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This chapter describes tablespaces, the primary logical database structures of any Oracle database, and the physical datafiles that correspond to each tablespace. Oracle stores data logically in tablespaces and physically in datafiles associated with the corresponding tablespace. An Oracle database consists of one or more logical storage units called tablespaces, which collectively store all of the database's data. Each tablespace in an Oracle database consists of one or more files called datafiles, which are physical structures that conform with the operating system in which Oracle is running.
A database's data is collectively stored in the datafiles that constitute each tablespace of the database. When you add another datafile to an existing tablespace, you increase the amount of disk space allocated for the corresponding tablespace.
Alternatively, you can create a new tablespace (which contains at least one additional datafile) to increase the size of a database. The size of a tablespace is the size of the datafile(s) that constitute the tablespace; the size of a database is the collective size of the tablespaces that constitute the database.
The third option for enlarging a database is to change a datafile's size or allow datafiles in existing tablespaces to grow dynamically as more space is needed.
See the Oracle8i Administrator's Guide for more information about increasing the amount of space in your database. Every Oracle database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM, which Oracle creates automatically when the database is created.
A small database might need only the SYSTEM tablespace; however, Oracle Corporation recommends that you create at least one additional tablespace to store user data separate from data dictionary information. A database administrator (DBA) can create new tablespaces, add datafiles to tablespaces, set and alter default segment storage settings for segments created in a tablespace, make a tablespace read-only or read-write, make a tablespace temporary or permanent, and drop tablespaces.
For a tablespace that uses the data dictionary to manage its extents, Oracle updates the appropriate tables in the data dictionary whenever an extent is allocated or freed for reuse. A tablespace that manages its own extents maintains a bitmap in each datafile to keep track of the free or used status of blocks in that datafile. Local management of extents avoids recursive space management operations, which can occur in dictionary-managed tablespaces if consuming or releasing space in an extent results in another operation that consumes or releases space in a rollback segment or data dictionary table.
Local management of extents automatically tracks adjacent free space, eliminating the need to coalesce free extents. The sizes of extents that are managed locally can be determined automatically by the system.
For the SYSTEM tablespace, you can specify EXTENT MANGEMENT LOCAL in the CREATE DATABASE command. For a permanent tablespace other than SYSTEM, you can specify EXTENT MANGEMENT LOCAL in the CREATE TABLESPACE command. For a temporary tablespace, you can specify EXTENT MANGEMENT LOCAL in the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE command. A database administrator can bring any tablespace other than the SYSTEM tablespace online (accessible) or offline (not accessible) whenever the database is open. A tablespace is normally online so that the data contained within it is available to database users. When a tablespace goes offline, Oracle does not permit any subsequent SQL statements to reference objects contained in that tablespace. When a tablespace goes offline or comes back online, this is recorded in the data dictionary in the SYSTEM tablespace. You can bring a tablespace online only in the database in which it was created because the necessary data dictionary information is maintained in the SYSTEM tablespace of that database. Transfer of Oracle data between databases can be achieved with tools described in Oracle8i Utilities. Oracle automatically switches a tablespace from online to offline when certain errors are encountered (for example, when the database writer process, DBWn, fails in several attempts to write to a datafile of the tablespace). If you create multiple tablespaces to separate different types of data, you take specific tablespaces offline for various procedures; other tablespaces remain online and the information in them is still available for use.
If the tablespace containing the indexes is offline, queries can still access table data because queries do not require an index to access the table data. If the tablespace containing the tables is offline, the table data in the database is not accessible because the tables are required to access the data. In summary, if Oracle has enough information in the online tablespaces to execute a statement, it will do so. The primary purpose of read-only tablespaces is to eliminate the need to perform backup and recovery of large, static portions of a database.
Because you can only bring a tablespace online in the database in which it was created, read-only tablespaces are not meant to satisfy archiving or data publishing requirements. You can use the READ WRITE option of the ALTER TABLESPACE command to make a read-only tablespace read-write again. See the Oracle8i Administrator's Guide for more information on changing a tablespace to read-only or read-write mode, and see the Oracle8i SQL Reference for information on the ALTER TABLESPACE command. You can drop items, such as tables and indexes, from a read-only tablespace, just as you can drop items from an offline tablespace. You cannot add datafiles to a read-only tablespace, even if you take the tablespace offline. You can manage space for sort operations more efficiently by designating temporary tablespaces exclusively for sorts. All operations that use sorts--including joins, index builds, ordering (ORDER BY), the computation of aggregates (GROUP BY), and the ANALYZE command for collecting optimizer statistics--benefit from temporary tablespaces. Temporary tablespaces provide performance improvements when you have multiple sorts that are too large to fit into memory.
For a dictionary-managed temporary tablespace, use the TEMPORARY option of CREATE TABLESPACE. You can also change a tablespace from PERMANENT to TEMPORARY or vice versa by using the ALTER TABLESPACE command for any temporary tablespace (either locally managed or dictionary-managed). See Oracle8i SQL Reference for more information on the CREATE TABLESPACE, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE, and ALTER TABLESPACE commands, and see Oracle8i Tuning for information about how to set up temporary tablespaces for sorts and hash joins. The transportable tablespace feature enables you to move a subset of an Oracle database from one Oracle database to another.
In the current release, you can transport tablespaces only between Oracle databases that use the same data block size and character set, and that run on compatible platforms from the same hardware vendor. After copying the datafiles and importing the metadata, you can optionally put the tablespaces in read-write mode. See Oracle8i Administrator's Guide for details about how to move or copy tablespaces to another database.
You can transport a data set consisting of one or more tablespaces, as long as the set of schema objects in the data set is self-contained (except for object references--see "REFs"). If the data set includes a partitioned table, it must contain all of the table's partitions. The metadata that you export can include or omit information about triggers, grants, and constraints, depending on which export options you use. You can also transport tablespaces to move or copy data between Oracle databases that have different compatibility or release levels.
See Oracle8i Migration for details about how to move or copy tablespaces between Oracle releases or compatibility levels. A data mart contains a subset of corporate data that is of value to a specific business unit, department, or set of users. Oracle creates a datafile for a tablespace by allocating the specified amount of disk space plus the overhead required for the file header. For information on the amount of space required for the file header of datafiles on your operating system, see your Oracle operating system specific documentation.
The first tablespace in any database is always the SYSTEM tablespace, so Oracle automatically allocates the first datafiles of any database for the SYSTEM tablespace during database creation. When a datafile is first created, the allocated disk space is formatted but does not contain any user data; however, Oracle reserves the space to hold the data for future segments of the associated tablespace--it is used exclusively by Oracle. The data associated with schema objects in a tablespace is physically stored in one or more of the datafiles that constitute the tablespace. You can alter the size of a datafile after its creation or you can specify that a datafile should dynamically grow as schema objects in the tablespace grow.
You can take tablespaces offline (make unavailable) or bring them online (make available) at any time, except for the SYSTEM tablespace. You can take individual datafiles offline; however, this is normally done only during some database recovery procedures. See "Space Management in Tablespaces" for more information about locally managed tablespaces. This chapter describes tablespaces, the primary logical storage structures of any Oracle database, and the physical datafiles that correspond to each tablespace. If you are using Trusted Oracle, see the Trusted Oracle7 Server Administrator's Guide for more information about tablespaces and datafiles in that environment. A database administrator can create new tablespaces, add and remove datafiles from tablespaces, set and alter default segment storage settings for segments created in a tablespace, make a tablespace read-only or writeable, make a tablespace temporary or permanent, and drop tablespaces. Every Oracle database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM that Oracle creates automatically when the database is created. A small database might need only the SYSTEM tablespace; however, it is recommended that you create at least one additional tablespace to store user data separate from data dictionary information. Alternatively, a database administrator can create a new tablespace (defined by an additional datafile) to increase the size of a database. The size of a tablespace is the size of the datafile(s) that constitute the tablespace, and the size of a database is the collective size of the tablespaces that constitute the database. The third option is to change a datafile's size or allow datafiles in existing tablespaces to grow dynamically as more space is needed. For more information about increasing the amount of space in your database, see the Oracle7 Server Administrator's Guide. A database administrator can bring any tablespace (except the SYSTEM tablespace) in an Oracle database online (accessible) or offline (not accessible) whenever the database is open. Note: The SYSTEM tablespace must always be online because the data dictionary must always be available to Oracle. When a tablespace goes offline, Oracle does not permit any subsequent SQL statements to reference objects contained in the tablespace. When a tablespace goes offline or comes back online, it is recorded in the data dictionary in the SYSTEM tablespace. Oracle automatically changes a tablespace from online to offline when certain errors are encountered (for example, when the database writer process, DBWR, fails in several attempts to write to a datafile of the tablespace).
By using multiple tablespaces to separate different types of data, the database administrator can also take specific tablespaces offline for certain procedures, while other tablespaces remain online and the information in them is still available for use.
In summary, if Oracle determines that it has enough information in the online tablespaces to execute a statement, it will do so. Note: Because you can only bring a tablespace online in the database in which it was created, read-only tablespaces are not meant to satisfy archiving or data publishing requirements.
You cannot add datafiles to a tablespace that is read-only, even if you take the tablespace offline.
Space management for sort operations is performed more efficiently using temporary tablespaces designated exclusively for sorts.
For more information on the CREATE TABLESPACE and ALTER TABLESPACE Commands, see Chapter 4 of Oracle7 Server SQL Reference. When a datafile is created for a tablespace, Oracle creates the file by allocating the specified amount of disk space plus the overhead required for the file header. Additional Information: For information on the amount of space required for the file header of datafiles on your operating system, see your Oracle operating system specific documentation. Since the first tablespace in any database is always the SYSTEM tablespace, Oracle automatically allocates the first datafiles of any database for the SYSTEM tablespace during database creation.
After a datafile is initially created, the allocated disk space does not contain any data; however, Oracle reserves the space to hold only the data for future segments of the associated tablespace -- it cannot store any other program's data.
The data in the segments of objects (data segments, index segments, rollback segments, and so on) in a tablespace are physically stored in one or more of the datafiles that constitute the tablespace. You can alter the size of a datafile after its creation or you can specify that a datafile should dynamically grow as objects in the tablespace grow. For more information about resizing datafiles, see the Oracle7 Server Administrator's Guide. You can take tablespaces offline (make unavailable) or bring them online (make available) at any time. To manage the lifecycle of enterprise applications, an organization will need to maintain multiple copies of an application database for various purposes such as development, staging, production, and testing. Database compliance, that is, ensuring that all databases meet the gold standard configuration, is another important aspect of life cycle management. On development databases, developers make changes that the database administrator needs to consolidate and propagate to staging or test databases. Baseline - A point in time of the definition of the database and its associated database objects.
Comparison - A complete list of differences between a baseline or a database and another baseline or a database. Synchronization - The process of promoting changes from a database definition capture in a baseline or from a database to a target database.
For database versions 9.x and above, the user logged into the database target through Enterprise Manager must have SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege for capturing or comparing databases. A dictionary baseline contains a set of database definitions captured at a certain point in time. When creating a baseline, you also create a corresponding baseline scope specification, which describes the names and the types of database objects and schemas from which they should be captured. Finally, you can capture individual schema objects by specifying the type, schema and name of each object. If you include a non-schema object type, such as User or Role, in a scope specification, all objects of that type are captured. As the final step of defining a baseline, you specify when to capture the first version of the baseline. Baselines processed after the initial version generally complete substantially faster than the initial version.
Within a single dictionary baseline version, you can examine individual object attributes, generate DDL for individual objects, and generate DDL for all the objects in the baseline version. Selecting a baseline object and specifying "Generate DDL" displays the DDL used to create the object.
Selecting a baseline version and specifying "Generate DDL" generates the DDL for all objects in the baseline version.
Baseline versions are also used with other Change Management Pack applications, such as Compare and Synchronize. When a baseline contains more than one version, you can examine the differences between the versions. To see what has changed between a version and the version that precedes it, select the version and specify "View Changes Since Previous Version." The display shows which objects have changed since the previous version (Figure 7-4), which have been added or removed, and which are unchanged. To see how an individual object has changed over all the versions of the baseline, select the object and specify "View Version History." The display identifies the versions in which the object was initially captured, modified, or dropped as shown in Figure 7-5.
Comparisons show differences between definitions in the original baseline for your application and those in your current database.
Use another comparison specification to compare definitions from your most recent baseline with those in your previous baseline. A dictionary comparison definition consists of left and right sources for metadata definitions, the scope specification, an optional schema map, and comparison options. When the source is a database, object definitions are taken directly from the database at the time the comparison version is created.
When the source is a baseline, object definitions are taken from the specified baseline version.
If you want a specific baseline version to be used in all versions of the comparison, specify the baseline version number.
The scope specification for a dictionary comparison identifies the objects to compare in the left and right sources. Normally, schema objects in one source are compared to objects in the same schema in the other source.
However, there may be cases where you want to compare objects in one schema to corresponding objects in a different schema. To add entries to the schema map, expand the "Mapped Objects" section of the comparison "Objects" page. When using a schema map, you can compare objects within a single database or baseline version.


When you have finished defining the comparison, you specify when to create the first comparison version. Comparisons processed after the initial version generally complete substantially faster than the initial comparison.
A dictionary comparison version records the results of comparing the left and right sources in accordance with the scope specification. Not Identical – The object is present in both left and right sources, and is different. The page lists all versions of a comparison shows the number of objects in each state within each version. A dictionary synchronization synchronizes differences in database object definitions between two databases or a baseline and a database. Dictionary synchronizations synchronize differences in any attribute value between objects of any supported type. The synchronization source provides the object definitions (and optionally, the data) from which the destination database is synchronized. The options for specifying which version of a source baseline to use are similar to those used with dictionary comparisons. When defining a baseline to be used as the source for synchronization, it is important that the baseline contain all the objects to be synchronized. Defining a scope specification for a dictionary synchronization is similar to defining a scope specification for a dictionary baseline or comparison. The following object types must be selected as a group: Table, Index, Cluster, Materialized View, and Materialized View Log.
The scope specification for a synchronization should be carefully tailored to the application. The definition and use of the schema map is the same in dictionary synchronizations as in dictionary comparisons. Dictionary synchronization options are similar to the options you can specify with dictionary comparisons. During initial comparison of source and destination objects, the options determine whether differences are considered meaningful. When generating the script that creates objects at the destination, some options control the content of the script.
Unattended synchronization mode carries out the entire synchronization process in one step, ending with execution of the synchronization script. Interactive synchronization mode pauses after initial comparison of the source and destination objects, and again after generation of the synchronization script. When you have finished defining the synchronization, you specify when to create the first synchronization version.
Depending on the synchronization mode you select, the synchronization may run to completion (unattended mode), or pause after initial object comparison (interactive mode). When using interactive mode, the destination database should not be modified from the time the objects are initially compared until the synchronization script has executed.
For more information about the process of synchronization, see Working with Dictionary Synchronization Versions. Each synchronization version represents an attempt to modify the destination objects selected by the scope specification to match the corresponding source objects. The following sections detail each of the three steps and describe what you can do following each step, when operating in interactive mode. The first step is to compare objects in the source to corresponding objects in the destination.
In interactive mode, you can view the objects that are in each state, or all objects at once. Destination-only objects will be unaffected, unless you chose the "Drop Destination-Only Schema Objects" option, in which case they will be dropped from the destination.
Before proceeding to script generation (Figure 7-9), you can exclude objects from the synchronization.
Dependency analysis assures that the destination database provides a suitable environment for each object and that objects are created and modified in the correct order. Change analysis determines whether an object can be modified with ALTER statements or if it must be dropped and re-created. The DDL statements needed to carry out the synchronization are generated and recorded in the synchronization version. Dependency analysis examines each object to determine its relationships with other objects. A table that has a foreign key constraint depends on the table to which the constraint refers. A source object such as a package body depends on other source objects, tables, views, and so on. The relationships established during dependency analysis are used later in the script generation process to make sure script statements are in the correct order. Dependency analysis may determine that a required object does not exist in the destination database. If the required object is in the source and is selected by the scope specification, Synchronize creates the object. If the required object is a user or role, and the object is available in the source, Synchronize automatically includes the user or role and creates it at the destination. If a required schema object is in the source but is not selected by the scope specification, Synchronize does not automatically include the object; instead, it places an Error-level message in the impact report. At the end of the script generation step, Synchronize has added the impact report and the script to the synchronization version. The impact report contains messages about situations that were encountered during script generation. Warning messages report a situation that requires your attention, but that may not require action. The script display contains the statements of the generated script in the order they will be executed.
Following script generation, you can continue to script execution unless an error was encountered during the script generation step (Figure 7-11 and Figure 7-12). There may be cases where you need to create a new version of the synchronization in order to correct the problem.
Following processing of the initial synchronization version, you can create additional versions of the synchronization. Creating additional synchronization versions allows you to propagate incremental changes in the source to the destination. Synchronizations processed after the initial version generally complete substantially faster than the initial synchronization. Scripting on this page enhances content navigation, but does not change the content in any way. For database versions 9.x and above, the user logged into the database target through Enterprise Manager must have SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege and SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role for capturing or comparing databases.
To export a dictionary baseline version from the repository to an export file or import dictionary baselines from an import file on the repository database server, select the directory object in the repository database for the export or import and specify a name for the export or import file.
Log into the repository database as a user with CREATE ANY DIRECTORY privilege or the DBA role. Create a directory object as the alias for a directory on the repository database server's file system where the baselines are to be exported or where the import dump file is stored. The newly created directory will be available for selection by Enterprise Manager administrators for export and import of dictionary baselines. At the time of import, a non-super administrator must become the owner of the baseline being imported. View privileges granted on the baseline to non-super administrators are lost during import and cannot be re-granted after the import, since there is no associated job information.
You accomplish this by altering existing files or by adding files with dynamic extension properties. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of storage called segments, which are further divided into extents (see Chapter 4, "Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments"). If the database will contain many of these program units, the database administrator needs to allow for the space they use in the SYSTEM tablespace.
This gives you more flexibility in various database administration operations and reduces contention among dictionary objects and schema objects for the same datafiles. If the SYSTEM tablespace is locally managed, other tablespaces in the database can be dictionary-managed but you must create all rollback segments in locally-managed tablespaces.
The SYSTEM tablespace is always online when the database is open because the data dictionary must always be available to Oracle.
Active transactions with completed statements that refer to data in that tablespace are not affected at the transaction level.
If a tablespace was offline when you shut down a database, the tablespace remains offline when the database is subsequently mounted and reopened. Oracle never updates the files of a read-only tablespace, and therefore the files can reside on read-only media, such as CD ROMs or WORM drives. You can change the tablespace to read-only with the READ ONLY option of the ALTER TABLESPACE command, making all of the tablespace's associated datafiles read-only as well. READ ONLY command places the tablespace in a transitional read-only mode and waits for existing transactions to complete (commit or roll back).
Also, should you need to recover your database, you do not need to recover any read-only tablespaces, because they could not have been modified. When you add a datafile, Oracle must update the file header, and this write operation is not allowed in a read-only tablespace. Doing so effectively eliminates serialization of space management operations involved in the allocation and deallocation of sort space. One sort segment exists for every instance that performs a sort operation in a given tablespace. The sort segment of a given temporary tablespace is created at the time of the first sort operation. See "Space Management in Tablespaces" for information about locally managed and dictionary-managed tablespaces. You can clone a tablespace from one tablespace and plug it into another database, copying the tablespace between databases, or you can unplug a tablespace from one Oracle database and plug it into another Oracle database, moving the tablespace between databases.
When you transport tablespaces you can also move index data, so that you do not have to rebuild the indexes after importing or loading the table data.
If you transport a data set that contains a pointer to a BFILE, you must also move the BFILE and set the directory correctly in the target database.
To transport a subset of a partitioned table, you can exchange the partitions into tables before transporting them.
Typically, data flows from one or more online transaction processing (OLTP) databases into the data warehouse on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. For example, a content provider might acquire statistical data from hospitals and provide it to insurance companies, or a telephone company might give large customers their billing data on CDs.
When a datafile is created, the operating system in which Oracle is running is responsible for clearing old information and authorizations from a file before allocating it to Oracle. As the data grows in a tablespace, Oracle uses the free space in the associated datafiles to allocate extents for the segment.
Note that a schema object does not correspond to a specific datafile; rather, a datafile is a repository for the data of any schema object within a specific tablespace. This functionality enables you to have fewer datafiles per tablespace and can simplify administration of datafiles. All of the datafiles making up a tablespace are taken offline or brought online as a unit when you take the tablespace offline or bring it online, respectively. For example, suppose you create a table in a specific tablespace using the CREATE TABLE command with the TABLESPACE option.
This allows you more flexibility in various database administration operations and can reduce contention among dictionary objects and schema objects for the same datafiles.
You can add another datafile to one of its existing tablespaces, thereby increasing the amount of disk space allocated for the corresponding tablespace. Active transactions with completed statements that refer to data in a tablespace that has been taken offline are not affected at the transaction level. The READ ONLY option of the ALTER TABLESPACE command allows you to change the tablespace to read-only, making all of its associated datafiles read-only as well. When you add a datafile, Oracle must update the file header, and this write operation is not allowed. This scheme effectively eliminates serialization of space management operations involved in the allocation and deallocation of sort space.
When a datafile is created, the operating system is responsible for clearing old information and authorizations from a file before allocating it to Oracle.
As a segment (such as the data segment for a table) is created and grows in a tablespace, Oracle uses the free space in the associated datafiles to allocate extents for the segment. Note that a schema object does not correspond to a specific datafile; rather, a datafile is a repository for the data of any object within a specific tablespace.
This functionality allows you to have fewer datafiles per tablespace and can simplify administration of datafiles.
Therefore, all datafiles making up a tablespace are taken offline or brought online as a unit when you take the tablespace offline or bring it online, respectively. Compliance with organizational standards or best practices ensures database efficiency, maintenance, and ease of operation.
The goal is to identify the changes made to development and then make the same changes to staging or test databases taking into account any other changes already in production database.
In addition to the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege, the user logging into the destination database for creating dictionary synchronization needs to be a database administrator (DBA) or must have appropriate privileges on the objects being synchronized. Baselines are stored in the Enterprise Manager repository, and are in the form of an XML document called Simple XML or SXML. When you have created the baseline definition, you can then capture the first version of the baseline by submitting an Enterprise Manager job. This form of scope specification captures objects that are contained in all schemas other than those you specify. This form of scope specification is appropriate when you want to capture a few specific objects, rather than all objects contained within one or more schemas. You can capture the first version immediately, or at a later time (for example, when the database is not being used in active development work).
You cannot modify object definitions captured in baseline versions, since they are intended to represent the state of objects at a particular point in time. While an effort is made to create objects in the correct order (for example, creating tables before indexes), the resulting DDL cannot necessarily be executed on a database to create the objects in the baseline version. Selecting an object that has changed displays the differences between the object in the two versions.
From this display, you can compare the definitions of the object in any two baseline versions. The scope specification describes the names and types of database object definitions to be included in the comparison and the schemas that contain these object definitions. After creating a new comparison version, it identifies the differences between the original definitions at the start of the development cycle, and those same definitions at the current time.
With each newly created version of this comparison using the comparison specification, that comparison version identifies the differences in the definitions since the previous baseline. Using a baseline version allows you to compare a database (or another baseline version) to the database as it existed at a previous point in time.
This is appropriate for comparing a well-defined previous state of the database, such as a release, to its current state. If you specify "Latest," you can also request that the baseline version be captured before the comparison takes place. Creating a comparison scope specification is the same as creating a baseline scope specification, described in the "Dictionary Baselines" section. For example, assume that there are two schemas, DEV1 and DEV2, which contain the same set of objects.
This is useful when you are comparing objects in databases having different size and storage configurations, and you are not interested in differences related to the storage of the objects.
If the names of constraints are meaningful, choose "Match Constraints By Name." With this choice, constraints with the same names will match and their definitions will appear as differences. Only those objects that have changed on the left or right side are compared in the new version. On the Comparison version page shown in Figure 7-6, you can see the objects in each state individually. The basic action of a database synchronization is to create or modify selected object definitions in a database to match those in another database or in a baseline.


For synchronizations, the scope specification does not include the names of individual objects. The purpose of synchronization is to create or modify object definitions in the destination to match those in the source. For this reason, the baseline's scope specification should include at least all the schemas and object types that will be synchronized. When you use a schema map, object definitions in each schema map are synchronized to the mapped schema in the destination, rather than to the schema with the same name. For example, if the "Ignore Tablespace" option is selected, tablespace differences are ignored. However, if an error is detected that makes it impossible to generate a correct script, the process will terminate without attempting to execute the script. Interactive mode gives you a chance to examine the results of comparison and script generation, and to take appropriate action before proceeding with the next step. This means that you cannot create a synchronization from a comparison whose right source is a baseline. Note that some comparison scope specification options are not available in a synchronization.
As noted previously, you can combine these steps into one (by choosing "Unattended Mode") or run each step separately (by choosing "Interactive Mode"). However, if you chose the "Copy Data From Source" option, the data in tables that are identical will be replaced with data from the source. Depending on the differences, the modification may be done with ALTER statements or by dropping and re-creating the object. For example, if you notice a source-only view that you do not want to create at the destination, you can exclude it now.
The messages provide information about the synchronization process, and may report one or more error conditions that make it impossible to generate a usable script.
This occurs even though User and Role objects are not part of the Synchronize scope specification. This restriction prevents uncontrolled synchronization of objects outside the scope specification. In interactive mode, you can examine the script and impact report before proceeding to script execution. For example, if Synchronize is unable to determine if a reference is a source object can be resolved, it adds a warning message to the impact report.
For example, if Synchronize is unable to locate a required dependency object, it adds an error message to the impact report.
In this case the impact report will contain one or more Error-level messages detailing the problem and solution.
For example, if you need to modify the definition of an object in the source or destination or add an object in the destination, you will need to create a new version. Select the synchronization, then choose "Synchronize Again." Note that you cannot choose a different source or destination, or modify the scope specification or synchronization options, when creating a new synchronization version.
For example, you can refresh a test database from the latest changes made to a development system. In addition to the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege and SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE role, the user logging into the destination database for creating dictionary synchronization needs to be a database administrator (DBA) or must have appropriate privileges on the objects being synchronized. Data pump log files from the export and import operations are also written to the same directory.
They can also export a version of baseline owned by another administrator, provided they have the privilege to view the version and see the list of dictionary objects in that version. Another database might have three tablespaces, each consisting of two datafiles (for a total of six datafiles). When an extent is allocated or freed for reuse, Oracle changes the bitmap values to show the new status of the blocks.
Oracle saves rollback data corresponding to those completed statements in a deferred rollback segment (in the SYSTEM tablespace). This transitional state does not allow any further write operations to the tablespace except for the rollback of existing transactions that previously modified blocks in the tablespace. However, read-only tablespaces may need attention during instance or media recovery, depending upon whether and when they have ever been read-write.
The sort segment expands by allocating extents until the segment size is equal to or greater than the total storage demands of all of the active sorts running on that instance.
The transport of these files can be done using any facility for copying flat files, such as the operating system copying facility, ftp, or publishing on CDs. The data is usually processed in a staging database before being added to the data warehouse. Content providers can transport tablespaces to publish structured data on CD or other media, enabling customers to integrate the published data into their Oracle databases.
Oracle allocates space for the data associated with a schema object in one or more datafiles of a tablespace.
A more complicated database might have three tablespaces, each comprised of two datafiles (for a total of six datafiles). Oracle allocates the space for this table's data segment in one or more of the datafiles that constitute the specified tablespace. For more information about these objects and the space that they require, see Chapter 14, "Procedures and Packages", and Chapter 15, "Database Triggers". Oracle saves rollback data corresponding to statements that affect data in the offline tablespace in a deferred rollback segment (in the SYSTEM tablespace). Thus, tablespaces cannot be transferred from database to database (transfer of Oracle data can be achieved with tools described in Oracle7 Server Utilities). The file cannot be written to unless its associated tablespace is returned to the read-write state. All operations that use sorts, including joins, index builds, ordering (ORDER BY), the computation of aggregates (GROUP BY), and the ANALYZE command to collect optimizer statistics, benefit from temporary tablespaces.
The sort segment grows by allocating extents until the segment size is equal to or greater than the total storage demands of all of the active sorts running on that instance. Oracle allocates the extents of a single segment in one or more datafiles of a tablespace; therefore, an object can "span" one or more datafiles. You can take individual datafiles offline; however, this is normally done only during certain database recovery procedures.
For example, for production databases, it is essential to ensure adherence to proper production control procedures. A baseline can have a series of versions that have been captured at different points in time.
At a later time, or at regular intervals, you can capture additional versions of the same baseline. This restriction ensures that all versions of the baseline are captured using the same set of rules, which means that differences between versions result from changes in the database, not scope specification changes. This form of scope specification is appropriate when there is a well-defined set of schemas that contain your application objects.
While capturing individual schema objects, you can also capture non-schema objects and privilege grants. You can also indicate that additional versions of the baseline should be captured at regular intervals without further intervention on your part. This also means that the storage required for additional baseline versions is only slightly larger than the storage used by the initial version, assuming a small percentage of objects has changed. For example, if you capture all the schema objects contained in schema APPL1, then try to execute the baseline version DDL on a database that does not contain User APPL1, the generated DDL will fail to execute. You can also use a baseline version as the source of object definitions in Synchronize, allowing you to re-create the definitions in another database. This ensures that each version of the dictionary comparison reflects changes in the databases being compared and not in the comparison's definition.
For example, a baseline version might represent a stable point in the application development cycle, or a previous release of the application.
This option allows you to capture a baseline and compare it to the other source in a single operation.
As with baselines, you can specify object types and schemas to compare, or individual objects to compare.
You specify that database as both the left and right source, and supply the schema map to compare objects in DEV1 to those in DEV2.
This also means that the storage required for additional comparison versions is only slightly larger than the storage used by the initial version, assuming a small percentage of objects has changed.
Objects that are "Not Identical" can be selected to view the differences, and to generate DDL for the left and right definitions as shown in Figure 7-7. You might ignore an object that is different if you decide that the difference is not important. If the source is a baseline version, it is not possible to propagate data to the destination, since a baseline does not capture data. If you specify "Latest," you can also request that the baseline version be captured first before synchronizing the destination from it. For example, if you are synchronizing a module of a large application, include only those schemas that make up the module. If two tables are identical except for their tablespaces, no modification to the destination table will occur.
Choosing "Copy Data From Source" causes Synchronize to replace the destination data with data from the source table. For example, you cannot synchronize individual schema objects, User objects, or Role objects. In either case, all three steps must be carried out when processing a successful synchronization version. Or, a table may have a foreign key constraint on another table that is in a different schema. It is for this reason that scope specifications should include all the schemas that make up the application or module. Synchronize cannot look for objects outside the baseline version, so it places an Error-level message in the impact report as shown in Figure 7-10.
For example, when script generation automatically includes a User object, it adds an informational message to the impact report.
You need to verify that situations reported in warning messages will not prevent script execution. The display allows you to locate statements that are associated with a particular object or object type. In some cases, you may be able to solve the problem by selecting "Regenerate Script," excluding an object from the synchronization, and regenerating the script.
In interactive mode, you proceed to script execution as soon as you have reviewed the impact report and the script. However, you can choose a different mode (Unattended or Interactive) when starting a new synchronization version. The dump files and log files are located in the Enterprise Manager repository database server host. If the baseline in the import dump file was owned by another administrator, its new owner is set to the logged-in non-super administrator at the time of import.
These changes do not generate rollback information because they do not update tables in the data dictionary (except for special cases such as tablespace quota information).
When the tablespace is brought back online, Oracle applies the rollback data to the tablespace, if needed. Hence, in transition the tablespace behaves like a read-only tablespace for all user commands except ROLLBACK.
The files of a read-only tablespace can independently be taken online or offline using the DATAFILE option of the ALTER DATABASE command. One sort segment exists in every instance that performs a sort operation in a given tablespace. Unless table "striping" is used, the database administrator and end-users cannot control which datafile stores an object. It is vital that administrators have the tools to detect unauthorized changes, such as an index being dropped without the requisite change approvals. The application vendor supplies the upgrade scripts and the customer has very little transparency about the impact of the upgrade procedure on their customizations. Creating multiple versions of a baseline allows you to track changes to the definitions of a set of database objects over time. Each baseline version records the metadata definitions as they exist at the time the version is captured. To capture dictionary objects using a different scope specification, you must create a new baseline.
In addition to schema objects, you can also capture non-schema objects (such as Users, Roles and Tablespaces) and privilege grants to Users and Roles.
This form of scope specification is appropriate when you want to capture all database objects, with the exception of objects contained in Oracle-provided schemas. For example, every night, you can capture a baseline version of the current state of a development database and compare it to the previous night's baseline, or to a fixed baseline representing a stable point in development. You can use the optional schema map feature to allow you to compare objects in DEV1 to objects with the same type and name in DEV2.
You can additionally supply a prefix to limit the objects selected to those whose names start with that prefix. A baseline to database synchronization is recommended in environments where changes are expected to be applied to the source database frequently thus necessitating the need for a point-in-time snapshot of the database, i.e.
Object comparison notes the source-only table, and the generated script includes statements to create the table. This is why it is important to include Users, Roles, and privilege grants in any baseline that will be used for synchronization. For example, if the dependency object is not in the synchronization scope, or if the source is a baseline that does not contain the dependency object, you will need to create a new synchronization with an expanded scope or a different source baseline.
In this case, the old version becomes "abandoned" since you cannot continue to script generation. If the script fails to execute successfully, you may be able to correct the problem and re-start the script execution from the point of failure. They can be located in directories set up on NFS file systems, including file systems on NAS devices that are supported by Oracle. You can take the files of a read-only tablespace online or offline independently using the DATAFILE option of the ALTER DATABASE command.
Unless table "striping" is used (where data is spread across more than one disk), the database administrator and end users cannot control which datafile stores a schema object. See Chapter 3, "Data Blocks, Extents, and Segments", for more information about extents and segments and how they relate to tablespaces. In such cases, monitoring changes to production databases day over day or week over week becomes vital. When customers test upgrade databases, they can capture a baseline of the application schema before and after the upgrade. You can compare two versions of the same baseline to see the changes that have occurred between them. As with the first form of scope specification, you can also capture non-schema objects and privilege grants.
However, after object comparison but before script execution, you manually create the table at the destination database.
In other cases, you can resolve the situation by excluding one or more objects from the synchronization and regenerating the script. For example, if the script fails due to lack of space in a tablespace, you can increase the size of the tablespace, then re-start the script. A comparison of the before and after baselines will tell the user what modules were changed by the application. The script will fail when it attempts to create the table because the table already exists. This gives them a better idea about how their customizations will be impacted as a result of upgrading their application.



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