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Glycolysis (Figure 1) is a process to breakdown of glucose to simpler molecules by releasing energy in every cell. Phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by enzyme hexokinase or glucokinase with utilization of one mole of ATP. Phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by phosphofructokinase with utilization of one more of ATP. Cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to 3-carbon fragments, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate by aldolase. Isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase. Transfer of phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate to form pyruvate with production of one mole of ATP.
Activated carriers couple energy release from spontaneous, energetically favorable reactions to energetically unfavorable reactions. All nucleoside triphosphates can readily interchange phosphates and transfer energy between them.

Glycolysis and subsequent processes (fermentation in prokaryotes and in vertebrate muscle and the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain in eukaryotes) operate by stepwise oxidation.
Glycolysis involves "priming" steps which require energy, cleavage of the 6 carbon sugar into two three carbon molecules, and energy generation.
The overall pathway of glycolysis includes steps which have standard free energies which are negative (favorable) and some which are positive (unfavorable). The cleavage of the six carbon fructose 1,6-biphosphate occurs asymmetrically to produce dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The activated, "high energy" carriers NADH and ATP are produced in energy conserving steps. Glucose -> glucose 6-phosphate is catalyzed by glucokinase in the vertebrate liver but hexokinase elsewhere.
In vertebrates, fructose 1,6-biphosphate -> dihydroxyacetone phosphate + glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is catalyzed by an aldolase which uses -SH bonds to the substrate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate -> 1,3-biphosphoglycerate is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme in which the subunits are negatively cooperative - As each unit binds a substate molecule, the other units become less able to bind and catalyze subsequent substrate molecules.

Free energy changes for sequential reactions are additive - favorable reactions can overcome unfavorable ones!
Anaerobic breakdown of pyruvate permits prokaryotes, who don't have any mitochondria, to get rid of the NADH produced in glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis regenerates PEP from Pyruvate, thus forcing the reactions of glycolysis backwards. All text and images, not attributed to others, including course examinations and sample questions, are Copyright, 2006, Thomas J. Under aerobic condition, pyruvate is oxidized to form acety-CoA which enter Krebs cycle in mitochondria. Herbert and may not be used for any commercial purpose without the express written permission of Thomas J.

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