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By the way, if you need more TEMP space, make sure you’ve figured out why TEMP is filling up.
Click on the Actions button in the editor toolbar, or right-click on the tablespace in the tree. This will just send some pretty powerful, and potentially destructive DDL to your, probably, production database. Also, if you get stuck, and you don’t have SQL Developer around, the Oracle Docs make finding this stuff pretty easy. No doubt this question will come up – what exact privileges does one need to even see the tablespace definitions?
Welcome Tips and tricks for using Oracle SQL Developer, Oracle SQL Developer Data Modeler, and Oracle Database - that's what we do here.
I performed a simple test to try and help clarify a rather confusing topic about when OEM will send out alerts for tablespace usage and what happens when autoextend is turned on and what about the MAXSIZE and UNLIMITED parameters of the AUTOEXTEND ON clause.
What happens if autoextend is turned on but in some cases we have specified an upper limit for the MAXSIZE parameter or have just left it to UNLIMITED? It is important to note that this metric takes into consideration the available disk space into which the tablespace’s datafile can extend if autoextend is turned on. With a 8k block size, on most Unix systems the maximum a datafile can extend upto with autoextend turned on is 32 Gb. Since we have not specified any AUTOEXTEND for the datafile of the TESTME tablespace, the TBSP_SIZE column for this tablespace shows 6400 blocks which is equal to 50 MB and the tablespace is about 74% full after we have created and populated the TEST table. We can see that the tablespace TESTME is now 100% full and an alert has been raised as well. Now what happens if we instead specify an upper file size limit to which the datafile can extend upto with autoextend turned on. We now see that the TESTME tablespace is 10% full because the maximum size that this tablespace can now grow to is 64000 blocks or 500 Mb and currently it has 50 Mb of used space.
The tablespaces screen from OEM however shows the tablepace as 33% full because it has grown the datafile to 150 MB from 50 Mb as we had specified the NEXT increment as 100 MB when we had enabled autoextend for the datafile of the TESTME tablesapace. Remember, this is not what OEM will use to determine the tablespace free space available and when it needs to raise an alert if the space usage threshold is crossed. This chapter discusses using Enterprise Manager to explore and manage the storage structures of your database. Logical structures are created and recognized by the Oracle database server and are not known to the operating system. To view database storage structure, navigate to the Storage section of the Administration Home page (see Figure 5-2, "Database Administration Page").
The database log writer process writes redo records from the memory buffer to a redo log group until the group fills up or a log switch operation is requested. While small database environments might not need multiplexed redo log groups, consider adding multiplexing as your database grows in users and applications. When you archive your redo log, you write redo log files to another location prior to their being overwritten. These copies of redo log files extend the amount of redo data that can be saved and used for recovery. For placing the database into archive log mode, or adding archive log locations, see "Configuring Your Database for Basic Backup and Recovery". Rollback segments were database structures used to track undo information for the database in earlier releases of Oracle. After the database has been created, it is not possible to change the default block size without re-creating the database.
Space management within a tablespace involves keeping track of free and used space, so that space is allocated efficiently during data insertion and deletion.
Oracle recommends creating locally-managed tablespaces over dictionary-managed tablespaces.
By default, Oracle sets all newly created tablespaces to be locally-managed with automatic segment management, a feature that further improves performance. A database running in automatic undo management mode transparently creates and manages undo data in the undo tablespace.
Temporary tablespaces are used for storing temporary data, as would be created when SQL statements perform sorts.
You would create another temporary tablespace if you were creating a temporary tablespace group. If the tablespace is created read-only, then the tablespace cannot be written to until its status is changed to Read Write.
You can set a tablespace to automatically extend itself by a specified amount when it reaches its limit. If you do not enable autoextend, you will be alerted when the tablespace reaches its critical or warning threshold size. Some components and products that used the SYSTEM tablespace or their own tablespaces prior to Oracle Database 10g now use the SYSAUX tablespace. Components that use SYSAUX as their default tablespace during installation include Automatic Workload Repository, Oracle Streams, Oracle Text, and Enterprise Manager Repository. Other storage structures that can exist in an Oracle database include the initialization parameter file, the password file, and backup files. Initialization parameters are used by the database server at startup to determine the runtime resources for the database. Initialization parameters and the initialization parameter file are discussed in Chapter 5, "Managing the Oracle Instance".
A database can use a password file to authenticate administrative users with SYSDBA connect privileges.
This is not the only form of administrator authentication, so not all databases require a password file. The password file is discussed in "Accessing the Database" in Chapter 5, "Managing the Oracle Instance". Backup files are not technically database files, but are copies of the database in some form that can be used to recover the database if a failure causes loss of data.
A user, groups of users, or an application might require its own tablespace for creating schema objects, rather than using the default USER tablespace.
Alternatively, to create a tablespace that is like an existing tablespace, select an existing tablespace.
In the Datafiles section of the page, click Add to add one or more datafiles to the tablespace. In the Storage section, select Automatically extend datafile when full (AUTOEXTEND) to allow the Oracle database to automatically expand the datafile.
This section shows you how to set a tablespace to automatically extend when it reaches its limit. Similarly, you can change tablespace thresholds by selecting a tablespace on the Tablespaces page and clicking Edit.
You can take a tablespace offline by selecting a tablespace on the Tablespaces page and clicking Edit.
Enterprise Manager asks for confirmation that you want to delete the tablespace and associated datafiles from the operating system. Over time, inserts, updates, and deletes (DML operations) to objects within a tablespace can create pockets of empty space that individually are not big enough to be reused.
The Segment Advisor identifies objects such as tablespaces and tables that have unused space you can reclaim. The following section describes how to view the recommendations and then shrink your objects using the shrink wizard.
From the Space Summary section of the Administration page, click the link adjacent to Segment Advisor Recommendations. The Segment Advisor Recommendations page appears, as shown in Figure 6-3, "Segment Advisor Recommendations". The Recommendation Details for Tablespace page appears, as shown in Figure 6-4, "Segment Advisor Recommendation Details".
After you install the database, you can start building your database without immediately managing undo because the database automatically performs this task.
When a transaction modifies the database, Oracle copies the original data before modifying it. To undo any uncommitted changes made to the database in the event that a rollback operation is necessary. To provide read consistency, which means that each user can get a consistent view of data, even while other uncommitted changes may be occurring against the data. To enable certain Flashback features, namely Flashback Query and Flashback Table, which enable you to view or recover data to a previous point in time. Even after the transaction has been committed, the undo data still cannot be overwritten immediately to ensure the success of Flashback functionality, and for read consistency for long running transactions. When your undo tablespace is set to a fixed size (auto-extend disabled) and long running queries are failing with snapshot too old errors. When you plan to use Flashback features to recover from user errors such as unintentional changes.


The Oracle database automatically determines how long undo data should be kept based on the time your queries take to run. The length of time that Oracle keeps undo data in the unexpired state depends on your tablespace configuration. With a fixed-sized undo tablespace, Oracle automatically keeps the undo data in the unexpired state for the longest possible time for the tablespace of the specified size.
To avoid situations in which long-running queries can fail, it is recommended that you let Oracle automatically extend the size of the undo tablespace. In Undo Tablespace for this Instance, the Auto-Extensible field shows Yes if auto-extending the tablespace is enabled, which is the default.
If you have a fixed-size tablespace, then you can use this page as a starting point for determining space requirements and extending the tablespace. The Recommendations section of the Undo Management page gives you recommendations on undo tablespace size based on your system activity.
If Oracle recommends that you extend the undo tablespace, then you can use the Undo Advisor to determine a better size.
The Undo Advisor helps you analyze various scenarios to determine an appropriate undo tablespace size for different values of maximum undo retention. You have a fixed-sized tablespace (auto-extend disabled) and the auto-tuned value of undo retention is not large enough to prevent queries from failing. To build a flashback recovery strategy, you can set the minimum undo retention, which determines the lowest value for automatic undo tuning. The Undo Advisor can help you determine a better size for your undo tablespace to ensure successful completion of queries. Determine the duration of your longest running query according to your application characteristics. In the New Undo Retention field of the Advisor section, plug in the value of your longest-running query.
In the Analysis Time Period list, select a time period that best reflects your business cycle. Additionally, the Required Tablespace Size by Undo Retention Length graph shows the relationship between retention period and undo tablespace size, highlighting key data points such as the Auto-tuned Undo Retention and Best Possible Undo Retention.
When auto-extend tablespace is enabled, the system automatically extends the undo tablespace if it is under space pressure. You might also need to extend the undo tablespace when you get an undo tablespace alert (warning or critical), or when you get a query too long alert or snapshot too old error.
You can also have the system automatically extend the datafile by enabling Automatically extend datafile when full under Storage and specifying an increment size.
For configuring Flashback Query and Flashback Table, set a value equal to how far back in time you need to go.
Alternatively, you can set this parameter as you do for other system parameters by navigating to the All Initialization Parameters page.
The preconfigured database that you installed includes all of the database structures of a basic database. Oracle provides alerts, advisories, and monitoring pages to help you make decisions regarding database storage. The Storage section links shown in "Storage Options" are links that you can use to make changes to the database storage structure. When you make changes to the storage structure of your database, these changes can be reflected in the data dictionary and in the control file. Scripting on this page enhances content navigation, but does not change the content in any way. I like this workflow, because the object editor allows me to copy the existing file(s) information – the name, directory path, etc.
Physical structures are those that can be seen and operated on from the operating system, such as the physical files that store data on disk. Furthermore, Oracle Enterprise Manager provides a Web-based GUI to enable easy management and monitoring of your database. As long as you have a control file copy, however, you can shut down your database and re-create the failed control file from the copy, then restart your database. If a failure prevents modified data from being permanently written to the datafiles, then the changes can be obtained from the redo log, so work is never lost.
It is not required that redo log groups be symmetrical, but Oracle recommends that your groups all have the same number of members. You can create this file in the same directory, but it is recommended that you store members on separate drives. Archiving can be either enabled or disabled for the database, but Oracle recommends that you enable archiving. The data is written to these files in an Oracle proprietary format that cannot be read by other programs.
For example, tables are stored in data segments, whereas indexes are stored in index segments. Oracle initially allocates an extent of a specified size for a segment, but if that extent fills, then more extents can be allocated. Nevertheless, it is possible to create tablespace with a block size different than the default block size. When you create an Oracle database, some tablespaces already exist, such as SYSTEM and USERS. Locally-managed tablespaces keep the space allocation information within the tablespace, not in the data-dictionary, thus offering better performance.
Oracle uses undo data to provide read-consistency and to enable features such as Flashback query. If you want to switch the undo tablespace used by the database instance, however, then you can create a new one and instruct the database to use it instead. It is unlikely that you create a read-only tablespace, but you might change it to that status after you have written data to it that you do not want modified. It is unlikely that you create an offline tablespace, but you might change its status to offline later to perform maintenance on its underlying files.
The critical and warning threshold parameters have default values which you can change at any time. Using SYSAUX reduces the load on the SYSTEM tablespace and reduces maintenance because there are fewer tablespaces to monitor and maintain.
See "Managing Undo for Your Database" to understand how an Oracle database uses the undo tablespace. Like the TEMP tablespace, every database should have a tablespace for permanent user data that is assigned to users. They are actively monitored by the database and can be set or modified while the database is running.
SYSDBA privileges enable a DBA to start up and shut down the database and perform other high-level administrative tasks. From the Storage section of the Administration page, click Tablespaces to open the Tablespaces page. Bigfile tablespaces are used with very large databases that use Automatic Storage Management or other logical volume managers that support striping, RAID, and dynamically extensible logical volumes.
Specify an amount in the Increment field by which you want to extend the datafile each time it fills.
For example, you can extend it, set it to automatically extend, change its space thresholds, or change its status to offline. Free space can either be returned to the tablespace or kept in the table for future inserts.
It performs its analysis by examining usage and growth statistics and by sampling the data in the object. Results from the advisor are summarized on the Space Summary section of the home page as Segment Advisor Recommendations. The Segment Advisor page summarizes space usage, estimating the amount of reclaimable space for each tablespace. If you created the tablespace with automatic segment space management, which is the default, then the Segment Advisor recommends shrinking. You can do so when you want to analyze objects not selected by the Automatic Segment Advisor, or when you want more up-to-date recommendations on a tablespace. These tasks involve storing the changes of database transactions long enough to accommodate rollback, read consistency, and flashback features. Later, as your database activity and transaction rate increase, understanding how to manage undo becomes more useful to you.
A rollback operation can be the result of a user who wants to undo the changes of a misguided or unintentional transaction, or it can be part of a recovery operation. The undo tablespace is of finite size, so records might be overwritten as transactions occur. For example, if your longest query takes 15 minutes, then the undo tablespace should be large enough to hold 15 minutes worth of undo data.
This period indicates the amount of time that must pass before Oracle overwrites undo data.


By default, Oracle automatically extends the undo tablespace to accommodate the longest-running query based on your ongoing system activity. In this case, the undo retention should be set equal to the period between the present and the earliest point in time to which you want to return.
When you create your database with DBCA, the undo tablespace is set by default to automatically extend itself to maintain unexpired undo for the longest-running query. If the undo tablespace does not have adequate free or expired space to store active undo data generated by current transactions, however, then Oracle might be forced to overwrite the unexpired undo data. By default, the undo tablespace is set to auto-extend when you use DBCA to configure your database. In this case, ensure that the tablespace is large enough to meet the read-consistency requirements for your longest-running query. When the undo tablespace is auto-extensible, Oracle automatically increases the size of the tablespace when more space is needed.
While Oracle automatically tunes the undo retention period, minimum undo retention enables you to define the lowest value allowable for your database. Recommendations and alerts can arise when you are using a fixed-size tablespace and queries have been failing because of insufficient undo space.
If your tablespace is set to auto-extend, then Oracle automatically acquires space as needed.
The Undo Advisor can help you determine a better tablespace size to ensure successful completion of your queries. For Flashback operations to go back in time, the database must ensure that undo data is not overwritten. For example, if the low threshold is set to 15 minutes, then Oracle never lowers the undo retention time to less than 15 minutes.
If this duration is longer than the tuned retention, then these long-running queries will encounter an error. The top of the page shows the current auto-tuned undo retention time and undo tablespace size, as shown in Figure 6-6. When the auto-extend tablespace feature is disabled, however, you might need to manually extend the undo tablespace.
For example, if you need an eight hour flashback recovery strategy, set the minimum retention to 8 hours. As the user base grows, you can expand existing database storage structures or create additional ones. Other pages also contain links that enable you to perform specific actions that affect the database storage structure. This section includes a link for changing the archiving mode of the database and creating archived redo log files (see "Configuring Your Database for Basic Backup and Recovery"). The applications developer or end user may be aware of the logical structure, but is not usually aware of this physical structure. Because of the importance of the control file, Oracle recommends that the control file be multiplexed. Another option is to delete the failed control file from the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter and restart your database with the remaining control files. The Advanced and Record Section pages give you more detailed information about your control file. To protect against a failure involving the redo log itself, Oracle multiplexes the redo log so that two or more identical copies of the online redo log can be maintained on different disks. The log writer performs this action in a circular fashion so that the oldest group is overwritten by the most recent redo records.
Tempfiles are a special class of datafiles that are associated only with temporary tablespaces.
For details on how to create tablespaces with a nondefault or nonstandard block size, see Oracle Database Administrator's Guide. This tablespace is used as the default temporary tablespace for users who are not otherwise assigned a temporary tablespace. Oracle documentation and educational materials contain examples based on the sample schemas. It contains the data dictionary, which is the central set of tables and views used as a read-only reference for a particular database.
Every database should have a temporary tablespace that is assigned to users as their temporary tablespace.
Otherwise, user objects will be created in the SYSTEM tablespace, which is not good practice. This password file is outside of the database itself because it must sometimes be referenced when the database is not yet running. The other options that are available from the Actions menu are shortcuts for various tablespace operations.
When you get a critical and warning alert, you might need to extend a tablespace or take it offline to recover it. You can optionally set a maximum file size or set file size to unlimited depending on your resources. The resulting sparsely-populated objects can suffer performance degradation during queries and DML operations.
A shrink operation on a table does not affect DML operations to the table during the operation. For this operation to succeed, however, the tablespace must already have free space equal to the size of the object.
It is configured to run automatically at regular intervals, and you can also run it manually. If the segment is not eligible for shrink, or if the tablespace was created with manual segment space management, then the Segment Advisor recommends other reorganizing methods. If you do not want to release the freed space to the tablespace, then choose Compact Segments.
The shrink operation can be resource intensive, so Oracle recommends running it during off-peak hours.
Therefore, the amount of space available in the undo tablespace should be at least large enough to hold the active undo data generated by current transactions. The undo retention period affects the size of the undo tablespace; the longer the retention period, the more space is needed. Also, if you use Flashback features, then the tablespace must be large enough to accommodate Flashback operations. By combining automatic extension of the undo tablespace with automatically tuned undo retention, you can ensure that long-running queries succeed by guaranteeing the undo for such queries.
On rarer occasions, when using an auto-extend tablespace, the same recommendations can arise if the system has reached it maximum disk limit.
If you choose to disable auto-extend, however, then you are responsible for ensuring that the undo tablespace has enough space.
Consequently, if your flashback recovery strategy requires you to go back 8 hours to recover from human errors, then set the minimum undo retention to 8 hours. For more information about this page, see "Viewing and Modifying Initialization Parameters".
For example, you might need to create additional tablespaces for users or applications, or you might want to create additional online redo log groups to expand the redo log capacity. The DBA must understand the relationship between the physical and logical structures of a database.
You can also click the name of the tablespace to display the attributes of the owning tablespace. It also contains various tables and views that contain administrative information about the database. In the preconfigured database, the TEMP tablespace is specified as the default temporary tablespace.
In the preconfigured database, USERS is assigned the default tablespace, and space for all objects created by non-system users comes from this tablespace.
In this situation, Oracle configures the undo retention to the maximum possible value for that tablespace size. For databases created with DBCA, three copies of the control file are automatically created and kept in sync with each other. These are all contained in the SYS schema, and can only be accessed by user SYS or other administrative users with the required privilege.
This means that if no temporary tablespace is specified when a user account is created, then Oracle assigns this tablespace to the user. When active undo data is stored in the undo tablespace, Oracle automatically ensures that it is never overwritten until the corresponding transaction has been committed.
See Chapter 10, "Monitoring and Tuning the Database" for more information about monitoring the database.



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