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Association between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated serum uric acid among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Han women. Vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with elevated uric acid among postmenopausal Chinese Han women.
Livelli sierici elevati di acido urico risulterebbero associati allo sviluppo di diabete di tipo 2. Serum uric acid is associated with bone health in older men: A cross-sectional population-based study. Uric acid , a weak organic acid with a pka of 5.75, is the end product of purine degradation. In case of higher values we speak about hyperuricemia; in case of lower levels about hypouricemia. Hyperuricemia is a common finding in patients with the metabolic syndrome and an inverse correlation was noted between insulin resistance and decreased renal uric acid clearance, which is itself associated with elevated uricemia.
Obesity, in particular visceral adiposity, is also positively associated with hyperuricemia, which can be reduced by body weight loss.
Uric acid is a breakdown product of purines and uric acid generation therefore depends directly on both intrinsic purine production and purine intake. Purines are heterocyclic aromatic compounds, consisting of conjoined pyrimidine and imidazole rings. Purines are also critical elements of the energy metabolism molecules NADH, NADPH, and coenzyme Q, and it may also serve as direct neurotransmitters; for example, adenosine may interact with receptors to modulate cardiovascular and central nervous system function. GMP and IMP are converted by nucleotidases to their purine base forms, guanosine and inosine. Purine biosynthesis not only directly increases the substrate load for urate generation but also increases the turnover of already-formed purines that contribute to increased urate levels.
Urate homeostasis really depends on the balance between production and complex processes of secretion and reabsorption in the kidney tubule and excretion in the intestine. The gastrointestinal action may represent a minor pathway for urate excretion under most circumstances, it may become more important in settings of renal insufficiency.
Urate handling involves urate glomerular filtration followed by a complex array of reabsorptive and secretory mechanisms taking place in the proximal tubule.
In the bloodstream, uric acid (in the form of urate anion) is considered to be completely or nearly completely unbound to plasma proteins.
The urate reabsorption pathway involves the apical exchanger proteins URAT1, OAT4, and OAT10: URAT1 is a 12-transmembrane domain–containing protein found in the apical membrane of proximal tubule epithelial cells and transports urate in exchange for Cl– or organic anions.
OAT4 is a multispecific anion transporter present in the apical membrane of epithelial cells from the proximal tubule.
Urate transport by URAT1, OAT4, and OAT10 would lead to accumulation of urate intracellularly and presumably to gradients that would eventually impair further urate uptake if a mechanism did not exist to transport intracellular urate out of the cell at the basolateral surface. This function appears to be served by Glut9a, which was first identified as a glucose transport family protein, but has little or no glucose transport capacity. GLUT9 is also involved in the transport of fructose, It is possible that this finding may contribute to understand the associations of hyperuricemia, gout and components of metabolic syndrome in diets rich in fructose, epidemiologic studies confirm a role for fructose consumption in hyperuricemia; patients who consume excessive fructose in the form of fructose-sweetened soft drinks or fruit juices demonstrate both higher serum urate levels and increased incidence of gout. GLUT9 exists as two alternatively spliced variants that encode different aminoterminal cytoplasmic tails, but GLUT9a is expressed in the basolateral membrane, whereas GLUT9b is targeted to the apical pole. A significant relationship was found between increased expression of the GLUT9b, but not GLUT9a, isoform and plasma uric acid levels.
Several apical monocarboxylate transporters are required to favor urate reabsorption, such as MCT9 and SMCT1 and 2. Other transport proteins in the renal tubule epithelium regulate the excretion of urate from the peritubular fluid into the tubular lumen. The multidrug resistance protein MRP4, a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, mediates ATP-dependent urate transport.
These genetic and biochemical data thus indicate that very complex regulatory processes may control the magnitude and direction of urate fluxes across the proximal tubule epithelium.
We will send expert medical opinion and treatment cost estimate from India's leading hospitals.
Once you decide, we help you to schedule apointments, Apply for medical visa, Airport pick up, Post hospital stay. Due to rising stress in our daily lives, it has become extremely important that one should get a whole body check-up done at regular intervals. MedWorld India affiliated world class hospitals are benchmarked to International standards - achieving quality through the relentless adherence to the global protocols and delivered by finest talents in medicine, be their doctors, nurses or technicians, and even management professionals across a wide spectrum.They are led by exceptional medical practitioners who are leaders in their fields. MedWorld India affiliated hospitals are excellent in multi specialty care - Cardiology, Cardiac Surgery, Orthopedics, Neuro Sciences - Brain & Spine, Advanced Cancer Centre with Surgical, Radiation and Medical Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplants, Urology, Nephrology, Minimally Invasive surgery, Liver and Kidney Transplants, Bariatric, Cosmetic Surgery and all other allied clinical services. Abnormally high or low counts may indicate the presence of many forms of diseases like Anemia (Low RBC), Erythrocytosis (High RBC), Leucocytosis (High WBC), Leucopenia (Low WBC), Thrombocytosis (High Platelets), Thrombocytopenia (Low Platelets) etc.
Liver Function Tests (LFT) are group of tests designed to give information about the state of a person's liver. The Blood Sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced by the body, usually as a byproduct of consuming meat. Body composition tells you how much of your weight is made up of fat and how much is muscle.
The Lipid Profile is a group of tests that are often ordered together to determine risk of coronary heart disease.
A Chest Xa€?ray is a safe and painless test that uses a small amount of radiation to take a picture of a person's chest. Based on your general health status and the outcome of tests done in this health check our experts will guide you about the lifestyle modification you can make to lead a healthier and long life in future. Mammography is the process of using lowa€?dose amplitudea€?Xa€?rays to examine the womena€™s breast and is used as a diagnostic and a screening tool. Stress Echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to determine how the heart muscles respond to stress. I am writing to thank you for the wonderful service you provide for people who want excellent medical care but do not know how or where to find it.
Disclaimer: All content on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation.


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Sono i risultati di un'ampia metanalisi pubblicata da un gruppo di ricercatori giapponesi su Diabetes Care.
Since oxidative stress has been linked to osteoporosis, we examined the association between serum UA levels and bone mineral density (BMD), prevalent vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and laboratory measures such as calcitropic hormones and bone turnover marker levels. In humans, uric acid is an end-product metabolite; consequently the depletion of uric acid depends directly on its excretion. In mammals, the most common expression of purines is found in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) (containing the purines adenine and guanine). The enzyme phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthase catalyzes the addition of a pyrophosphate moiety to form the adduct PRPP.
Instead AMP is not susceptible to nucleotidase activity, but it can undergo conversion, through the activity of adenylate deaminase, into IMP for further degradation.
It is estimated that approximately 30% of uric acid excretion is by the intestine, renal mechanisms of urate excretion account for the other 70%. Mechanisms of uric acid transport into the gut appear to include exocrine secretion (saliva, gastric, and pancreatic juices), as well as direct bowel secretory mechanisms. Urate uptake by URAT1 and OAT10 is accelerated by intracellular monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyrazinoate, and nicotinate.
It is involved in luminal urate reabsorption by a mechanism that is transactivated by intracellular dicarboxylates but not by the antiuricosuric agent. Instead, Glut9a is an effective transporter of urate from the renal epithelial cell out into the renal interstitium. At the basolateral surface, OAT1 and OAT3 transport urate from the interstitium into the epithelial cell cytosol. Undergoing this test is not only important but is necessary for both male and female, above the age of 25 years. Hence blood counts are amongst the most commonly performed blood tests in medicine, as they can provide an overview of a patient's general health status. Liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. This test is carried out in order to diagnoseand manage an underactive or overactive thyroid a€?a€? also known as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
Amino acids are naturally made products, which are the building blocks of all the proteins in the body.
The substance creatine is formed when food is changed into energy through a process called metabolism.
This is a test carried out for determining the potential risk level for cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and strokes. Purines are found in some foods and drinks, such as liver, anchovies, mackerel, dried beans and peas, beer, and wine.
A high percentage of body fat increases your risk for obesity, diabetes, heart disease, high cholesterol and other illnesses.
They are tests that have been shown to be good indicators of whether someone is likely to have a heart attack or stroke caused by blockage of blood vessels or hardening of the arteries (atherosclerois).
During the examination, an Xa€?ray machine sends a beam of radiation through the chest, and an image is recorded on special film or a computer.
An initial exam of gums and teeth will be conducted and you will be asked questions about your existing dental care.
A comprehensive eye examination is a fairly complicated series of tests that not only checks your eye sight, but also neurological function, eye pressure, eye muscle coordination and health of the external and internal eye structures. It is a procedure carried out to detect cancerous and prea€?cancerous cell changes in the cervix.A Pap smear is a simple, quick, and relatively painless screening test.
The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic tumors. Ultrasound imaging involves exposing part of the body to higha€?frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. People who take certain medications seem to get gout more often than the regular population. Also avoid alcoholic drinks like beer that contain purines that raise the uric acid levels.
Use of this website and the information contained herein does not create a doctor-patient relationship. L'indagine ha preso in considerazione ben 11 studi clinici, presenti nei database Medline (dal 1966 al 2009) ed Embase (dal 1980 al 2009), riguardanti oltre 42mila pazienti diabetici e con follow-up compresi tra 2,0 e 13,5 anni. This cross-sectional analysis consisted of 1705 community-dwelling men aged 70 years or over who participated in the baseline part of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a population-based study of older men in Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, the enzyme glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase catalyzes the interaction of PRPP with glutamine to form 5-phosphoribosyl amine, next it forms the backbone for a series of molecular additions, ending in the formation of the purine inosine monophosphate (IMP). Additionally, adenosine deaminase can convert adenosine to inosine for inclusion in the degradative pathway. Uric acid is apparently excreted into the gut in its native form and then undergoes degradation by intestinal flora. These transporters act via exchange with dicarboxylate anions and transport not only urate, but other organic anions and some drugs.
This test should be taken for early diagnosis of any problem in any body part and its timely treatment.
The liver is necessary for survival; there is currently no way to compensate for the absence of liver function.
What type you have depends on whether or not there are certain proteins, called antigens, on your red blood cells. The thyroid gland is found in the neck .The thyroid controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. Creatine is broken down into another substance called creatinine, which is taken out of your blood by the kidneys and then passed out of your body in urine. The current thinking is that HSa€?CRP can play a role in the evaluation process before one encounters one of these health problems. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys, where it passes out in urine.


The signals that make the heart's muscle fibers contract come from the sinoatrial node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart.
This image includes organs and structures such as the heart, lungs, large blood vessels, diaphragm, part of the airway, lymph nodes, the upper spine, ribs, collarbone, and breastbone. Your medical documents will be checked and the medicines that you are already taking will be examined. PSA is a protein produced in the prostate, a small gland about the size and shape of a walnut that sits below a man's bladder. Its specificity a€? which means its ability to avoid classifying a normal smear as abnormal (a "false positive" result) a€? while very good, is not perfect.
Some of the foods that will raise your uric acid levels are liver, anchovies, mackerel, beans, peas and beer. On the other hand, if the kidneys are unable to adequately remove uric acid from the body, the amount of that acid will decrease in the test samples. Once your doctor has determined the cause of your high uric acid problem, he or she will be able to help you find the best way to reduce that level.
Always consult with your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others.
BMD at all sites was significantly higher among men with serum UA levels above the group median than among men with UA levels below the median.
IMP is converted into either adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP), which can then be phosphorylated into higher-energy compounds.
Further catabolism of both guanosine and inosine is mediated by the common enzyme purine nucleoside phosphorylase.
Before the test certain instructions are needed to be followed which will be given to you by the hospital, in advance. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but it is vital that these diseases be detected early. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. The levels of blood creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) can be used to find the BUNa€?toa€?creatinine ratio. HSa€?CRP usually is ordered as one of several tests in a cardiovascular risk profile, often along with tests for cholesterol and triglycerides. In an ECG test, the electrical impulses made while the heart is beating are recorded and usually shown on a piece of paper. A chest Xa€?ray is used to help find the cause of symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Because ultrasound images are captured in reala€?time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Medications can raise your uric levels, but medications can reduce your uric acid levels as well.
Generally the day of physical examination as well as consultation with the doctor will take place on the same day.
This method breaks blood types down into four categories : Type A, Type B, Type AB and Type O.
In healthy people, the thyroid makes just the right amounts of two hormones, T4 and T3, which have important actions throughout the body. A BUNa€?toa€?creatinine ratio can help your doctor check for problems, such as dehydration, that may cause abnormal BUN and creatinine levels., it can help your doctor see how well your kidneys are working.
Some experts say that the best way to predict risk is to combine a good marker for inflammation, like HSa€?CRP, along with the lipid profile. This is known as an electrocardiogram, and records any problems with the heart's rhythm, and the conduction of the heart beat through the heart which may be affected by underlying heart disease.
It can detect signs of asthma, pneumonia, a collapsed lung, heart problems (such as an enlarged heart),and broken ribs or lung damage after an injury.
The prostate produces and releases a component of semen, the fluid that transports sperm during ejaculation. USG helps to evaluate blood flow through a blood vessel, including the body's major arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs and neck. But if uric acid levels are high, the kidneys will be unable to filter enough uric acid from urine to keep normal uric acid levels. High uric acid levels can also cause kidney stones, which are extremely painful for a person to pass. Losing weight and drinking plenty of water can also help you lower your uric acid levels and protect your kidneys from damage. Both guanine and hypoxanthine are subsequently converted to xanthine, by the enzymes guanine deaminase and xanthine oxidase, respectively. The presence or absence of Rhesus antigen in the blood further makes you positive or negative of that blood type. The most common problems of the thyroid gland consist of an overa€?active thyroid gland, referred to as 'hyperthyroidism', and an undera€?active thyroid gland, referred to as 'hypothyroidism'.
6 electrodes are placed over the chest at various positions and 3 limb leads are placed over right and left arm and left leg to record the working of the heart from all angles. Some problems with the prostate, such as an enlarged prostate and prostate cancer, become more likely as men age. Also, people with kidney problems have uric acid problems because their kidneys can’t filter the uric acid out of their systems. Xanthine from either source is then converted directly to uric acid, again by the action of xanthine oxidase. Hypothyroidism can also cause an increase in uric acid, along with other medical conditions. In conclusion, higher serum UA levels are associated with higher BMD at all skeletal sites and with a lower prevalence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in older men.
Working with a physician will ensure that you find out why your levels are high, and start you on a plan to reduce your uric acid levels.



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