Constructivist learning approach in science teaching,money make android,text to speech excel,how to get a girlfriend when your in the friend zone - For Begninners

25.04.2015
Graphic Organizers find their origin in the cognitive theories of learning[1].Cognitive theories of learning attempt to explain how people learn on basis of thought processes. Dual Coding Theory[6]: Allan Paivio(1986) postulated that memory has 2 systems for processing information- verbal and visual. Schema Theory[7]: In his Schema Theory Anderson (1977) states that memory is composed of a network of schemas.
Cognitive Load Theory[8]: Cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1998) maintains that the working memory can deal with only a limited amount of information at one time and if its capacity is exceeded, the information is likely to be lost.
Constructed: Learner uses his existing knowledge and the new information presented to construct new knowledge. Active: While the teacher facilitates, the learner creates his own knowledge by interacting with information. Collaborative: In the learning process a group of learners work together, at their own level, to examine and create knowledge.
There are a variety of software applications available that utilize graphic organizers to visually explore and organize concepts and ideas. The work of Lev Vygotsky (1934) has become the foundation of much research and theory in cognitive development over the past several decades, particularly of what has become known as Social Development Theory. 2: Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development (Piaget is criticized for underestimating this). 3: Vygotsky places more (and different) emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development (again Piaget is criticized for lack of emphasis on this). Vygotsky therefore sees cognitive functions, even those carried out alone, as affected by the beliefs, values and tools of intellectual adaptation of the culture in which a person develops and therefore socio-culturally determined. According to Vygotsky (1978), much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skillful tutor. As the child becomes more competent, the father allows the child to work more independently. The more knowledgeable other (MKO) is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept.
The concept of the More Knowledgeable Other is integrally related to the second important principle of Vygotsky's work, the Zone of Proximal Development. For example, the child could not solve the jigsaw puzzle (in the example above) by itself and would have taken a long time to do so (if at all), but was able to solve it following interaction with the father, and has developed competence at this skill that will be applied to future jigsaws.
Vygotsky (1978) sees the Zone of Proximal Development as the area where the most sensitive instruction or guidance should be given - allowing the child to develop skills they will then use on their own - developing higher mental functions.
Freund (1990) conducted a study in which children had to decide which items of furniture should be placed in particular areas of a dolls house. For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age. Private speech is 'typically defined, in contrast to social speech, as speech addressed to the self (not to others) for the purpose of self-regulation (rather than communication)'. Through private speech, children begin to collaborate with themselves in the same way a more knowledgeable other (e.g.


Children raised in cognitively and linguistically stimulating environments (situations more frequently observed in higher socioeconomic status families) start using and internalizing private speech faster than children from less privileged backgrounds. Childrensa€™ use of private speech diminishes as they grow older and follows a curvilinear trend.
Vygotsky's work has not received the same level of intense scrutiny that Piaget's has, partly due to the time consuming process of translating Vygotsky's work from Russian. Perhaps the main criticism of Vygotsky's work concerns the assumption that it is relevant to all cultures. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. There is a presumption amongst cognitive theorists that the mental processes operate in an organized, predictable fashion. Graphic organizers can facilitate this process by providing students a framework for relating existing knowledge to the new information learned.
If they are able to chunk information successfully and meaningfully in their short term memory[5], they will be able to successfully transfer it to their long term memory.
Graphic organizers can reduce the cognitive load and free the working memory to continue to learn.
It believes that cognition helps make sense of an individual's subjective experiences and constructs mental structures of the experiential world. He developed his theories at around the same time as Jean Piaget was starting to develop his ideas (1920's and 30's), but he died at the age of 38 and so his theories are incomplete - although some of his writings are still being translated from Russian.
Individual development cannot be understood without reference to the social and cultural context within which it is embedded. In contrast Piaget maintains that cognitive development stems largely from independent explorations in which children construct knowledge of their own.
Adults transmit their culture's tools of intellectual adaptation that children internalize. Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. Vygotsky viewed language as mana€™s greatest tool, a means for communicating with the outside world. He considered private speech as the transition point between social and inner speech, the moment in development where language and thought unite to constitute verbal thinking.Thus private speech, in Vygotsky's view, was the earliest manifestation of inner speech. She found that most private speech exhibited by children serves to describe or guide the child's actions.
Indeed, children raised in environments characterized by low verbal and social exchanges exhibit delays in private speech development. This is due to changes in ontogenetic development whereby children are able to internalize language (through inner speech) in order to self-regulate their behavior (Vygotsky, 1987). Also, Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective does not provide as many specific hypotheses to test as did Piaget's theory, making refutation difficult, if not impossible.
Rogoff (1990) dismisses the idea that Vygotsky's ideas are culturally universal and instead states the concept of scaffolding - which is heavily dependent on verbal instruction - may not be equally useful in all cultures for all types of learning.


Incorporating use of graphic organizers during the learning process will enhance the functionality of these processes and improve memory retention and retrieval.
Using graphic organizers allows the learner to insert the information in his existing schema. This construct of mental structures grows within the context of our social and cultural experiences.
Improving student higher order thinking skills through the use of graphic organizers, Elk Grove Village, IL: Master’s Thesis, Saint Xavier University. For Vygotsky, thought and language are initially separate systems from the beginning of life, merging at around three years of age, producing verbal thought (inner speech). In contrast Piaget emphasizes the importance of peers as peer interaction promotes social perspective taking. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. Berk also discovered than child engaged in private speech more often when working alone on challenging tasks and also when their teacher was not immediately available to help them. For example, research has shown that childrensa€™ private speech usually peaks at 3a€“4 years of age, decreases at 6a€“7 years of age, and gradually fades out to be mostly internalized by age 10 (Diaz, 1992). Indeed, in some instances observation and practice may be more effective ways of learning certain skills. The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. For example, who is more likely to know more about the newest teenage music groups, how to win at the most recent PlayStation game, or how to correctly perform the newest dance craze - a child or their parents?In fact, the MKO need not be a person at all.
In contrast to Piageta€™s (1959) notion of private speech representing a developmental dead-end, Vygotsky (1934, 1987) viewed private speech as: 'A revolution in development which is triggered when preverbal thought and preintellectual language come together to create fundamentally new forms of mental functioning'. Vygotsky believed that children who engaged in large amounts of private speech are more socially competent than children who do not use it extensively.Vygotsky (1987) notes that private speech does not merely accompany a childa€™s activity but acts as a tool used by the developing child to facilitate cognitive processes, such as overcoming task obstacles, enhancing imagination, thinking, and conscious awareness.
Furthermore, Berk also found that private speech develops similarly in all children regardless of cultural background.Vygotsky (1987) proposed that private speech is a product of an individuala€™s social environment. Relationship of elementary school children's private speech to behavioral accompaniment to task, attention, and task performance. Children use private speech most often during intermediate difficulty tasks because they are attempting to self-regulate by verbally planning and organizing their thoughts (Winsler et al., 2007). This hypothesis is supported by the fact that there exist high positive correlations between rates of social interaction and private speech in children. 1).In addition to disagreeing on the functional significance of private speech, Vygotsky and Piaget also offered opposing views on the developmental course of private speech and the environmental circumstances in which it occurs most often (Berk & Garvin, 1984).



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