toll is that the total number of people infected with the virus this year is so much greater. President Barack Obama said Ebola is "not just a threat to regional security … [but] a potential threat to global security." For this reason, the US sent thousands of troops to fight Ebola, funding the largest international response in the history of the CDC. It's made up of a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, which are essentially lab-produced molecules manufactured in plants that mimic the body's immune response to theoretically help it attack the Ebola virus. America’s daughters will at last have living, breathing, pantsuit-wearing proof that they too can grow up to be president.
Some of it will be driven by genuine gender grievance or discomfort among some at being led by a woman. State leaders have declared the situation “historic” and “unprecedented,” and the federal government has, yet again, declared a major disaster in the region. Hillary Clinton has mentioned the floods only in a single tweet, and Donald Trump has said nothing about them at all. It’s what they were designed to do: Let a bunch of people get together, take some strategic risks they might otherwise not take, and then make sure none of them is devastated individually if things go south.
The extraordinary organizing effort of the Obama re-election team certainly deserves much of the credit.
To get into the character’s twisted mindset, he also watched footage of brutal crimes online.


But Leto’s stories show how going to great lengths to inhabit a character is now as much a marketing tool as it is an actual technique—one used to lend an air of legitimacy, verisimilitude, and importance to a performance no matter its quality. There are five species of Ebola, four of which have caused the disease in humans: Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, and Bundibugyo.
2) This means you can get Ebola by kissing or sharing food with someone who is infectious. 3) Mothers with Ebola can give the disease to their babies. The CDC says, "Only mammals (for example, humans, bats, monkeys and apes) have shown the ability to spread and become infected with Ebola virus."4) It's pretty difficult to get Ebola through coughing or sneezing. The guy who wrote the textbook on Ebola explained it to me: there is a gold standard proof that the Marburg virus (an Ebola cousin) lives in a particular species of bat. All of a sudden, you have to test thousands of creatures for Ebola and you still might not have found Ebola because it might be in that insect you didn't test. The WHO has continually said that even its current dire numbers don't reflect the full reality.
The team puts the body in a body bag, decontaminates the house, swabs the corpse for Ebola testing, and transports the body to the morgue.But confirming the cause of death doesn't always happen. Others suggest that faith healing, hot chocolate, coffee, and raw onions might stamp out the virus. In October 2014, the Obama administration appointed Ron Klain its first "Ebola czar" to coordinate the response. But in plenty of other cases, slamming Hillary as a bitch, a c**t (Thanks, Scott Baio!), or a menopausal nut-job (an enduringly popular theme on Twitter) will simply be an easy-peasy shortcut for dismissing her and delegitimizing her presidency. Leto’s Joker is the latest evidence that the prestige of method acting has dimmed—thanks to the technique’s overuse by those seeking award-season glory or a reputation boost, as well as its history of being shaped by destructive ideas of masculinity. On Monday, the group summoned a group of reporters here for a special summit to unveil these policy ideas—grandly titled Blueprint for America—to the world. That is more than seven times the death toll of all previous outbreaks combined, making this epidemic one of the worst public health crises of the last century. On October 15, officials announced that a second nurse, Amber Vinson, had gotten the virus while caring for Duncan, too. As you can see in the map below, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone (circled in green) have some of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Consider that in June, Doctors Without Borders — which had been on the ground since the beginning — had already declared the epidemic "out of control."Part of the reason for the slow response can be attributed to budget cuts and managerial confusion at the WHO that have left the agency understaffed and short on resources. Black voters turned out in huge numbers, exceeding even 2008 turnout, because they believed they had an important personal stake in the vote.
The animal host of Ebola is widely believed to be the fruit bat, although scientists haven't been able to confirm this. As one study put it, "It seems prudent to advise breastfeeding mothers who survive [Ebola] to avoid breastfeeding for at least some weeks after recovery and to provide them with alternative means of feeding their infants."THE EBOLA VIRUS HAS BEEN ABLE TO LIVE IN SEMEN FOR UP TO 199 DAYS4) You can get Ebola through sex with an Ebola victim. So, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explained, "If a symptomatic patient with Ebola coughs or sneezes on someone, and saliva or mucus come into contact with that person's eyes, nose or mouth, these fluids may transmit the disease." This happens rarely and usually only affects health workers or those caring for the sick. Both were later discharged from the hospital, virus-free.In addition to Pham and Vinson, several other Americans have been infected with Ebola. With limited resources, too, saving people who are alive tends to take precedent over managing and testing dead bodies.Reported cases are then communicated to the ministry of health in the country.
To put that into context, in the second biggest outbreak in history — in Zaire in 1976 — 11 medical personnel died. According to a New York Times investigation, the WHO and the Guinean health ministry had "documented in March [2014] that a handful of people had recently died or been sick with Ebola-like symptoms across the border in Sierra Leone." But information about the potential cases never made it to senior health authorities in Sierra Leone.
There can be engineers and good engineers, artists and good artists, sportsperson and good sportsperson but the only difference between engineers and good engineers, artists and good artists, sportsperson and good sportsperson is passion.There should be willingness to do some work with dedication which leads it to perfection. The weightlifter from the Pacific island nation of Kiribati finished sixth in the men’s 105-kilogram Group B final.
The virus only seldom makes the leap into humans.The current outbreak involves the Zaire strain, which was discovered in 1976 — the year Ebola was first identified in what was then Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). The virus has been able to live in semen up to 199 days after a patient started showing symptoms — well into recovery and long after the virus has disappeared from the blood. Mali confirmed an Ebola case last October: a 2-year-old girl who had recently returned from neighboring Guinea who has since died, leading to the discovery of several other cases and deaths. So far, almost all of them got the virus while working in Africa, received treatment in the United States, and survived.In October 2014, a doctor in New York City tested positive for the virus. Before the Ebola outbreak, West African nations were seeing promising signs of economic growth. He’s dancing because he’s not sure what else he can do at this point to help his sinking, storm-battered country. That same year, the virus was also discovered in South Sudan.The Ebola virus is extremely rare. 5) You can get the virus by eating wild animals infected with Ebola or coming into contact with their bodily fluids. In December 2014, a health worker returning from Sierra Leone to Glasgow, Scotland, was diagnosed with the virus. The WHO classifies a suspected case as any person, dead or alive, who had Ebola-like symptoms. Compared with the leading causes of death in Africa, Ebola only accounts for a tiny fraction of deaths.
It's believed that the fruit bat is the animal reservoir for Ebola and that when it's prepared for a meal or eaten raw, people get sick. A probable case is any person who had symptoms and contact with a confirmed or probable case.The ministry of health compiles and crunches this information and sends it to the WHO country office.
So this Ebola epidemic has served as a reminder of just how slow and poorly coordinated our global responses to outbreaks are, and this is a problem because any infectious diseases expert will tell you that the best way to stop an outbreak is to contain it early.
People are much more likely to die from AIDS, respiratory infections, or diarrhea, as you can see.
That office reports that to the WHO's regional Africa office in Brazzaville, Congo, and that message is passed along to Geneva, home to WHO's headquarters. However, if you cook a bat infected with Ebola and then eat it, you won't get sick because the virus dies during cooking.6) You can get Ebola through contact with a contaminated surface. He recovered and was released from Bellevue Hospital in New York in November.That month, Sierra Leonean surgeon and permanent resident of the US Dr. Martin Salia was flown to Nebraska Medical Center after catching Ebola while working in a Freetown hospital. But if it isn't caught, it can live outside the body on, say, a doorknob or countertop for several hours. So maybe it could be in a tiny little tick or insect that lives on the body of a bat, and then it's infecting the bat and the bat infects a human.
He was already in critical condition when he arrived, and he died two days later.Nebraska Medical Center also took in Ashoka Mukpo, a freelance cameraman who was infected with Ebola while working in Liberia with NBC News. So you'd need to touch an infected surface and then put your hands into your mouth or eyes to get Ebola.This is why the funerals of Ebola victims are problematic.
Since the virus can live in bodily fluids on their body, if you participate in the ritual washing of an Ebola victim and then touch your hands to your face, you could get the virus. Patrick Sawyer, a Liberian American, got Ebola in Liberia, where he worked at the Ministry of Finance. He died in Lagos, Nigeria, in July.Another health worker was flown back from Sierra Leone for treatment at NIH in March 2015, and discharged, virus-free, a month later.



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